धौलावीरा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dhaulavira
dhaulavira purasthal ki khudaee men mile avashesh
vivaran hadappa sabhyata‘ ke purasthalon men ek navin kadi ke roop men judane vala purasthal dhaulavira 'kachchh ke ran' ke madhy sthit dvip 'khadir' men sthit hai.
rajy gujarat
sabhyata ki yatra dhaulavira ki sanskritik yatra anek avasthaon se gujarati huee ek doosare se abhinn roop se judi thi. aisa anuman lagaya jata hai ki dhaulavira sabhyata ki yatra qarib 1000 varsho ki thi.
vishesh is nagar ki lambaee poorab se pashchim ki or hai. nagar ke charon taraph ek mazaboot divar ke nirman ke sakshy mile hain.
snbndhit lekh rakhigadhi, hadappa, sindhu ghati sabhyata
any janakari dhaulavira namak hadappaee snskriti vale is nagar ki yojana samanantar chaturbhuj ke roop men ki gayi thi. is nagar ki lambaee poorab se pashchim ki or hai. nagar ke charon taraph ek mazaboot divar ke nirman ke sakshy mile hain.
adyatan‎

dhaulavira / dholavira (angrezi: Dholavira) gujarat men kachchh pradesh ke utariy vibhag khadir men sthit ek aitihasik sthan hai jo panch hajar sal pahale vishv ka yah prachin mahanagar tha. hadappa sabhyata‘ ke purasthalon men ek navin kadi ke roop men judane vala purasthal dhaulavira 'kachchh ke ran' ke madhy sthit dvip 'khadir' men sthit hai. is dvip ke samip hi 'surkhav'- shahar sthit hai. dhaulavir ganv 'khadir dvip' ki uttari-pashchimi sima par basa hai. dhaulavira purasthal ki khudaee men mile avasheshon ka prasar 'manahar' evn 'manasar' namak nalon ke bich men hua tha. dhaulavira namak hadappaee snskriti vale is nagar ki yojana samanantar chaturbhuj ke roop men ki gayi thi. is nagar ki lambaee poorab se pashchim ki or hai. nagar ke charon taraph ek mazaboot divar ke nirman ke sakshy mile hain. nagar ke mahaprasad vale bhag ke uttar men ek vistrit sampoorn evn vyapak samatal maidan ke avashesh mile hain. isake uttar men nagar ka madhyam bhag hai jise 'pur' ki sngya di gayi thi. isake poorv men nagar ka tisara mahattvapoorn bhag sthit hai jise 'nichala shahar' ya phir 'avam nagar' kaha jata hai

dhaulavira sabhyata ki yatra

dhaulavira ki sanskritik yatra anek avasthaon se gujarati huee ek doosare se abhinn roop se judi thi. aisa anuman lagaya jata hai ki dhaulavira sabhyata ki yatra qarib 1000 varsho ki thi.

sabhyata ki pratham avastha

dhaulavira sabhyata ki pratham avastha se yah abhas milata hai ki yahan par basane vale log apane sath ek poorn vikasit sabhyata lekar aye the. puratatvik sakshyon ke adhar par aisa anuman lagaya ja raha hai ki yahan par basane vale log sambhavatah sindh aur baloochistan se aye the. sabhyata ke pratham charan ke nivasi mitti ke bartan banane, tanbe shodhane, patthar tarashane, uparatnon, selakhadi, shnkh adi ke manake banaye. is sabhyata ke logon ne nishchit map ke sanchon men dhali mitti ki eeton ka prayog kiya. eeton ke sath-sath simit matra men pattharon ke upayog ke bhi sakshy mile hain. ayatakar akar men nirmit yahan ki basti ke charon or 11 mitar moti eeton ki prachir nirmit thi.

sabhyata ka doosara charan

sabhyata ke doosare charan men 'durg prachir' ki andar ki or 3 mitar chaudaee badha di gayi. prachir ka nirman kachchi eeton se hua tha. divar ke andar vale bhag men safed, gulabi, gahara gulabi rng ki mitti ki lagabhag 13 paraton ka lep chadhaya gaya hai. aisi hi mitti ka prayog bhavan ke andar aur bahar ki divaron par palastar ke lie kiya gaya hain

sabhyata ka tisara charan

sabhyata ka tisara charan bhi 'durg ki prachir' ko mazabooti pradan karane ke lie andar ki or divar ko qarib sadhe char mitar chaudi karane ke sath hi prarambh hua. is charan men vikasit hadappiy nagar sabhyata ka vikasashil svaroop samane aya. sabhyata ke is charan men uttar ki or sabhyata ke dvitiy charan men nirmit bastiyon ko ujad kar ek maidan ka nirman kiya gaya. maidan ke uttar ki taraph janasamany ke lie yojana anusar shahar ka nirman kiya gaya. nagar ke charon or 'raksha prachir' evn 'prasad' ki charon divaron ke madhy bhag men char pravesh dvaron ka nirman kiya gaya. navin nirmit nagar ke dono bhagon ke madhy bhagon ke madhy khule maidan ko ‘rngamahal‘ ki sngya di gayi. sambhavatah maidan ka prayog sarvajanik evn samoohit utsavon men kiya jata tha.

hadappa snskriti ka vikas

sabhyata ka tisara charan lagabhag 300 varsho tak jivit raha. aisa anuman lagaya ja raha hai ki is sabhyata ki antim ardhashati men sambhavatah yah nagar kisi bhaynkar bhookamp jaise vinashakari prakop ki chapet men a gaya tha, jisake karan nagar ke kee jagah dhvast ho gaye, par arthik roop se sampann hone ke karan is sabhyata ke logon ne atishighr nagar ka puhnarnirman kar liya. tisare bhag ke prakash men ane ke uparant purane shahar ko 'madhyamanagar' evn naye jude bhag ko 'avam' nam diya. sabhyata ke tisare charan men 'chitralnkaran vale mridabhand' prayog kiye gaye jo shuddh roop se hadappa sabhyata se sambandhit the. hadappa sabhyata se sambandhit mudrayen evn ghanakar 'taulane ke bat' bhi pahali bar yahan par prakash men aye. bartan ke ek tukade par hadappa lipi ke bhi snket milate hain. dhaulavira ki snskriti ke is charan men niahsndeh hadappa snskriti ka vikasonmukh roop pahali bar spasht roop se is upamahadvip men prakash men aya.

sabhyata ka chautha charan

dhaulavira men pani bhndaran ke talab ki khudaee, gujarat

dhaulavira ki bahuayami samriddh sabhyata apane poore vaibhav men sabhyata ke chauthe charan men prachur matra mili hain, jaise kalatmak mridabhand, vishisht kalatmak mudrayen, taul ke bat, lipigat lekh, shnkh, phiyans, tanbe v mitti ki choodiyan, uparatnon, selakhadi, tanbe, sone aur pakki mitti ke manake, shnkh ke bane vividh abhooshan, sone ke chhalle, mitti ki gadiyan, bail v any khilaune, kuchh vishisht shaili men nirmit mrinmayi manavakritiyan adi, par sabhyata ke is charan men prapt bahutayat kalakritiyan hadappa evn mohanajodado se bhinn hain.

  • choona patthar se nirmit sthapaty namoonon ke kuchh avasheshon jinamen pili v baingani rng ki dhariyan nirmit hain dhaulavira ki mahattvapoorn upalabdhiyon men se hain.

sabhyata ki panchavi avastha

sabhyata ki panchavi avastha men dhaulavira ki poorn roop se vikasit 'hadappa ki sabhyata' men patan ke lakshan dikhaee dene lage. sarvapratham nagar ayojan evn sthapaty ke kshetr men giravat ke lakshan dikhe. sambhavatah is giravat ka mahattvapoorn karan 'prashasanik avyavastha' tha.

sabhyata ka patana

is sabhyata ke patan ka sarvadhik bura prabhav tatkalin mahaprasadon par pada jo sambhvatah shakti ke ek bade kendr ke roop men istemal kiye jate the. aisa bhi anuman lagaya jata hai ki shayad sabhyata ke panchave charan men sampann vanik v shilpi samooh ke parivar behatar avasar ki talash men nagar chhod bahar jane lage. sambhavatah 'dhaulavira ki snskriti ke patan' ka samay 2,200 ee.poo. se 2000 ee.poo. tak raha hoga.

kuchh samay pashchath dhaulavira ke tilon par uttar hadappakalin logon ne apani basti basaee. yahan se mili muharon ke svaroop men apane poorvavarti nagaron se prapt muharon ki apeksha kuchh parivartan dikhayi deta hai. ye muharen akar men chhoti evn chitrankan hin mili hain, par in par sundar 'lipi chihn' khude mile hain. yahan se prapt baton men adhikanshat: snkhya aise baton ki hai jinhen thik se ghis kar banaya gaya. 'kunbh kala' ke antargat prapt patale, sudar chamakile bartan mile hai jo dakshini rajasthan ki 'ahad' ya 'banas snskriti' se sambandhit hain. yahan prapt kuchh bartan 'jhookadashaili' ke bhi hain. dhaulavira ke atirikt isake samakalin soorakotada evn 'deshalapur' se bhi hadappakalin lekh yukt muharen prapt huee hain, anyatr kisi purasthal se is tarah ki muharen nahin mili hain.

sabhyata ka chhatha charan

sabhyata ke chhathe charan men bhi kuchh parivartan ke sakshy mile hain. jaise is samay nirman kary men prayukt ki jane vali eeton ka koee nap nahin hota tha. is samay ke bane makan sidhe prakar se satakar banaye jate the. makanon ke bich galiyan bhi poornatah naye ayojan ke anusar banaee gayi, is samay ke nirmit makanon men hadappakalin makanon se nikale gaye pattharon ka upayog kiya gaya. sambhavatah is samay bane makanon ki oonchaee kam evn chhaten lakadi, tahani evn ghas-phoos se banaee jati thi. shnkh evn uparatnon ke abhooshan shayad is samay vyapak star par nirmit kiye jate the. anumanatah 'dhaulavira ki hadappa snskriti' ka chhatha charan sau varsh tak jivit raha.

sabhyata ka satavan evn antim charan

sabhyata ke sataven evn antim charan men log ayatakar makanon men rahane ki apeksha vrittakar makanon ko pasnd karane lage. 'bunga' ya 'kunbha' kahe jane vale ye makan lakadi evn ghas-phoos ke banaye gaye the. divar ko patthar se banaya gaya tha. shayad do se dhaee phit patthar ke oopar lakadi ka golakar dhancha khada kar isake oopar 'kulledar gol chhat' banaee jati thi. is tarah qarib 1,000 varsh tak jivit rahane vali yah sabhyata ujadane ke bad punah nahin bas saki.

dhaulavira ke pratham evn dvitiy charan ka 'amri' ke dvitiy kal ke dvitiy upakal, 'nausheron' ke pratham kal ke utttararddh se samikaran sthapit kiya ja sakata hai. dhaulavira ke tisare charan ka samikaran 'amri' ke tritiy kal ke pratham upakal, 'nausheron' ke dvitiy kal evn mohanajodado ke un staron se, jinaka utkhanan 1958 men hvilar ke netritv men kiya gaya, se kiya jata hai.

apane satave charan men dhaulavira nagar sabhyata se gramin sabhyata men parivartit ho gayi. dhaulavira nagar ka poorv se pashchim ka vistar 771 mitar evn uttar se dakshin ka vistar lagabhag 616.80 mitar hai, prasad ke andar poorv se pashchim men vistar ausatan 114 mitar evn uttar se dakshin se lagabhag 92.50 mitar hai. dhaulavira bharat men sthit sabase bada 'hadappa sthal' hai. sampoorn sindhu sabhyata ke sthalon men kshetraphal ki drishti se 'dhaulavira' ka sthan 'panchavan' hai.

prasad yojana

  • prasad ka uttari pravesh dvar lagabhag 16x12 mitar nap ka hai, jane ke lie 79 mitar lamba evn 9 mitar chauda rasta banaya gaya hai, jo oopar jate-jate 12 mitar chauda ho jata hai.
  • nagar ke 'madhyam' v 'avam' bhag men samakon par katate raste avasiy khndon ko kee bhagon men vibhajit karate hain.
  • yahan se prapt makanon ke andar anek kamare, rasoeeghar, snanagrih evn ek prangan mile hain.
  • gnda pani naliyon ke madhyam se bahakar sadak par rakhe gaye matakon men ikattha hota tha.
  • yahan se mile qabre bhi kuchh kam anokhi nahin hain. adhikansh qabren ayatakar akar men uttar se dakshin evn poorv se pashchim disha ki or mili hain.
  • patthar ki adhikata ke karan yahan ki qabron ke charon taraph vishal shilayen lagi mili hain, ab tak yahan se qarib vibhinn tarah ki qabren mili hain jinamen ek se bhi nar-knkal nahin mile hai jo puratatvik drishti se ati mahattvapoorn janakari hai.
  • yahan se prapt ek qabr men rakhe gaye mridabhand ke andar se kuchh rakh v koyale ke chhote-chhote tukade mile hain jinase yah anuman lagaya jata hai ki sambhavatah 'agni snskar' ke bad bache hue ansh ko qabr men rakha jata tha.
  • yahan se anek prakar ki qabron ke avasheshon se yah snket milata hai ki shayad yahan par nivas karane vale vibhinn paramparaon ko manane vale evn anek dharmik sampradayon ke log the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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