स्वर्ण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

svarn
pili dhatu
sadharan gunadharm
nam, pratik, snkhya svarn, Au, 79
tatv shreni snkraman dhatu
samooh, avart, kaksha 11, 6, d
manak paramanu bhar 196.966569g·mol−1
ilektraaun vinyas 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d10, 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14, 5s2 5p6 5d10, 6s1
ilektraaun prati shel 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
bhautik gunadharm
avastha thos
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) 19.30 g·cm−3
taral ghanatv
(galanank par)
17.31 g·cm−3
galanank 1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F
kvathanank 3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F
snlayan ooshma 12.55 kilo jool-mol
vashpan ooshma 324 kilo jool-mol
vishisht ooshmiy
kshamata
25.418

jool-mol−1kilo−1

vashp dab
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078
paramanvik gunadharm
aauksikaran avastha -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
emphoterik aauksaid
ilektronegetiviti 2.54 (pailing paimana)
ayanikaran oorjaen 1st: 890.1 ki.jool•mol−1
2nd: 1980 ki.jool•mol−1
paramanvik trijya 144 pm
sahasnyojak trijya 136±6 pm
vaindair vals trijya 166 pm
vividh gunadharm
vaidyut pratirodhakata (20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m
ooshmiy chalakata (300 K) 318 W·m−1·K−1
ooshmiy prasar (25 °C) 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1
dhvani chal (patali chhad men) (r.t.) 2030 m·s−1
tanav pushti 120 MPa
yng mapank 79 GPa
aparoopan mapank 27 GPa
sthool mapank 180 GPa
paauyazan anupat 0.44
mohs kathorata mapank 2.5
vikars kathorata 216 MPa
brainal kathorata 25 HB MPa
si.e.es pnjikaran
snkhya
7440-57-5
samasthanik
samasthanik pra. prachurata arddh ayu ksharan avastha ksharan oorja
(MeV)
ksharan utpad
195Au syn 186.10 d ε 0.227 195Pt
196Au syn 6.183 d ε 1.506 196Pt
β 0.686 196Hg
197Au 100% 197Au 118 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
198Au syn 2.69517 d β 1.372 198Hg
199Au syn 3.169 d β 0.453 199Hg

svarn (angrezi:Gold) ka pratikanusar 'Au' tatha paramanu snkhya 79 hoti hai. svarn ka paramanu bhar 197 hota hai. svarn ka ilektraaunik vinyas 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d10, 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14, 5s2 5p6 5d10, 6s1 hai. sone ki ganana bahumooly dhatuon men ki jati hai evn isaka upayog antarashtriy star par adan-pradan ke roop men tatha abhooshanon ke nirman men kiya jata hai. yah kabhi bhi shuddh roop men nahin milata hai, varanh isamen chandi, evn any dhatuon ke ansh mile rahate hain. yah agney evn kayantarit chattanon men nason ke roop men paya jata hai.

nishkarshan

svarn ka nishkarshan mukhyatah kelaverait aur silvenait ayask se kiya jata hai.

bhautik gun

  • svarn ek komal, aghatavardhy, tany chamakadar pile rng ki dhatu hai. svarn sabase aghatavaddhary dhatu hai.
  • svarn ooshma aur vidyut ka suchalak hoti hai.
  • svarn ek bhari dhatu hai, jisaka dravanank (galanank), kvathanank tatha vishisht ghanattv kramashah 1063° C, 2600° C tatha 19.3 hota hai.

rasayanik gun

svarn vayu se koee pratikriya nahin karata hai. potaishiyam sayanaid ya sodiyam sayanaid men ghulakar yah potaishiy aurosayanaid ya sodiyam aurosayanaid banata hai. svarn kshar ke sath koee pratikriya nahin karata hai. svarn amlaraj men ghulakar kloroaaurik aml banata hai.

upayog

  1. abhooshanon ke nirman men
  2. sikkon ke nirman men
  3. svarn ke lavan fotografi men kam ate hain.
  4. vidyut lepan tatha svarn patr chadhane men
  5. kolayadi svarn kanch evn chini udyog men prayukt hota hai.
  6. svarn ke vark/patali panni chhapaee tatha aushadhiyon men prayog kiye jate hain.

svarn ki shuddhata

svarn ki shuddhata kairet men vyakt ki jati hai. 100% shuddh svarn 24 kairet ka hota hai. 22 kairet svarn men 22 bhag svarn tatha shesh do bhag tanba hota hai. isi prakar 20 kairet svarn men 20 bhag svarn tatha 4 bhag kaaupar (tanba) mila hota hai.

sone ke yaugik

  1. aaurik kloraid: svarn ka upayog sarp visharodhi sooee banane men hota hai.
  2. rold-gold: ise svarn ka kritrim roop kaha jata hai. yah 90% Cu tatha 10-%Al ka mishran hota hai, jo dekhane men svarn sadrish lagata hai. sone ka upayog saste abhooshanon ke nirman men hota hai.
  3. ayaran payaraits: ise jhootha svarn ya bevakoophon ka svarn bhi kahate hain.

prapti sthan

prakriti men svarn mukt avastha aur snyukt avastha donon men paya jata hai. yah prayah kvartj ke roop men paya jata hai. vishv men svarn mukhy roop se dakshin aphrika, snyukt rajy amarika, kanada, roos evn astreliya men paya jata hai. snsar ke kul svarn utpadan ka lagabhag 2% bharat men utpadit hota hai. bharat vishv ka sabase bada svarn upabhokta vala desh hai.

bharat men sone ki bahut kam matra ki prapti hoti hai jisake karan isaki mang evn mooly donon hi adhik hai. bharat men 66.7 tan svarn dhatu ke sath svarn khanij ka anumanit bhndar 176.9 lakh tan hai. bharat ke kul svarn utpadan ka lagabhag 98 pratishat bhag akele karnatak rajy ki kolar tatha hatti ki svarn khanon se prapt kiya jata hai. kolar kshetr ki any prasiddh khanen hain- maisoor khan, orogam khan, nandidurg khan tatha chaimpiyan khan. yahan par sona 2,250 se 3,100 mi. ki gaharaee tak paya jata hai. karnatak ke dharavad, chitradurg, belari, shimoga tatha gulabarpa zilon men bhi kuchh sona paya jata hai.

isake atirikt svarn utkhanan karane vale any rajy hain - andhr pradesh[1], tamilanadu[2], jharakhand[3], udisa[4], keral[5] adi. bharat ki nadiyon dvara bahakar layi gayi jalodh mitti ke sath bhi kuchh matra men sone ki prapti hoti hai. 2005-2006 ke dauran men kul 3048 kigra. sona ka utpadan hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anantapur, chittoor, poorvi godavari tatha varngal zile
  2. nilagiri tatha salem zile
  3. sinhabhoomi, dalabhoomi tatha jashapur kshetr
  4. gngapur, bamara tatha sambalapur
  5. kojhikod zila

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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