आक्सिम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aksim ailadihaidon tatha kitonon par haidraauksil-aimin ki pratikriya see yaugik prapt hote hain unhen aksim kahate hain. ailadihadon se bane yaugikon ailadaauksim tatha kitonon se bane yaugik kitaauksim kahalate hain. inake sootr nimnalikhti hain:Aksim.gif


sabase pahala aksim viktar meyar ne sanh‌ 1878 ee. men banaya tha. isake bad ailadihaid tatha kitonon ke shuddhikaran tatha unaki pahachan men aksimon ke mahatv ke karan tatha in yaugikon ki vinyas-samavayavata ke karan, rasayangyon ne inake adhyayan men vishesh ruchi dikhalaee, jisake phalasvaroop inase snbaddh inek mahatvapoorn anusndhan hue.

ailadihaidon tatha kitonon ke shuddhikaran tatha pahachan men inake upayog ka vishesh karan yah hai ki aksim thos avastha men manibhiy tatha jal men aviley hote hain; at: inako shuddh avastha men prapt kiya ja sakata hai. haidroklorik ya gndhakaml ke vilayan ke sath garam karane se aksimon ka jalavishleshan ho jata hai. isake phalasvaroop ailadihaid ya kiton svatntr avastha men pun: prapt ho jate hain.

aksimon ke apachayan se prathamik aimin prapt hate hain at:>ka>auko>ka-naha men parivartit karane men inaka prayog hota hai. ailadaksim aisid kloraid dvara nirjalit kie ja sakate hain jisaseAksim-2.gif

yaugik moo-kaºna men parivartit ho jate hain.

kuchh aksim, dhatviy tatvon ke sath snyukt hokar, sthayi savarg (koaauradinet) yaugik banate hain. lagabhag ek saman gunavale aur snbndhati vividh tatvon se is prakar bananevale yaugikon ki vileyata ek doosare se bhinn hoti hai. is karan, vaishleshik rasayan men, in aksimon ka bada mahatv hai. sailisil ailadaksim anek dhatuon se is prakar ke yaugik banata hai, parntu tanbe ke sath bane yaugik ko chhodakar any dhatuon se bane sabhi yaugik tanu (dailyoot) aisitik aml men vile hain. tanbe ke sath bana yaugik haritabhapit rng ka ek choorn sa hota hai aur ise110° sen. par sukhakar sthayi rakha ja sakata hai. at: iphhऱem ne is aksim ka any tatvon se tanbe ke prithakkaran tatha usake parimapan ke lie upayog karana achchha batalaya hai. isi prakar daeemethil glaiksim, jo daikiton-daee-aisitil ka dai-aksim hai, anek dhatuon ke sath snkirn yaugik banata hai, jinamen se keval nikal tatha palediyam se bane yaugik tanu amlon tatha tanu kshar vilayanon men aviley hote hain. at: nikal tatha palediyam ke parimapan tatha nikal ko kobalt se poornat: prithakh‌ karane men is aksim ka bahut upayog hota hai. bita naipthokvinon ka ek aksim kobalt ke sath isi prakar ka aviley yaugik banata hai, jisase kobalt ke parimapan men isaka upayog hota hai.

aksimon ki vinyas-samavayavata-vinyas rasayan ke vikas men aksimon ka mahatv kuchh kam nahin he. sanh‌ 1883 ee. men hans goldasmit ne gyat kiya ki benjil ka dvi-aksim do roopon men paya jata hai, phir sanh‌ 1889 ee. men viktar meyar ne ek tisara roop bhi gyat kiya. usi varsh bekamain ne bataya ki benjailadihaid ka bhi do roopon men paya jata hai. vant haph ne>ka = ka'>vale yaugikon ki jyamitiy samavayavata poorn roop se siddh kar di thi; at: arthar hans tatha ailphrade varnar ne in siddhanton ko>ka = na-vale yaugikon men lagakar yah dikhalaya ki aksimon ke samavayav jyamitiy samavayav hain. unake anusar aildihaidon tatha asamamitiy kitonon ke aksim do roopon men pae jaenge jinhen is prakar likh sakate hain:Aksim-3.gif

yah samavayavata thik usi prakar ki hai jaisi mailik tatha phyoomerik aml ki>ka = ka<par. kitonon men yah keval asamamitiy kotonon men snbhav hai, kyonki moo tatha moo' ke ek ho jane se phir in do roopon men koee antar nahin rah jata. isake adhar par benjil dvi--aksim ke roop bhi likhe ja sakate hain.Aksim-4.gif

kitonon ke aksimon ki phasaphoras pentaksaid ke sath eethar men pratikriya karane se jo padarth milata hai usapar jal ki pratikriya se pratisthapit aisid--aimaid prapt hote hain. is kriya ko bekamain ka roopantaran kahate hain. is kriya men moolakon ka parivartan hota hai. jo moolak pahale karban ke sath snyukt tha, ab vah naitrojan ke sath snyukt moolak se sthanantaran kar leta hai.

yah spasht hai ki do samavayavi aksimon men se toAksim-5.gif

moo' kaaunahamoo milega, parntuAksim-6.gif

se mookaaunahamoo' milega. in padarthon ka is prakar bekamain roopantaran ke phalasvaroop banana is bat ki pushti karata hai ki samavayavi aksimon ki rachana to ek si hai, parntu usaki samavayavata moolakon ke tal men vibhinn prakar se sthit hone ke karan hoti hai.[1]

isake bad in baton ki pushti karane ke lie hans, barner, dablyoo.ech. mils, maisenahaimar, ti.dablyoo.je. telar tatha el.eph. satan adi rasayangyon ne anek prayogon ke adhar par samay-samay par apane vichar prakat kie hain, kintu aksimon ke snbndh men abhi tak bahut si baten nahin nishchit ho paee hain.[2]

tippani: au = aksijan, ka = karban , na = naitrojan, ha = haidrojan, m = moolak (raidikal), moo' = any moolak.


panne ki pragati avastha
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 345-546 |
  2. sn.grn.-sidavik: kemistri aauv naitrojan knpaunds; je.si. thaaurp: dikshanari aauv aiplaed kemistri.

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