एथेंस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ethens (athenai, anthina, asina) prachin kal men gris desh ke attika namak bhag ki aur ajakal samast gris ki rajadhani. isaka itihas tin hajar varsh se adhik purana hai evn snskriti ki drishti se samast yoorop or amarika ki snskriti ka mool srot yahi hai. yahi karan hai ki is nagari ke puratatv ka adhyayan karane ke lie svayn grik logon ke atirikt phrans, jarmani, snyukt rajy amarika, inglaind, astriya evn itali ityadi deshon ne apani snsthaen adhunik ethens men hi sthapit kar rakhi hain. isake atirikt any deshon men bhi isaki snskriti ka adhyayan bade manoyogapoorvak chal raha hai.

attika pradesh yoorop ke dakshin-poorv men ek tribhuj ke akar men avasthit hai. isaki adhikansh bhoomi pahadi hai aur jahan samatal maidan hai vahan bhi mitti ki tah adhik moti nahin hai. ethens attika ke dakshin-pashchim men (23roo 44vh poo. tatha 37roo 58vh u.)sthit hai. samudr se isaki kam se kam doori tin mil hai. isaka tapaman adhikatam 99.01roo, nyoonatam 31.44roo aur madhyam 63.1roo pharnahait hai aur jalavayu svachchh, nirmal, svasthyakar tatha buddhivardhak hai. nagari ke samip hi pentelikas aur himettas namak sngamarmar ke pahad hain jinase nagar ke sundar bhavanon aur mndiron ke lie paryapt matra men sngamarmar milata raha hai. pashchim men kaiphisas nam ki nadi bahati hai tatha dakshin-poorv aur dakshin ki or ilisas, par yah nadi pray: sookhi padi rahati hai. ethens men paryapt matra men naisargik jal nahin milata. jal ki kami ko jalabhandaron aur kuon ke dvara poora kiya jata hai.

yah kahana kathin hai ki ethens nagari ka adyarnbh kab hua aur kis jati ke logon ne sarvapratham ise apana nivasthan banaya. athina devi ke nam par isaka namakaran hua hai. athina devi ka snbndh mikini sabhyata se mana jata hai. parntu jaisa athina ki katha se vidit hota hai,usako is nagar men manyata prapt karane ke lie poseeedan se spardha karani padi thi. isase is nagari ka itihas atynt prachin pragaitihasik kal ke dhundhale yug men chhipa hua pratit hota hai. aisa anuman kiya jata hai ki ethens ke maidan men bahut si chhoti-chhoti bastiyan basi huee thin. ee.poo. athavin shatabdi men, snbhavataya thisiyas ke samay, ye bastiyan milakar ek nagari ke roop men parinat ho gee aur nagar ke kendr men sthit akraupolish‌ is nagari ki rajadhani ya shasan ka kendrasthal bana. tab se lekar aj tak is nagari ne jitane utthan patan dekhen snbhavat: any kisi nagari ne nahin dekhe honge. arnbh men yahan rajaon ka shasan tha. tatpashchath‌ shreshth kulin logon ka shasan sthapit hua. par soloon ke snvidhan ke pashchath‌ satta sadharan janata ke hath men ani arnbh ho gee. phir kuchh samay pashchath‌ pisistratas ne apana ekadhikar sthapit kar liya. is samay is nagari ke vaibhav men paryapt vriddhi huee.

kleisthenis ne pun: yatharth janatntr ki sthapana ki. isake pashchath‌ ethens ko ee.poo. 490 aur 479 ke madhy pharas samrajy ki mahanh‌ shakti se do bar yuddh karana pada. yadyapi in yuddhon men nagari ko mahanh‌ kshati uthani padi tathapi isase isaki shakti aur pratishtha bahut adhik badh gee ev ethens ke itihas ka svarnayug arnbh hua. dailiyan nagararashtrasngh ki sthapana ke pashchath‌ ethens ko ek samrajy ke kendr ka svaroop prapt ho gaya. par isase sparti ke sath ethens ko ek samrajy ke kendr ka svaroop prapt ho gaya. par isase sparta ke sath ethens ki pratispardha ka sootrapat hua jisake parinamasvaroop grik jati ka dirghakalin mahabharat chhida jo poloponeshiy yuddh kahalata hai. 30 varsh ke is yuddh ne ethens ki shakti ko kshin kar diya. is yuddh ka arnbh hone ke poorv periklis ke shasanakal men ethens ki samriddhi uchchata ke shikhar par thi. par yuddh ke pashchath‌ adhikansh men isaka gaurav atit ki gatha matr rah gaya. han, darshan aur itihas ke kshetr men isaki khyati avashy age badhi. is yuddh ke aghat se jyon hi ethens ne kuchh snbhalana arnbh kiya tyo hi isako makaduniya ke filip aur sikndar ki shakti ka samana karana pada. yadyapi is samay anuchit nitiyon ko baratane ke karan ethens ko hani uthani padi, phir bhi makaduniya ki shakti usake prati sahanubhootipoorn rahi. is yug men arastoo ka darshan or demosthanis ki vaktritvakala ethens ki khyati ka adhar bani. isake pashchath‌ rom ki shakti ka uday hua aur ethens ki svatntr satta ka ast. par ethens ki snskriti ne vijeta rom par vijay prapt ki. anek roman shasakon aur samraton ne ethens men navin bhavanon ka nirman kiya or anek suvikhyat roman vidvanon ne ethens ka shishyatv svikar kar apane ko dhany mana. eesaee dharm ke uday ke pashchath‌ anek prachin bhavan girajagharon men parinat kar die ge aur kuchh kalakritiyon ko bijatana samrath apani rajadhani men utha le ge. sanh‌ 529 men yustiniyan namak samrath ki agya se ethens ke vidyalay bnd kar die ge.

par ethens ko sabase bure samay ka samana tab karana pada jab turko ne kustuntaniya ko jitakar gris par bhi vijay prapt kar li. ye durdin 1458 se 1833 ee. tak rahe. is kal ke arnbh men anek grik manishiyon ne itali adi yooropiy deshon men sharan li aur yoorop ke punarujjivan ka yug arnbh hua. par ethens ujadane laga. sundar bhavan aur moortiyan tod dali gee. kuchh ko masajid aur haram ke roop men parivartit kar diya gaya. jagatprasiddh moortikar vastukar fidiyas dvara prastut ethens ki mndiramani parthenan barood ka godam bani aur ek din svamiyon ki asavadhani se barood mndak jane se usaki chhat ud gee. par jo kuchh aj bhi bach raha hai, use dekh british myooziyam, ladnn aur akropolis ke paryatak prachin grikon ki kala ko sarah uthate hain. janasnkhya lakhon se ghatakar ant men 5,000 rah gee. turko ki parajay ke pashchath‌ ethens ke adhunik yug ka arnbh hua. nagari pun: shighrata se badhane lagi. 1967 men gretar ethens ki janasnkhya 25,30,207 ho gee thi. pichhale dvitiy mahayuddh men ethens par kuchh samay ke lie (1941 men) jarmanon ka adhikar ho gaya, par unhonne nagar ko koee kshati nahin pahunchaee. yuddh ke uparant kuchh samay tak rajanitik dalon ke parasparik kalah ke karan kuchh ashanti rahi. par gat anek varsho se pun: shanti hai.

ee.poo. chauthi shatabdi ke asapas jab ethens apani samriddhi ke charam shikhar par aroodh tha tab usamen 21,000 svatntr nagarik, 10,000 videshi aur 4,00,000 das nivas karate the. attika men prapt sadhanon se itani vishal janasnkhya ka bharan poshan snbhav nahin tha, atev ethens ko bhojan samagri evn any jivanopayogi vastuen bahut badi matra men videshon se mngani padati thin aur inaka mooly vah apane kalakaushal tatha any sevaon se chukata tha. par in sabake lie usako apane piraeyas namak badnragah ka vikas karana pada. isaka itihas bhi ethens ke itihas ke sath abhinn roop se abaddh hai. yahan ke jahaj vishalakay hote the jo din rat mahasamudron men yatra kar sakate the. yah bndaragah ethens ke sath tin oonchi oonchi divalon dvara snbaddh tha aur nagar se dakshin-pashchim panch mil ki doori par tha.

aj is bat ki kalpana karana kathin hai ki apani samriddhi ke kal men ethens kitana bhavy dikhalaee deta hoga. yadyapi adhunik kal men ethens ke purane mndiron aur bhavanon ka punaruddhar karane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai tathapi bahut kuchh to sarvada ke lie nasht ho gaya. is samay ethens men prachin yoonani kal ke, roman kal ke aur adhunik kal ke sthapaty ke udaharan milate hain. atynt prachin kal ki vastukala ke nidarshan nagari ke tin oonche sthanon par pae jate hain jinake nam hain akropolis, areyopagas, aur paniks. akropolis ethens ka prachinatam durg hai. is pahadi par erekthiyam, parthenan, praupilaiya ityadi anek mahatvapoorn bhavan the. yah nagari kendr men sthit hai. areyopagas akropolis ke pashchim men hai. yahan samiti ki baithaken hua karati thin aur nyayalay bhi yahin tha. ph‌niks akropolis ke uttar-pashchim men tha. yahan nagarasabha ki baithak hua karati thi. nagar ki mndi ka nam agora tha. akropolis ki dakshini dhal par diyanisas ka rngasthal tha. nagari ke uttar-pashchim men vikhyat dipilan namak dvar tha. yahan se kalonas aur pleto (afalatoon) ke akademi namak mahavidyalay ki or sadaken jati thin. any dvaron se piraeyas phaleram aur soonitham namak sthanon ko sadaken jati thin. snbhavat: ee.poo. chhathi shatabdi men pisis tratas ke shasanakal men ek vishal jalagar banaya gaya tha. sadharan nagaranivasiyon ke makan aur sadaken achchhi nahin thin.

roman kal men samay ke akalan ke lie vayumndir banaya gaya tha jisamen jalaghatika ityadi yntr the. akropolis ke uttar men roman hat 'agora' ka snvidhan tha jo mukhyataya tel ki mndi tha. roman samrath hadriyan ne nav ethens ka nirman kiya tha aur ek pustakalay bhi banavaya tha. is samrath ne aur bhi anek bhavy sthanon se is puratan nagari ki shobha badhaee thi. attikus herodais namak ek snpann roman ne purane stadiyum aur odiyamh‌ ka nirman karaya tha.[1]

adhunik ethens men akademi, vishvavidyalay, rashtriy pustakalay, sngrahalay, ityadi anek ne bhavan nirmit hue hain. videshiyon dvara bhi bahut se sngrahalayon aur pustakalayon ka nirman hua hai. grik jati ki yug yug ki snskriti ka yah kendr aj pun: navajivan se parispndit ho raha hai.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 238 |
  2. sn.grn.–fargyusan : hailenistikh‌ ethens, 1911; vardasvarth : ethens aind aitika, 1855; bholanath sharma : aristoo ki rajaniti aur athens ka snvidhan (aristoo ke grnthon ke hindi anuvad), 1956.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah