इज़रायल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

izarayal dakshin pashchim eshiya ka ek svatntr yahoodi rajy hai, jo 14 mee, 1948 ee. ko pailestain se british satta ke samapt hone par bana. yah rajy room sagar ke poorvi tat par sthit hai. isake uttar tatha uttar poorv men lebanan evn siriyas, poorv men jardan, dakshin men akaba ki khadi tatha dakshin pashchim men misr hai (kshetraphal 20,700 varg kilomitar; janasnkhya 1971 ee. men 29,99,000, jisamen yahoodi 25,60,000; musalaman 3,26,000; eesaee 76,000 tatha draz 36,000). janasnkhya ke 71 pratishat log nagaron men rahate hain tatha 21 pratishat udyog men lage hain. jeroosalam, jisaki janasnkhya 2,82,000 hai, isaki rajadhani hai tatha tel avib (janasnkhya 3,82,000) evn haipha (janasnkhya 2,14,500) isake any mukhy nagar hain. rajabhasha ibrani hai.

izarayal ke tin prakritik bhag hain jo ek doosare ke samantar dakshin se uttar tak phaile hain : roomatatiy 'shairon' tatha philistiya ka maidan, jo atyadhik urvar hai, tatha makka jo sabjiyon, sntaron, angooron evn kelon ki upaj ke lie prasiddh hai. (2) gailili, samariya tatha joodiya ka pahadi pradesh, jo tatiy maidan ke poorv men 25 se lekar 40 mil tak chauda hai. izarayal ka sarvochch parvat atzaman (oonchaee 3,962 phut) yahin sthit hai. jazaril ghati gailili ke pathar ko samariya tatha joodiya se prithakh‌ karati hai aur tatiy maidan ko jardan ki ghati se milati hai. gailili ka pathar evn jazaril ghati samriddh krishikshetr hain jahan gehoon, jau, jaitoon tatha tnbakoo ki kheti hoti hai. samariya ka kshetr jaitoon, angoor evn anjir ke lie prasiddh hai. (3) jardan ripht ghati, jo keval 10-15 mil chaudi tatha atyadhik shushk hai. isake jagath‌ ke sthalakhnd ka sabase nicha bhag hai. jardan nadi ke maidan men kele ki kheti hoti hai.

izarayal ke dakshini bhag men nejev namak marusthal hai, jisake uttari bhag men sinchaee dvara krishi ka vikas kiya ja raha hai. yahan jau, soragham, gehoon, sooryamukhi, sabjiyan evn phal hote hain. sanh‌ 1955 ee. men nejev ke heletz namak sthan par izarayal men sarvapratham khanij tel paya gaya. is rajy ke any khanij potash, namak ityadi hain.

prakritik sadhanon ke abhav men izarayal ki arthik sthiti visheshat: krishi tatha vishisht evn chhote udyogon par ashrit hai. sinchaee ke dvara sookhe kshetron ko krishiyogy banaya gaya hai. at: krishi ka kshetraphal, sanh‌ 1969-70 men 10,58,000 ekad tha.

tel aviv izarayal ka pramukh udyogakendr hai jahan kapada, kashth, aushadhi, pey tatha plastik adi udyogon ka vikas hua hai. haipha kshetr men siment, mitti ka tel, mashin, rasayan, kanch evn vidyuth‌ vastuon ke karakhane hain. jeroosalam hastashilp evn mudran udyog ke lie vikhyat hai. nathanya jile men hira tarashane ka kam hota hai.

haipha tatha tel aviv room sagaratat ke pattan (bndaragah) hain. ilath akaba ki khadi ka pattan hai. mukhy niryat sookhe evn taje phal, hira, motaragadi, kapada, tayar evn tyoob hain. mukhy ayat mashin, ann, gadiyan, kath evn rasayanik padarth hain.[1]

sanh‌ 1948 ee. se pahale philistin (izarayal jisaka ajakal ek bhag hai) briten ke aupaniveshik prashasan ke antargat ek adhishthit (mainadeted) kshetr tha. yahoodi log ek lnbe arase se philistin kshetr men apane ek niji rashtr ki sthapana ke lie prayatnashil the. isi uddeshy ko lekar snsar ke vibhinn bhagon se akar yahoodi philistini ilake men basane lage. arab rashtr bhi is sthiti ke prati satark the. phalat: 1947 ee. men arabon aur yahoodiyon ke bich yuddh prarnbh ho gaya. 14 mee, 1948 ee. ko adhivesh (mainadet) samapt kar diya gaya aur izarayal namak ek ne desh athava rashtr ka uday hua. yuddh janavari, 1949 ee. tak jari raha. n to kisi prakar ki shantisndhi huee, n hi kisi arab rashtr ne izarayal se rajanayik snbndh sthapit kie. alabatta snyukt rashtrasnghiy yuddhaviram--paryavekshak--sngathan is kshetr men shanti sthapana ka kary karata hai. sanh‌ 1957 men izarayal ne pun: briten tatha phrans se milakar svej ki ladaee men gaja kshetr men adhikar kar liya, parntu snyukt rashtrasngh ke agyanusar use is bhag ko antat: chhodana pada. pratham yuddh ek prakar se samapt ho gaya, lekin apratyaksh tanatani bani rahi. 1967 ee. men sthiti bahut kharab ho gee aur izarayal-siriya-simakshetr men huee jhadapon ke bad misr ne izarayal ki sima par apani sena badi snkhya men tainat kar di. rashtrasnghiy paryavekshak dal ko nishkasit kar diya gaya aur raktasagar men izarayal ki jahajarani par misr dvara rok laga di gee. 5-6 joon ki ratri ko izarayal ne misr par jamini aur havaee akraman shuroo kar die. jardan bhi izarayal ke viruddh yuddh men sammilit ho gaya aur siriya ki simaon par bhi ladaee jari ho gee. 11 joon ko rashtrasngh dvara ki gee yuddhaviram ki apil lagabhag sabhi yuddharat rashtron ne svikar kar li. lekin is samay tak izarayal gaza patti, svez nahar ke tat tak sinaee prayadvip ke bhoobhag, jardan ghati tak jardan ke bhoobhag, jeroosalam tatha gailili sagar ke poorv men sthit siriya ke galan namak parvatiy bhag (jisamen kyoonetra namak nahar bhi hai) par adhikar kar chuka tha. jeroosalam ko tatkal izarayal ka abhinn ang ghoshit kar diya gaya, lekin shesh vilit ilake ko 'adhikrit kshetr' ke roop men hi rakha gaya. pharavari, 1969 ee. men levi eshkol ki mrityu ho jane par shrimati golada mayar izarayal ki pradhanamntri niyukt hueen aur aktoobar, 1969 ee. ke chunav men unhen pun: pradhanamntri chun liya gaya. yuddh--viram--rekha par aur vishesh roop se adhikrit svez kshetr men izarayaliyon tath arab rashtron evn philistini gurilla sngathan ke bich chhoti moti jhadapen chalati rahin jinaka ant agast, 1970 ee. men hue yuddhaviram samajhaute ke bad hi hua. kintu madhyapoorv ki vartaman sthiti tab tak visphotak bani rahegi, jab tak yahan ki samasyaon ka koee sthayi rajanitik samadhan nahin khoj liya jata.

snvidhan evn shasan - izarayal ek prabhusattasnpann ganarajy hai jisaki sthapana 14 mee 1948 ee. ke ghoshana ke adhar par huee hai. 1949 ee. men izarayali snsadh (senet) ne snkraman kanoon parit kiya jo samany shabdavali ke madhyam se snsadh, rashtrapati tatha mntrimndal ke adhikaron ki vyakhya karata hai. 1950 ee. men snsad ne samay-samay par mool niyamon ko adhiniyamit karane ka prastav parit kiya. ye hi adhiniyamit mool niyam samagr roop men izarayal ke snvidhan ke niyamak hain. snsadh, izarayali rashtr tatha rashtrapati se snbaddh in mool niyamon ko kramash: 1958, 1960, tatha 1964 ee. men parit kiya gaya.

izarayali snsadh ko sarvochch adhikar prapt hain aur 120 sadasyonvali is ekasadani snsadh, ka chunav sarvadeshik matadhikar ke adhar par anupati-pratinidhitv-paddhati se prati char varsh ke lie karaya jata hai. rashtrapati rashtradhyaksh hota hai aur snsadh panch varsh ke lie isaka chunav karati hai. pradhanamntri ke netritv men gathit mntrimndal snsadh ke prati uttaradayi hota hai. mntri samanyat: snsadh sadasyon men se hi banae jata hain lekin inaki niyukti sadasyetar vyaktiyon men se bhi ki ja sati hai. poora desh chhah mndalon men vibhakt hai. snsadiy nirvachan ke sath-sath sthaniy adhikariyon ka chunav bhi snpann hota hai jinaka karyakal char varsh tak rahata hai. 27 nagarapalikaen (do arabon ki), 117 sthaniy parishaden (45 arabon tatha siriyaee deshon ki) tatha 47 kshetriy parishaden (ek arabon ki) 674 ganvon ka pratinidhitv karati hain.[2]


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  1. navalakishor prasad sinh
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 508-09 |

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