ह्वेन त्सांग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hven tsang
hven tsang
poora nam hven tsang
any nam yuvanachvang, yuvan chang ya yuan-tyang, chen aee
janm 602 ee.
mrityu 5 faravari, 664 ee.
bhasha snskrit, chini
puraskar-upadhi san-tsang
prasiddhi darshanik, ghumakkad aur anuvadak
vishesh yogadan bauddh dharm ka prachar-prasar
dharm bauddh dharm
any janakari bharat men hven tsang ne buddh ke jivan se jude sabhi pavitr sthalon ka bhraman kiya aur upamahadvip ke poorv evn pashchim se lage ilaqon ki bhi yatra ki.

hven tsang / hven sang / yuvan chang ya yuan-tyang (snskrit: mokshadev, angrezi:Xuanzang, janm: 602 ee. lagabhag mrityu: 5 faravari, 664 ee. lagabhag) mem tripitak ke roop men gyat ek prasiddh chini bauddh bhikshu tha jisaka janm chin ke luoyng sthan par sanh 602 ee. men hua tha. isake sath hi vah ek darshanik, ghumakkad aur anuvadak bhi tha. unaka mool nam chen aee tha. hven tsang, jinhen manad upadhi san-tsang se sushobhit kiya gaya. unhen moo-cha ti-po bhi kaha jata hai. jinhonne bauddh dharmagrnthon ka snskrit se chini anuvad kiya aur chin men bauddh chetana mat ki sthapana ki. isane hi bharat aur chin ke bich arambhik tng vnsh kal men samanvay kiya tha. hven tsang char bachchon men sabase chhota tha. isake prapitamah rajadhani ke shahi mahavidyalay men 'nirikshak' the, aur pitamah pradhyapak the. isake pita ek kanfyooshas vadi the, jinhonne apani rajasi naukari tyag kar rajanitik uthapalat, jo ki chin men kuchh samay bad hone vala tha, se apane ko bachaya.

yatriyon ka rajakumar

fahyan ki tarah hven tsang bhi chini bauddh bhikshu tha. vah fahyan ke karib 225 varsh uparant bharat pahuncha tha. hven tsang ne gandhar, kashmir, pnjab, kapilavastu, banaras, gaya evn kushinagar ki yatra ki thi lekin bharat men sabase mahatvapoorn samay kannauj men bita. tab vahan ka raja harshavardhan tha. usake nimntran par vah 635 se 643 eesavi tak 8 sal kannauj men raha. yahin se vah svadesh ravana hua. aisa mana jata hai ki hven tsang bharat se 657 pustakon ki pandulipiyan apane sath le gaya tha. chin pahunchakar usane apana shesh jivan in grnthon ka anuvad karane men bita diya. tathagat buddh ki janmasthali men bauddh dharm ka prachar aur vaibhav dekhakar hven tsang nihal ho gaya tha. usane 6 varshon tak nalnda vishvavidyalay men adhyayan bhi kiya. chini yatriyon men sarvadhik mahatv hvenasang ka hi hai. use ‘prins aauph traivalars ‘arthat' yatriyon ka rajakumar kaha jata hai.[1]

shiksha v adhyayan

vidvanon ki pidhiyon vale parivar men janme hven tsang ne prachin kanfyooshiyaee shiksha prapt ki. isaki jivaniyon ke anusar, yah pratibhashali chhatr rahe. isake pita ke kanfyooshas vadi hone ke bavajood bhi shuruati kal se hi isane bauddh bhikshu banane ki ichchha vyakt ki thi. isake ek bade bhrata ne aisa hi kiya tha. yahin ek buddhiman prgyavan bauddh bhikshu ke sath do varsh vyatit kiye lekin apane ek bade bhaee ke prabhav men bauddh dharmagrnthon ke prati unaki ruchi jagi aur unhonne shighr hi bauddh dharm grahan kar liya. chin men us samay jari rajanitik uthal-puthal se bachane ke lie apane bhaee ke sath unhonne chang-an bad men soo-chooan (adhunik sechvan) ki yatra ki. soo-chooan men hven tsang ne bauddh darshan ka adhyayan shuroo kiya, lekin shighr hi mool grnth men kee visngatiyon evn virodhabhason se pareshan ho ge. apane chini guruon se koee samadhan n milane par unhonne bauddh dharm ke srot bharat men jakar adhyayan karane ka faisala kiya. yatra anumati patr hasil n kar pane ke karan unhonne chori-chhipe soo-chuan chhod diya. usane yahan theravada lekhon ka adhyayan kiya.

bharat yatra

chini yatri hven tsang ne harshavardhan ke shasan kal men bharat ki yatr ki thi. usane apani yatra 29 varsh ki avastha men 629 ee. men prarambh ki thi. yatra ke dauran tashakand, samarakand hota hua hven tsang 630 ee. men ‘chandr ki bhoomi‘ (bharat) ke gandhar pradesh pahuncha. gandhar pahunchane ke bad hnenasang ne kashmir, pnjab, kapilavastu, banaras, gaya evn kushinagar ki yatra ki. kannauj ke raja harshavardhan ke nimntran par vah usake rajy men lagabhag ath varsh (635-643 ee.) raha. isake pashchath 643 ee. men usane svadesh jane ke lie prasthan kiya. vah kashagar, yarakand, khotan hota hua, 645 ee. men chin pahuncha. vah apane sath bharat se koee 150 buddh ke avasheshon ke kan, sone, chandi, evn sandal dvara bani buddh ki moortiyan aur 657 pustakon ki pandulipiyon ko le gaya tha.

bharat ka varnan

hven tsang ki bharat yatra ka vritant hamen chini grnth ‘si yoo ki‘, vatarj ki pustak ‘On Yuan Chwang's Travel In India ‘ evn hmuli ki pustak 'Life of lliven Tsang' men milata hai. hven tsang ke vivaran se tatkalin bharat ke samajik, rajanitik, arthik, dharmik evn prashasakiy paksh par prakash padata hai. hven tsang brahman jati ka ‘sarvadhik pavitr evn sammanit jati‘ ke roop men ullekh karata hai. kshatriyon ki kartavyaparayanata ki prashnsa karata hua use ‘raja ki jati‘ batata hai aur vaishyon ka vah vyapari ke roop men ullekh karata hai. hven tsang ke vivaran ke anusar us samay machhuaron, kalaee, jallad, bhngi jaisi jatiyan nagar sima ke bahar nivas karati thin. nagar men bhavanon, divaron ka nirman eeton evn tailon se kiya jata tha.

hnenasang ne tatkalin bharat ko har kshetr men samriddhishali bataya hai. is samay gay ka mans khane par poornatah pratibandh tha. hnenasang ne pataliputr ke patan evn uttar bhar ke navin nagar kannauj ke utthan par prakash dala hai. usake anusar kannauj men lagabhag 100 sngharam evn 200 hindoo mandir the. hnenasang ne us samay resham evn soot se nirmit 'kaushey' namak vastr ka bhi varnan kiya hai. isake atirikt usane kshaum, linan, kambal jaise vastr ka bhi varnan kiya hai. hnenasang ke anusar is lokh kheti ka kary karate the. hnenasang ke anusar is samay audyogik kshetr men vyavasayik shreniyon evn nigamon ki pakad mazaboot thi. shoodr log kheti ka kary karate the. hnenasang ke anusar is samay antarjatiy vivah, vidhava vivah evn parde ki pratha ka prachalan nahin tha jabaki sati pratha ka prachalan tha. shiksha par prakash dalate hue hnenasang ne bataya ki shiksha dharmik thi, lipi brahni evn bhasha snskrit thi jo viddhanon ki bhasha thi. is samay shiksha grahan karane ki ayu 9 varsh se 30 varsh ke bich mani jati thi. usaka ullekh antarrashtriy vishvavidyalay ke roop karata hai jise harsh ne 200 gramon ka anudan kiya tha.

bali ka prayas

hven tsang kannauj ki dharmasabha ka adhyaksh tha, tatha usane prayag ke chhathen 'mahomokshaparishad' men bhag liya tha. tatkalin bharat men brahman dharm (vaishnav, shaiv) bauddh dharm ke sath sath shakt sampraday ke prachalan ka bhi snket karata hai. devi durga ko shiv ki shakti manate hue bali ki pratha ka bhi prachalan tha. ek samay jaise hi hven tsang svayn durga ki bali ke lie samarpit kiya jane vala tha, bhishan toofan ane ke karan vah isase tran pa saka.

hven tsang ki pratima

isi kal men chauthi bauddh sammelan hua, kushan raja kanishk ki dekh rekh men. sanh 633 ee. men hven tsang ne kashmir se dakshin ki or chinabhukti jise vartaman men firozapur kahate hain, ko prasthan kiya. vahan bhikshu vinitaprabha ke sath ek varsh tak adhyayan kiya. sanh 634 ee. men poorv men jalndhar pahuncha. isase poorv usane kulloo ghati men hinayan ke math bhi bhraman kiye. phir vahan se dakshin men bairat, merath aur mathura ki yatra ki.

mathura men agaman

apani itani yatra ke bad hven tsang gnga nadi ke madhyam se nauka dvara mathura pahunche aur usake bad gnga ke poorvi ilaqe men bauddh dharm ki pavitr bhoomi men 633 ee. men pahunche. phir gnga nadi par karake dakshin men snkasy (kapitth) pahuncha, jahan kahate hain, ki gautam buddh svarg se avatarit hue the. yamuna ke tire chalate-chalate hven tsang mathura pahuncha. mathura men 2000 bhikshu mile aur hindoo bahul kshetr hone ke bad bhi donon hi bauddh shakhaen vahan thin. usane shrughn nadi tak yatra ki aur phir poorvavat matipur ke liye nadi par ki. yah sanh 635 ee. ki bat hai.

vahan se uttari bharat ke mahasamrat harshavardhan (606-647 ee.) ki rajadhani 'kanyakubj', vartaman kannauj pahuncha. yahan sanh 636 ee. men usane sau math aur 10,000 bhikshu dekhen (mahayan aur hinayan, donon hi). vah samrat ki bauddh dharm ki snrakshan aur palan se ati prabhavit hua. isane qarib 10 varsho tak bharat men bhraman kiya. usane 6 varsho tak nalanda vishvavidyalay men adhyayan kiya. usaki bharat yatra ka vrittant 'si-yoo-ki' namak grnth se jana jata hai jisane lagabhag 138 deshon ke yatra vivaran ka zikr milata hai. 'hooli' hven tsang ka mitr tha jisane hven tsang ki jivani likhi. is jivani men usane tatkalin bharat par bhi prakash dala. chini yatriyon men sarvadhik mahattv hven tsang ka hi hai. use ‘prins aauph pilagrims‘ arthath 'yatriyon ka rajakumar' kaha jata hain.

bharat men hven tsang ne buddh ke jivan se jude sabhi pavitr sthalon ka bhraman kiya aur upamahadvip ke poorv evn pashchim se lage ilaqo ki bhi yatra ki. unhonne apana adhikansh samay nalnda math men bitaya, jo bauddh shiksha ka pramukh kendr tha, jahan unhonne snskrit, bauddh darshan evn bharatiy chintan men dakshata hasil ki.

samman

jab hven tsang bharat men the, to ek vidvan ke roop men hven tsang ki khyati itani phaili ki uttar bharat ke shasak shaktishali raja harshavardhan ne bhi unase milana evn unhen sammanit karana chaha. is raja ke snrakshan ke karan, 643 ee. men hven tsang ki vapasi chin yatra kafi suvidhajanak rahi. unaki khyati mukhy roop se bauddh sootron ke anuvad ki vyapakata evn bhinnata tatha madhy eshiya aur bharat ki yatra ke dastavezon ke karan hai, jo vistrit evn satik ankadon ke karan itihasakaron evn puratattvavidom ke lie amooly hain.

rajadhani men vapasi

hven tsang, tang ki rajadhani chang-an men 16 sal ke bad 645 ee. men laute. rajadhani men hven tsang ka bhavy svagat hua aur kuchh dinon bad shahnshah ne unhen darabar men bulaya, jo videshi bhoomi ke unake vritant se itane romanchit hue ki unhonne is bauddh bhikshu ko mntri pad ka prastav diya. lekin hven tsang ne dharm ki seva ko prathamikata di, isalie unhonne sammanapoorvak shahi prastav ko asvikar kar diya.

bauddh dharm ka prachar

hven tsang ne apana shesh jivan bauddh dharmagrnthon ke anuvad men laga diya jo 657 grnth the aur 520 petiyon men bharat se lae ge the. is vishal khnd ke keval chhote se hisse (1330 adhyayon men qarib 73 grnth) ke hi anuvad men mahayan ke kuchh atyadhik mahattvapoorn grnth shamil hain.

yogachar men ruchi

hven tsang ki ruchi mukhyatah yogachar (vigyanavad) darshan par kendrit thi tatha vah aur unake shishy kvi-chi (632-682) ne chin men vi-shih (ekamatr chetana mat) ki sthapana ki. isaka siddhant hven tsang ke cheng-ve-shih lun (chetana matr siddhant ki sthapana par shodh nibndh) men pratipadit hai, jo mukhy yogachar lekhon ka anuvad evn kvi-chi ki vyakhya hai. is mat ki mukhy avadharana hai:-
poora vishv keval man ki pratichchhavi hai.
jab hven tsang evn kvi-chi jivit rahe, is mat ko kuchh pratishtha aur lokapriyata mili, lekin isaka jatil pradarshan, goodh shabdavali tatha man aur indriyon ka bal ki khal nikalane vala vishleshan, chini parnpara ke lie naya tha. isalie in donon hastiyon ki mrityu ke bad is mat ka teji se hras hua. lekin aisa hone se pahale japan ke ek bhikshu dosho, hven tsang se shiksha ke lie 653 men chin ae aur adhyayan poora karane ke bad japan lautane ke bad unhonne ‘matr udh-bhavana’ mat ki sthapana ki. satavin aur athavin sadi ke dauran yah mat, japani jise hoso kahate the, japan ke sabhi bauddh maton men sabase prabhavashali ban gaya.

vyapak vrittant

hven tsang ki pratima

anuvad ke alava hven tsang ne ta-tang si-yoo-chi ( mahanh tang rajavnsh ke pashchimi kshetr ka dastavez) bhi likha. yah un deshon ka vyapak vrittant hai, jahan se vah apani yatra ke dauran guzare the. is nirbhik evn samarpit bauddh bhikshu aur tirthayatri ke samman men tang samrat ne hven tsang ki mrityu ke bad tin din tak sabhi sabhaen radd kar din. hven tsang ke bare men do adhyayan hain:-

  • arthar veli ka d riyal tripitik prishth 11-130 (1952),
  • ek jivnt aur rochak shaili men likhi jivani tatha rene gruset dvara likhi apekshakrit vyapak jivani sar les tresez d buddha (1929; in d phutasteps aauf d buddha), jisamen tang itihas aur bauddh darshan ki prishthabhoomi men is chini tirthayatri ke jivan ki charcha ki gee hain.

harsh ke prashasan ki prashnsa

hnenasang ne dakshin ke kanchi evn chaluky rajy ki bhi yatra ki thi. pulakeshin dvitiy ki shakti ki usane prashnsa ki hai. harsh ke prashasan evn praja kalyan ki bhavana ka vah prashnsak tha. hnenasang ne aparadhi pravritti ke logon ki snkhya ke ulp hone ki bat kahi hai. shariri dand ka prachalan kam tha tatha samajik bahishkar evn arth dand ke roop men dand diya jata tha. hnenasang ke anusar raja varsh ke adhikansh samayon men nirikshan yatra par rahata tha aur yatra ke dauran vah asthayi nirman kary karava kar usamen nivas karata tha. harsh ka samoocha din tin bhagon men vibhajit tha-

  • pratham bhag (din ka) rajy ke karyo men
  • shesh do bhag (din ka) dharmarth karyon par vyatit hota tha.

hnenasang ne harsh ki sainy vyavastha par prakash dalate hue bataya ki usaki sena men qarib 50,000 paidal sainik, lagabhag ek lakh ghudasavar evn 60,000 hathiyon ki snkhya thi. sena ka mahattvapoorn bhag rath sena hoti thi.

mrityu

hven tsang ki mrityu 5 faravari, 664 ee. men huee thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aha! zindagi, aprail 2018, prishth snkhya- 68

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