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कनिष्क  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kanishk vishay soochi
kanishk
kanishk ka sikka
poora nam kanishk pratham
janm gyat nahin
mrityu tithi 151 ee. lagabhag
shasan kal 127 ee. se 140-51 ee. lagabhag
sha. avadhi 13-24 varsh
dharmik manyata parasi, bauddh
nirman bharat men pahale soory mandir ki sthapana multan men huee thi jise kushanon ne basaya tha. puratatvetta kaningham ka manana hai ki multan ka sabase pahala nam kasappur tha aur usaka yah nam kushanon se sambandhit hone ke karan pada.
poorvadhikari vim kadafaisis
uttaradhikari huvishk
vnsh kushan vnsh
vishesh kanishk ne bharat men kartikey ki pooja ko arambh kiya aur use vishesh badhava diya. usane kartikey aur usake any namon-vishakh, mahasena, aur skand ka ankan bhi apane sikkon par karavaya.
any janakari kanishk ko kushan vnsh ka tisara shasak mana jata tha kintu rabatak shilalekh ke bad yah chautha shasak sabit hota hai.

kanishk (angrezi: Kanishka, shasanakal- 127 ee. se 140-51 ee. lagabhag) kushan vnsh ka pramukh samrath tha. kanishk bharatiy itihas men apani vijay, dharmik pravritti, sahity tatha kala ka premi hone ke nate vishesh sthan rakhata hai. yoochi qabile se nikali yoochi jati ne bharat men kushan vnsh ki sthapana ki aur bharat ko kanishk jaisa mahanh shasak diya. vim kadafaisis ke bad kushan samrajy ka adhipati kaun bana, is sambandh men itihasakaron men bahut matabhed tha lekin rabatak shilalekh [1] ke milane ke bad kanishk ka vnsh vriksh spasht ho jata hai. vaise to sabhi kushan rajaon ke tithikram ka vishay vivadagrast hai, aur anek itihasakar raja kujul aur vim tak ko kanishk ka poorvavarti n manakar paravarti manate the, par ab bahusnkhyak itihasakaron ka yahi mat hai, ki kanishk ne kujul aur vim ke bad hi shasan kiya, pahale nahin. vim kadafaisis ke rajy kal ka ant lagabhag 100 ee. ke lagabhag hua tha, aur kanishk 127 ee. ke lagabhag kushan rajy ka svami banane ka andaza lagata hai. is bich ke kushan itihas ko agyat hi samajhana chahie.

itihas

kanishk ka itihas janane ke lie aitihasik samagri ki kami nahin hai. usake bahut se sikke upalabdh hain, aur aise anek utkirn lekh bhi mile hain, jinaka kanishk ke sath bahut gahara sambandh hai. isake atirikt bauddh anushruti men bhi kanishk ko bahut mahattvapoorn sthan prapt hai. bauddh dharm men usaka sthan ashok se kuchh hi kam hai. jis prakar ashok ke snrakshan men bauddh dharm ki bahut unnati huee, vaise hi kanishk ke samay men bhi huee.

rajyarohan

kanishk ko kushan vnsh ka tisara shasak mana jata tha kintu rabatak shilalekh ke bad yah chautha shasak sabit hota hai. sndeh nahin ki kanishk kushan vnsh ka mahanatam shasak tha. usake hi karan kushan vnsh ka bharat ke sanskritik evn rajanitik itihas men mahattvapoorn sthan hai. usaka rajyarohan kal sndigdh hai. 100 ee. se 127 ee. tak ise kahin par bhi rakha ja sakata hai, kintu sambhavana yah bhi mani gee thi ki tathakathit shak snvat, jo 78 ee. men arambh hua mana jata hai, kanishk ke rajyarohan ki tithi ho sakati hai. kanishk ke rajyarohan ke samay kushan samrajy men afaganistan, sindh ka bhag, baiktriya evn parthiya ke pradesh sammilit the. kanishk ne bharat men apana rajy magadh tak vistrit kar diya. vahan se vah prasiddh vidvanh ashvaghosh ko apani rajadhani purushapur le gaya. tibbat aur chin ke kuchh lekhakon ne likha hai ki usaka saket aur pataliputr ke rajaon se yuddh hua tha. kashmir ko apane rajy men milakar usane vahan ek nagar basaya jise 'kanishkapur' kahate hain. shayad kanishk ne ujjain ke kshatrap ko haraya tha aur malava ka prant prapt kiya tha. kanishk ka sabase prasiddh yuddh chin ke shasak ke sath hua tha, jahan ek bar parajit hokar vah dubara vijayi hua. kanishk ne madhy eshiya men kashagar, yaraknd, khotan, adi pradeshon par bhi apana adhipaty sthapit kiya. is prakar maury samrajy ke pashchath pahali bar ek vishal samrajy ki sthapana huee, jisamen gnga, sindhu aur aksas ki ghatiyan sammilit thin.
kushan samrat maharaj rajatiraj devaputr kanishk
prapti sthan-mant, mathura
upalabdh-rajakiy sngrahalay, mathura

vijit rajy

kushan vnsh ka pramukh samrat kanishk bharatiy itihas men apani vijay, dharmik pravritti, sahity tatha kala ka premi hone ke nate vishesh sthan rakhata hai. kumaralat ki kalpanamnd tika ke anusar isane bharat vijay ke pashchath madhy eshiya men khotan jita aur vahin par rajy karane laga. isake lekh peshavar, manikyal (ravalapindi), suyivihar (bahavalapur),jeda (ravalapindi), mathura, kaushanbi tatha saranath men mile hain, aur isake sikke sindh se lekar bngal tak pae ge hain . kalhan ne bhi apani 'rajatarngini' men kanishk, jhushk aur hushk dvara kashmir par rajy tatha vahan apane nam par nagar basane ka ullekh kiya hai . inake adhar par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki samrat kanishk ka rajy kashmir se uttari sindh tatha peshavar se saranath ke age tak phaila tha. kushan raja kanishk ke nirman karyon ka nirikshak abhiyanta ek yavan adhikari agesilos tha.

rajy vistar

kanishk ne kushan vnsh ki shakti ka punaruddhar kiya. satavahan raja kuntal satakarni ke prayatn se kushanon ki shakti kshin ho gee thi. ab kanishk ke netritv men kushan rajy ka punah utkarsh hua. usane uttar-dakshin-poorv-pashchim charon dishaon men apane rajy ka vistar kiya. satavahanon ko parast karake usane n keval pnjab par apana adhipaty sthapit kiya, apitu bharat ke madhyadesh ko jitakar magadh se bhi satavahan vnsh ke shasan ka ant kiya. kumaralat namak ek bauddh pndit ne kalpana mnditika nam ki ek pustak likhi thi, jisaka chini anuvad is samay bhi upalabdh hai. is pustak men kanishk ke dvara ki gee poorvi bharat ki vijay ka ullekh hai. shridharmapitak nidan sootr namak ek any bauddh grnth men [2] likha hai, ki kanishk ne pataliputr ko jitakar use apane adhin kiya aur vahan se prasiddh bauddh vidvanh ashvaghosh aur bhagavan buddh ke kamandalu ko prapt kiya. tibbat ki bauddh anushruti men bhi kanishk ke saket (ayodhya) vijay ka ullekh hai. is prakar sahityik adhar par yah bat gyat hoti hai ki kanishk ek mahanh vijeta tha, aur usane uttari bharat ke bade bhag ko jitakar apane adhin kar liya tha. satavahan vnsh ka shasan jo pataliputr se uth gaya, vah kanishk ki vijayon ka hi parinam tha.

bauddh anushruti ki yah bat kanishk ke sikkon aur utkirn lekhon dvara bhi pusht hoti hai. kanishk ke sikke uttari bharat men door-door tak upalabdh hue hain. poorv men ranchi tak se usake sikke mile hain. isi prakar usake lekh pashchim men peshavar se lekar poorv men mathura aur saranath tak prapt hue hain. usake rajy ke vistar ke vishay men ye pusht praman hain. saranath men kanishk ka jo shilalekh mila hai, usamen mahakshatrap kharapallan aur kshatrap vinaspar ke nam ae hain. puranon men satavahan ya andhr vnsh ke bad magadh ka shasak vanaspar ko hi likha gaya hai. yah vanaspar kanishk dvara niyukt magadh ka kshatrap tha. mahakshatrap kharapallan ki niyukti mathura ke pradesh par shasan karane ke lie ki gee thi.

uttari bharat ki yah vijay kanishk keval apani shakti dvara nahin kar saka tha. tibbati anushruti ke anusar khotan ke raja vijayasinh ke putr vijayakirti ne 'guzan' raja tatha raja 'kanishk' ke sath milakar bharat par akraman kiya tha, aur soket (saket) nagar jit liya tha. 'guzan' ka abhipray kushan se hai, aur kanik ka kanishk se. satavahan vnsh ki shakti ko nasht karane ke lie kanishk ko sudooravarti khotan rajy ke raja se bhi sahayata leni padi thi. yah bat satavahan samrajy ki shakti ko soochit karati hai.

naya pushpapur

pataliputr ko jitakar kanishk ne use apane adhin kar liya tha. apane prachin gaurav ke karan isi nagari ko kanishk ke samrajy ki rajadhani hona chahie tha. par kanishk ka samrajy bahut vistrit tha. usaki uttari sima chin ke sath chhooti thi. chin ki sima tak vistrit vishal kushan samrajy ke lie pataliputr nagari upayukt rajadhani nahin ho sakati thi. atah kanishk ne ek ne kusumapur (pataliputr) ki sthapana ki, aur use 'pushpapur' nam diya. yahi ajakal ka peshavar hai.

pushpapur men kanishk ne bahut si nee imaraten banavaeen. inamen pramukh ek stoop tha, jo char sau phit ooncha tha. isamen terah mnzilen thin. jab prasiddh chini yatri hyoo-en-tsang maharaj harshavardhan ke shasan kal (satavin sadi) men bharat bhraman karane ke lie aya tha, to kanishk dvara nirmit is vishal stoop ko dekhakar ashcharyachakit rah gaya tha. kusumapur (pataliputr) ke muqabale men kanishk ne pushpapur ko vidya, dharm aur snskriti ka kendr banaya. isamen sandeh nahin ki kuchh samay ke lie pushpapur ke sammukh prachin kusumapur ka vaibhav mand pad gaya tha.

chin se sngharsh

kanishk keval uttari bharat ki vijay se hi sntusht nahin hua, usane madhy eshiya ke kshetr men bhi apani shakti ke vistar ka prayatn kiya. madhy eshiya ke khotan rajy ki sahayata se kanishk uttari bharat ki vijay kar saka tha. is yug men chin ke samrat is bat ke lie prayatnashil the, ki apane samrajy ka vistar karen. chin ke suprasiddh senapati pan-chaoo ne 73-78 ee. ke lagabhag samrajy vistar ke lie digvijay prarambh ki, aur madhy eshiya par apana adhikar kar liya. pan-chaoo ki vijayon ke karan chini samrajy ki pashchimi sima kaispiyan sagar tak ja pahunchi. is dasha men yah svabhavik tha ki kushan rajy bhi chin ke nikat sampark men ae. pan-chaoo ki ichchha thi, ki kushanon ke sath maitri sambandh sthapit kare. isalie usane vividh bahumooly upaharon ke sath apane rajadoot kushan raja ke pas bheje. kushan raja ne in dooton ka yathochit svagat kiya, par chin ke sath apani maitri ko sthir rakhane ke lie yah ichchha pragat ki ki chini samrat apani kanya ka vivah usake sath kar den. kushan raja ki is mang ko pan-chaoo ne apane samrat ke samman ke viruddh samajha. parinam yah hua ki donon pakshon men yuddh prarambh ho gaya aur kushanon ne ek badi sena pan-chaoo ke viruddh ladaee ke lie bheji. par is yuddh men yoochi (yuishi) sena ki parajay huee.

par kushan raja is parajay se nirash nahin hua. chini senapati pan-chaoo ki mrityu ke bad kanishk ne apani pahali parajay ka pratishodh karane ke lie ek bar phir chin par akraman kiya. is bar vah saphal raha aur madhy eshiya ke anek pradeshon par usaka adhipaty sthapit ho gaya. khotan aur yarakand ke pradesh isi yuddh men vijay hone ke karan kushanon ke samrajy men sammilit hue.

kshatrapon tatha mahakshatrapon ki niyukti

itane vistrit samrajy ke shasan ke lie samrath ne kshatrapon tatha mahakshatrapon ki niyukti ki jinaka ullekh usake lekhon men hai. sthaniy shasan snbndhi 'gramik' tatha 'gram koottak' aur 'gramavriddh purush' aur 'sena snbndhi', 'dndanayak' tatha 'mahadndanayak' ityadi adhikariyon ka bhi usake lekhon men ullekh hai.

kanishk aur bauddh dharm

kinvadntiyon ke anusar kanishk pataliputr par akraman kar ashvaghosh namak kavi tatha bauddh darshanik ko apane sath le gaya tha aur usi ke prabhav men akar samrat ki bauddh dharm ki or pravritti huee . isake samay men kashmir men kundalavan vihar athava jalndhar men chaturth bauddh sngiti prasiddh bauddh vidvanh vasumitr ki adhyakshata men huee . huenasang ke matanusar samrat kanishk ki snrakshata tatha adeshanusar is sngiti men 500 bauddh vidvanon ne bhag liya aur tripitak ka pun: snkalan snskaran hua . isake samay se bauddh grnthon ke lie snskrit bhasha ka prayog hua aur mahayan bauddh snpraday ka bhi pradurbhav hua . kuchh vidvanon ke matanusar gandhar kala ka svarnayug bhi isi samay tha, par any vidvanon ke anusar is samrat ke samay uparyukt kala utar par thi . svayn bauddh hote hue bhi samrat ke dharmik drishtikon men udarata ka paryapt samavesh tha aur usane apani mudraon par yoonani, eerani, hindoo aur bauddh devi devataon ki moortiyan ankit karavaee, jisase usake dharmik vicharon ka pata chalata hai . 'eknsadh vipra bahudha vadnti' ki vaidik bhavana ko usane kriyatmak svaroop diya. kanishk ke bahut se sikke vartaman samay men upalabdh hote hain. in par yavan (grik), jarathustri (eerani) aur bharatiy sabhi tarah ke devi-devataon ki pratimaen ankit hain. eeran ke agni (atash), chandr (mah) aur soory (mihir), grik devata heliy, prachin elam ki devi nana, bharat ke shiv, skand vayu aur buddh - ye sab devata usake sikkon par nam ya chitr ke dvara vidyaman hain. isase yah soochit hai, ki kanishk sab dharmon ka saman adar karata tha, aur sabake devi-devataon ko samman ki drishti se dekhata tha. isaka yah karan bhi ho sakata hai, ki kanishk ke vishal samrajy men vividh dharmon ke anuyayi vibhinn logon ka nivas tha, aur usane apani praja ko sntusht karane ke lie sab dharmon ke devataon ko apane sikkon par ankit karaya tha. par is bat men koee sandeh nahin ki kanishk bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha, aur bauddh itihas men usaka nam ashok ke saman hi mahattv rakhata hai. achary ashvaghosh ne use bauddh dharm men dikshit kiya tha. is achary ko vah pataliputr se apane sath laya tha, aur isi se usane bauddh dharm ki diksha li thi.

soory upasak samrat 'kanishk'

kanishk ka sikka

bharat men ‘shak snvat’ (78 ee.) ka prarambh karane vale kushan samrat kanisht ki ganana bharat hi nahin eshiya ke mahanatam shasakon men ki jati hai. isaka samrajy madhy eshiya ke adhunik uzbekistan tajakistan, chin ke adhunik sikyang evn kansoo prant se lekar afaganistan, pakistan aur samast uttar bharat men bihar evn udisa tak phaila tha. kanishk ne devaputr shahane shahi ki upadhi dharan ki thi. bharat ane se pahale kushan ‘baiktriya’ men shasan karate the, jo ki uttari afaganistan evn dakshini uzbekistan evn dakshini tajakistan men sthit tha aur yoonani evn eerani snskriti ka ek kendr tha. kushan hind-eerani samooh ki bhasha bolate the aur ve mukhy roop se mihir (soory) ke upasak the. soory ka ek paryayavachi ‘mihir’ hai, jisaka arth hai, vah jo dharati ko jal se sinchata hai, samudron se ardrata khinchakar badal banata hai.

kanishk ke sikke

kushan samrat kanishk ne apane sikkon par, yoonani bhasha aur lipi men miron (mihir) ko uttnkit karaya tha, jo is bat ka pratik hai ki eeran ka saur sampraday bharat men pravesh kar gaya tha. eeran men mithr ya mihir pooja atyant lokapriy thi. bharat men sikkon par soory ka ankan kisi shasak dvara pahali bar hua tha. samrat kanishk ke sikke men sooryadev bayin aur khade hain. bane hath men dand hai jo rashna sen bndha hai. kamar ke charon or talavar lataki hai. soory eerani rajasi veshabhoosha men hai. peshavar ke pas shah ji ki dheri namak sthan par kanishk dvara nimit ek bauddh stoop ke avasheshon se ek baksa prapt hua jise ‘kanishkas kasket’ kahate hain, is par samrat kanishk ke sath soory evn chandr ke chitr ka ankan hua hai. is ‘kasket’ par kanishk ke snvat ka pratham varsh ankit hai.

mathura sngrahalay

mathura ke sngrahalay men lal patthar ki anek soory pratimane rakhi hai, jo kushan kal (pahali se tisari shatabbi eesavin) ki hai. inamen bhagavan soory ko char ghodon ke rath men baithe dikhaya gaya hai. ve kursi par baithane ki mudra men pair latakaye huye hai. unake donon hathon men kamal ki ek-ek kali hai aur unake donon kandhon par soory-pakshi garud jaise do chhite-2 pnkh lage hue hain. unaka sharir ‘audichyavesh’ arthath eerani dhng ki pagadi, kamadani ke chogen (lamba kot) aur salavar se dhaka hai aur ve oonche eerani joote pahane hain. unaki veshabhoosha bahut kuchh, mathura se hi prapt, samrat kanishk ki siravihin pratima jaisi hai. bharat men ye soory ki sabase prachin moortiyan hai. kushanon se pahali soory ki koee pratima nahin mili hai, bharat men unhonne hi soory pratima ki upasana ka chalan arambh kiya aur unhonne hi soory ki veshabhoosha bhi vaisi di thi jaisi vo svayn dharan karate the.

pahala soory mndir

bharat men pahale soory mandir ki sthapana multan men huee thi jise kushanon ne basaya tha. puratatvetta kaningham ka manana hai ki multan ka sabase pahala nam kasappur tha aur usaka yah nam kushanon se sambandhit hone ke karan pada. bhavishy, samv evn varah puran men varnan ata hai ki bhagavan krishn ke putr samb ne multan men pahale soory mandir ki sthapana ki thi. kintu bharatiy brahmanon ne vahan purohit ka kary karane se mana kar diya, tab narad muni ki salah par samb ne snkaladip (sindh) se mag brahmanon ko bulavaya, jinhonne vahan purohit ka kary kiya. bhavishy puran ke anusar mag brahman jarasast ke vnshaj hai, jisake pita svayn soory the aur mata nakshubha ‘mihir’ gautr ki thi. mag brahmanon ke adi poorvaj jarasast ka nam, chhathi shatabdi ee. poo. men, eeran men parasi dharm ki sthapana karane vale jurathust se samy rakhata hai. prasiddh itihasakar di. ar. bhandarakar (1911 ee.) ke anusar mag brahmanon ne samrat kanishk ke samay men hi, soory evn agni ke upasak purohiton ke roop men, bharat men pravesh kiya. usake bad hi unhonne kasappur (multan) men pahali soory pratima ki sthapana ki. itihasakar vi. e. smith ke anusar kanishk dhile-dhale roop ke zarthusth dharm ko manata tha, vah mihir (soory) aur atar (agni) ke atirikt any bharatiy evn yoonani devataon ka upasak tha. apane jivan kal ke antim dinon men bauddh dharm men kathit dharmantaran ke bad bhi vah apane purane devataon ka samman karata raha.
kanishk ka sikka

jagasvami mandir ka nirman

dakshini rajasthan men sthit prachin bhinamal nagar men soory devata ke prasiddh jagasvami mandir ka nirman kashmir ke raja kanak (samrat kanishk) ne karaya tha. maravad evn uttari gujarat kanishk ke samrajy ka hissa rahe the. bhinamal ke jagasvami mandir ke atirikt kanishk ne vahan ‘karada’ namak jhil ka nirman bhi karaya tha. bhinamal se sat kos poorv ne kanakavati namak nagar basane ka shrey bhi kanishk ko diya jata hai. kahate hai ki bhinamal ke vartaman nivasi devada/devara log evn shrimali brahaman kanak ke sath hi kashmir se ae the. devada/devara, logon ka yah nam isalie pada kyonki unhonne jagasvami soory mandir banaya tha. raja kanak se sambandhit hone ke karan unhen samrat kanishk ki devaputr upadhi se jodana galat nahin hoga. satavin shatabdi men yahi bhinamal nagar gurjar desh (adhunik rajasthan men vistrit) ki rajadhani bana. yahan yah tathy bhi ullekhaniy hai ki ek kaningham ne arkelojikal sarve riport 1864 men kushanon ki pahachan adhunik gurjaron se ki hai aur usane mana hai ki gurjaron ke kasana gautr ke log kushanon ke vartaman pratinidhi hai. usaki bat ka mahatv is bat se aur badh jata hai ki gurjaron ka kasana gotr kshetr vistar evn snkhyabal ki drishti se sabase bada hai. kasana gautr afaganistan se maharashtr tak phaila hai aur bharat men keval gurjar jati men milata hai.

kartikey ki pooja

kanishk ne bharat men kartikey ki pooja ko arambh kiya aur use vishesh badhava diya. usane kartikey aur usake any namon-vishakh, mahasena, aur skand ka ankan bhi apane sikkon par karavaya. kanishk ke bete samrat huvishk ka chitran usake sikko par mahasen 'kartikey' ke roop men kiya gaya hai. adhunik pnchang men soory shashthi evn kartikey jayanti ek hi din padati hai, koee chij hai prakriti men jisane inhen ek sath joda hai- vah hai samrat kanishk ki astha.[3]

bauddh sahity

kanishk nishchay hi ek mahanh yoddha tha jisane parthiya se magadh tak apana rajy phailaya, kintu usaka yash usake bauddh dharm ke snrakshak hone ke karan kahin adhik hai. usaka niji bauddh dharm tha. usake prachar aur sngathan ke lie usane bahut se kary kie. usane parshv ke kahane se kashmir athava jalndhar men bauddh ki chauthi mahasngiti (mahasabha) ka ayojan kiya jisamen bahut se vidvanon ne bhag liya. isaka uddeshy un siddhanton par vichar karana tha jinake vishay men bauddh vidvanon men matabhed tha. is sabha men vidvanon ne samast bauddh sahity par tikaen likhavaeen. is sabha ka pradhan vasumitr tha aur ashvaghosh ne isamen bhag liya tha. kanishk yadyapi svayn bauddh dharmavalnbi tha kintu vah any dharmon ke prati sahishnu tha. yah bat usake sikkon se spasht hai. un par kee parthiyan, yoonani tatha bharatiy devi devataon ki akritiyan hain. kuchh sikkon par yoonani dhng se khade aur kuchh par bharatiy dhng se baithe buddh ki akritiyan hain. sambhavatah ye sikke is bat ko prakat karate hain ki usake rajy men in sab dharmon ke rahane vale the aur samrat in sab dharmon ke prati sahishnu tha. mathura men ek moorti mili hai jisamen kanishk ko sainik poshak pahane khada dikhaya gaya hai. kanishk ke sikke do prakar ke hain -

  1. ek prakar ke sikkon men yoonani bhasha men usaka nam adi ankit hai.
  2. doosare men eerani bhasha men.

usake tanbe ke sikkon men use ek vedi par balidan karate dikhaya gaya hai. usake sone ke sikke rom ke samraton ke sikkon se milate julate hain. jinamen ek or usaki apani akriti hai aur doosari or kisi devi ya devata ki. peshavar ke nikat kanishk ne ek bada stoop aur math banavaya, jisamen buddh ke avashesh rakhe ge. ek abhilekh se gyat hota hai ki is stoop ka nirman ek yoonani injiniyar ne karaya tha.

samakalin vidvan

kanishk ke snrakshan men n keval bauddh dharm ki unnati huee, apitu anek prasiddh vidvanon ne bhi usake rajadarabar men ashray grahan kiya. vasumitr, parshv aur ashvaghosh ke atirikt prasiddh bauddh vidvanh nagarjun bhi usaka samakalin tha. nagarjun bauddh dharm ka prasiddh darshanik hua hai, aur mahayan sampraday ka pravartak usi ko mana jata hai. use bhi kanishk ka snrakshan prapt tha. ayurved ka prasiddh achary charak bhi usake ashray men pushpapur men nivas karata tha.

bauddhon ki chauthi sngiti

kanishk ka sikka

kanishk ke snrakshan men bauddh dharm ki chauthi sngiti (mahasabha) usake shasan kal men huee. kanishk ne jab bauddh dharm ka adhyayan shuroo kiya, to usane anubhav kiya ki usake vividh sampradayon men bahut matabhed hai. dharm ke siddhanton ke spashtikaran ke lie yah avashyak hai, ki pramukh vidvanh ek sthan par ekatr hon, aur saty siddhanton ka nirnay karen. isalie kanishk ne kashmir ke kundal van vihar men ek mahasabha ka ayojan kiya, jisamen 500 prasiddh bauddh vidvanh sammilit hue. ashvaghosh ke guru achary vasumitr aur parshv inake pradhan the. vasumitr ko mahasabha ka adhyaksh niyat kiya gaya. mahasabha men ekatr vidvanon ne bauddh dharm ke siddhanton ko spasht karane aur vividh sampradayon ke virodh ko door karane ke lie 'mahavibhasha' nam ka ek vishal grnth taiyar kiya. yah grnth bauddh tripitak ke bhashy ke roop men tha. yah grnth snskrit bhasha men tha aur ise tamrapatron par utkirn karaya gaya tha. ye tamrapatr ek vishal stoop men surakshit roop se rakh die ge the. yah stoop kahan par tha, yah abhi tak gyat nahin ho saka hai. yadi kabhi is stoop ka pata chal saka, aur isamen tamrapatr upalabdh ho ge, to niahsandeh kanishk ke bauddh dharm sambandhi kary par unase bahut adhik prakash padega. 'mahavibhasha' ka chini snskaran is samay upalabdh hai.

kushan snskriti

kanishk ki rajasabha men bade bade vidvanh vidyaman the. parshv, vasumitr aur ashvaghosh bauddh darshanik the. nagarjun jaise prakand pndit aur charak jaise chikitsak usaki rajadhani ke ratn the. usake samay men 'mahayan' dharm ka prachar hone se bauddh aur bodhisatvon ki moortiyan banane lagin. is prakar kushanon ki yadyapi apani koee vikasit snskriti nahin thi kintu bharat men basane par unhonne bharatiy aur yoonani snskriti ko apana liya aur is samanvit snskriti ko aisa protsahan diya ki vah khoob vikasit huee. uttari bharat ki janata ko yoonani, shak, pahalav, adi akramanon se ab mukti mili aur bharat men shanti aur suvyavastha sthapit huee. rajanitik shanti ke is kal men dharm, sahity, kala, vigyan, vyapar adi sabhi dishaon men khoob pragati huee. vastav men gupt rajaon se poorv kushan yug bharat ke sanskritik vikas men ek mahattvapoorn sthan rakhata hai. kanishk ka nam mahayan bauddh dharm ke prashray evn prachar prasar ke sath sath gndhar kala shaili ke vikas se sambaddh hai.

kushan samrajy ka hras

kanishk ke bad kushan samrajy ka hras prarambh hua. usaka uttaradhikari huvishk tha. vah sambhavatah rudradama dvara parajit hua aur malava shakon ke hath se chala gaya. agala shasak vasudev tha. vah vishnu evn shiv ka upasak tha. usake samay men uttar pashchim ka bahut bada bhag kushanon ke hath se nikal gaya. usake uttaradhikari kamazor the aur eeran men sasaniyat vnsh ke tatha poorv men 'nag bharashiv vnsh' ke uday ne kushanon ke patan men bahut yog diya.



kushan vnsh (lagabhag 1 ee. se 225 tak)
Arrow-left.png poorvadhikari
vim kadafaisis
kanishk uttaradhikari
huvishk
Arrow-right.png


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. afaganistan ke rabatak sthan ke utkhanan men 1993 men mila tha. yah yoonani lipi aur baktriyan bhasha men hai.
  2. isaka bhi ab keval chini anuvad hi prapt hota hai
  3. soory upasak samrat kanishk (hindi) JANITIHAS. abhigaman tithi: 13 navambar, 2014.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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