बेर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ber

ber bharat ka bahut hi prachin evn lokapriy phal hai. yah vitamin 'si' v vitamin 'bi' ka achchha strot hai tatha isamen kailshiyam, lauh aur sharkara prachur matra men pae jate hain. sasta evn lokapriy phal hone ke karan ise 'garibon ka meva' bhi kaha jata hai.

ber ki kheti

mukhy roop se ugayi jane vali beri ki kismon ko phalon ke pakane ke adhar par tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai:

  1. ageti: gola, seb, sandhoora, naranaul
  2. kaithali, sanauri nn.-5, banarasi kadaka, chhuhara
  3. pachheti: umaran, ilayachi, kathaphal

paudhe lagane ka samay v doori

beri ke pyaundi paudhon ko lagane ka samay agast-sitambar hai tatha bina gachi vale paudhon ko 15 janavari se pharavari ke pratham saptah tak lagaya ja sakata hai. jahan pani ki suvidha ho vahan paudhe se paudhe ki doori 9 mitar rakhani chahiye.[1]

bhoomi tatha jalavayu

ber ka vriksh un kharab tatha kam upajaoo bhoomi men bhi paida ho jata hai, jahan par any phal vriksh nahin ug pate hain. achchhi fasal ke lie udasin ya thodi kshariy gahari domat bhoomi sarvottam rahati hai. march - aprail men phal dene ke bad ber pattiyan gira deta hai. tatha nee pattiya joon tak nahin ati hain, is karan se yah sookhe ko sahan kar leta hai. atah inhen shushk aur ardh - shushk jalavayu vale bhagon men saphalatapoorvak ugaya ja sakata hai.[2]

qismen

bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men isaki bahut si prajatiyan ugaee jati hain.

bharat ke vibhinn rajyon men payi jane vali ber ki prajatiyan[2]
rajy prajatiyan
uttar pradesh banarasi kadaka, banarasi, paivandi, narama, alignj
bihar banarasi, nagapuri, paivandi, thornalais
maharashtr kotho, maharoom, umaran
andhr pradesh banarasi, dodhaya, umaran
pnjab aur hariyana umaran, kaithali, gola, sapheda, saunor - 2, paunda
rajasthan saunor, thornalais
dilli gola, mudaya maharesh, umaran, ponda

umaran ke phal todane ke bad jaldi kharab nahin hote hain. tatha yah ek achchhi kimat par bikata hai. gola, mudaya tatha mahara jaldi pakane vali jatiyan hain tatha bazar men achchhi kimat deti hain.

pravardhan

ber

ber ka pravardhan mukhy roop se kalikayan dvara kiya jata hai. isake moolakrit taiyar kiye jate hain. jo poori tarah pake hue phalon se bij lekar taiyar kiye jate hain. march-aprail ke mahine men poori tarah pake phalon se bij lekar kyariyon men bo die jate hain. ye bij 3-4 saptah bad ug jate hain tatha julaee se sitambar ke bich uchit akar ke ho jane par inamen kalikayan kiya jata hai. kalika achchhi fasal dene vali ichchhit qism ke paudh se li jati hai. kalikayan ke lie valay (ring) tatha shild vidhi pravardhan ke lie upayogi pae ge hain. kalika aisi shakha se li jaye jo svasth ho.[2]

ropaee

  • ber ki ropaee agast se sitambar mahine men ki jati hai isake lie 9 x 9 ki doori par gaddhe taiyar kar lie jate hain. gaddhon ko adha mitti tatha adha gobar ki khad mila kar bhar len. narsari se paudhe ko ukhadate samay yah dhyan rakhen ki isake sath kam se kam 30 semi mitti uthaee jaye. aisa karane se jaden kam kshatigrast hoti hain tatha ropad ke bad paudhon ko lagane men madad hoti hai.
  • paudhe ko lagane ke tunrat bad sinchaee karani chahie. isake bad paudhe ko poornatah sthapit hone tak pratyek saptah sinchaee ki avashyakata hoti hai.
  • sookshmakal men march se joon tak kisi prakar ki sinchaee ki avashyakata nahin hoti hai. paudhon ko phalon ke vikas ke samay aktoobar se faravari mahine men ek bar sinchaee avashy karani chahie.[2]

sinchaee

moosalajadadhari paudha hone ke karan isaki jade kafi gaharaee tak jati hai tatha paudha sthapit hone ke bad isake kam pani ki zaroorat hoti hai parantu chhote paudhon ko 15 din ke antar par sinchana chahie. ber ke paudhon ko ya bagon men sal men char sinchaeeyon ki zaroorat hoti hai. pahali sinchaee joon men kataee ke bad, doosari sinchaee navambar ke mahine men phal lag jane ke bad tatha sinchaee joon men kataee ke bad, doosari sinchaee navambar ke mahine men phal lag jane ke bad tatha tisari v chauthi sinchaee janavari men. sitambar se navambar tak phool lagata hai. is dauran sinchaee nahin karani chahie.[1]

khad evn urvarak

ek varsh ke paudhe ko 10 kigra gobar ki khad, 50-60 gram naitrojan tatha 25-30 gram phaausphoras ki avashyakata hoti hai. do varsh ke paudhe ko 15 ki.gra. gobar ki khad, 100 gram naitrojan, 50 gram phaausphoras tatha 200 gram potash deni chahie. tin varsh ke paudhe ko 20 kigra gobar ki khad, 400-500 gram naitrojan, 100 gram faausfaras tatha 200 gram potash ki jarurat hoti hai. 4 varsh ke paudhe tatha sabhi phal dene vale paudhon ko prativarsh 25 ki.gra. gobar ki khad, 600-800 gram naitrojan, 150 gram phaausphoras tatha 300 gram potash dena chahie. gobar ki khad joon ke ant ya julaee ke pratham saptah tatha urvarakon ko julaee ke antim saptah men dena chahiye.[2]

paudhon men hone vale rog aur unake upay

lakh banane vala kit

lal rng ke kafi snkhya men chhote shishu naram tahaniyon ke ras choosate hain jisase paidavar v gunavatta men bhari kami a jati hai. isaka sharir chipachipe padarth se dhaka hota hai. shishuon ke tyage mal par phnphoodi lag jati hai. isaka prakop joon-julaee (baisakhi) tak hota hai. purani akramanit tahaniyon se prakop phailane men madad milati hai. jin bagon ki bhali prakar se dekh bhal nahin hoti vahan isaka prakop adhik hota hai.[1]

upay

  • phal lene ke bad, jin tahaniyon par is kide ka prakop ho unaki kataee-chhadaee karake jala dena chahie.
  • naya phutav ane par 400 mi.li. monokrotophas (noovakron/monosil) 36 dablayoo.es.si. ya 600 mi.li aksidimetan mithail (mitasisataks) 25 ee.si. ko 500 litar pani men milakar prati ekad ke hisab se agast-sitambar men (kartik chhidaken.

patte khane vali bhoondiyan

in bhoodinyo ka prakop shushk v arddh shushk kshetron men bahut hota hai. yadyapi praudh kit vrikshon ke patton ko khate hain parantu inaki soodiyan anek phasalon ki jadon ko manasoon ya isase pahale ki varsh ke bad hani pahunchati hai. praudh jo ki tagade aur bhoore chamakile hote hain, jamin se sany-kal ke samay bahar ate hai. sayn kal se subah tak khoob khate hain aur din nikalane se pahale (bahut savere) hi jamin men chhup jate hain. patton par gol chhidr karake nukasan pahunchate hain. adhik prakop ki avastha men vrikshon men patte khatm kar dete hain v is tarah ke vrikshon par phal nahin lagate.[1]

upay

  • sanyakal 500 mi.li monakrotaphas (nuvakron/monosil) 36 dalabyoo es.si. ek litar endosalphan (thayodan) 35 ee.si ya 1.5 kilogram karboril 50 dhu.pa. ki 500 litar pani men milakar prati ekad chhidakav karen

dimak

yah ek prakar ka samajik kit hai jo ki phaladar, chhaya vale v any vrikshen ko bhari nukasan pahunchata hai ya to jamin men rahakar vrikshon ki jadon ko khakar tane ko khokhala karate hue upare ki aur badhate hain athava pedon ki bahari satah par mitti ki surng banakar isake andar rahakar chhal ko khate hain jisase vriksh sookhakar mar jate hain. sara sal inaka prakop bana rahata hai lekin sardi v barasat ke samay yah prakop kam ho jata hai.

upay

  • khet ko saph-suthara rakhen. koee bhi chij, jaise-thoonth, galisadi, sookhi lakadi ityadi n rahane den, jo dimak ke prakop ko badhava deti hai.
  • gobar ki hari v kachchi khad prayog men n laye kyonki yah khad dimak ko badhava deti hai.[1]

aushadhiy mahattv

ber ke phal, pattiyon, vriksh ki chhal, gond ityadi men aushadhiy gun pae jate hain. ber ki pattiyan gayon tatha bakariyon ke lie ek utkrisht ahar ka kary karati hain in pattiyon se kailshiyam, phaausphoras, maignishiyam, poteshiyam, sodiyam, klorin, gndhak ityadi tatv prachur matra men prapt hote hain. rajasthan ke adivasi kshetron men jab ber pakane lagate hain, to unhen sookha liya jata hai. yahi sookhe ber, poore varsh bhar, thodi der pani men bhigokar, gile ho jane par svadisht khady-padarth ke roop men kam men lie jate hain. vitamin-si tatha sharkara ka bhi ber men khazana hota hai. chhal ka upayog atisar evn dast men kiya jata hai. mitali, ulti tatha garbhavastha men hone vale pet-dard ko rokane ke lie ber ka upayog kiya jata hai.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 ber (hindi) gramin soochana evn gyanakendr. abhigaman tithi: 6 faravari, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 ber ki uttam kheti (hindi) uttam krishi. abhigaman tithi: 6 faravari, 2013.
  3. ber men chhipa sehat ka khazana (hindi) patrika daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 6 faravari, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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