वैष्णव सम्प्रदाय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(वैष्णव se punarnirdeshit)
vaishnav sampraday
vishnu pratima
vivaran 'vaishnav sampraday' hindoo dharm men many mukhy sampraday hai. is sampraday ke log bhagavan vishnu ko apana aradhy dev manate aur poojate hain.
any nam pancharatr mat, vaishnav dharm, bhagavat dharm
prarambh anuman hai ki lagabhag 600 ee.poo. jab brahman granthon ke hinsapradhan ygyon ki pratikriya men bauddh-jain sudhar-andolan ho rahe the, usase bhi pahale upasana pradhan vaishnav dharm vikasit ho raha tha, jo prarambh se vrishni vnshiy kshatriyon ki satvat namak jati men simit tha.
upasy dev vasudev
many grnth shrimadbhagavad gita
vishesh 'shatapath brahman'[1] ke anusar sootr ki panch raton men is dharm ki vyakhya ki gayi thi, is karan isaka nam 'pancharatr' pada. is dharm ke 'narayaniy', 'aikantik' aur 'satvat' nam bhi prachalit rahe hain.
any janakari bhagavat dharm bhi prarambh men kshatriyon dvara chalaya hua abrahman upasana-marg tha, parantu kalantar men sambhavat: avaidik aur nastik jain-bauddh maton ka prabaly dekhakar brahmanon ne use apana liya aur 'vaishnav' ya 'narayaniy dharm' ke roop men usaka vidhivat snghatan kiya.

vaishnav dharm / vaishnav sampraday / bhagavat dharm
vaishnav dharm ya 'vaishnav sampraday' ka prachin nam 'bhagavat dharm' ya 'pancharatr mat' hai. is sampraday ke pradhan upasy dev vasudev hain, jinhen chh: gunon gyan, shakti, bal, viry, aishvary aur tej se sampann hone ke karan bhagavan ya 'bhagavat' kaha gaya hai aur bhagavat ke upasak 'bhagavat' kahalate hain. is sampraday ki pancharatr sngya ke sambandh men anek mat vyakt kiye gaye hain. 'mahabharat'[2] ke anusar char vedon aur sankhyayog ke samavesh ke karan yah narayaniy mahapanishad pancharatr kahalata hai. 'narad pancharatr' ke anusar isamen brahm, mukti, bhog, yog aur snsar–panch vishayon ka 'ratr' arthat gyan hone ke karan yah pancharatr hai. 'eeshvarasnhita', 'padmatant', 'vishnusnhita' aur 'paramasnhita' ne bhi isaki bhinn-bhinn prakar se vyakhya ki hai. 'shatapath brahman'[3] ke anusar sootr ki panch raton men is dharm ki vyakhya ki gayi thi, is karan isaka nam pancharatr pada. is dharm ke 'narayaniy', aikantik' aur 'satvat' nam bhi prachalit rahe hain.

prarambh

yah anuman hai ki lagabhag 600 ee.poo. jis samay brahman granthon ke hinsapradhan ygyon ki pratikriya men bauddh-jain sudhar-andolan ho rahe the, usase bhi pahale se apekshakrit shant, kintu sthir dhng se ek upasana pradhan sampraday vikasit ho raha tha, jo prarambh se vrishni-vnshiy kshatriyon ki satvat namak jati men simit tha. vaidik parampara ka isane sidha virodh nahin kiya, pratyut apane ahinsapradhan dharm ko ved-vihit hi bataya. is karan ki usaki pravritti bauddh aur jain sudhar-andolanon ki bhanti khandanatmak aur prabal upacharatmak nahin thi, is sampraday ki vaisi dhoom nahin machi. ee.poo. chauthi shati men panini ki ashtadhyayi[4] ke sootr se vasudev ke upasak ka praman milata hai. ee.poo. tisari-chauthi shati se pahali shati tak vasudevopasana ke anek praman prachin sahity aur puratattv men mile hain.

prachalan

jainon ke salak purushon men vasudev aur baladev bhi hain tatha arishtanemi aur vasudev ke sambandh ka bhi ullekh prachin jain sahity men milata hai. bauddhajatakon (ghat aur maha umagg) men vasudev ki katha kahi gayi hai. bauddh sahity ke 'chullaniddes' me ajivak, nignth, jatil baladev adi shravakon ke sath vasudev ko poojane vale vasudevakon ka bhi ullekh hua hai, jisase soochit hota hai ki yah sampraday tisari-chauthi shati ee.poo. men vidyaman tha. isi kal men chandragupt maury ki rajasabha ke yoonani rajadoot megasthanij ne 'saurasenaee' (shauraseni) jati men jo 'joberij' (yamuna) nadi ke kinare basati thi aur 'methora' (mathura) aur klisobora (krishnapur) jisake pradhan nagar the, heraklij (krishn) ke vishesh roop se pooje jane ka ullekh kiya hai. 200 ee. poo. ke vesanagar (bhilasa) ke ek stambh lekh ke anusar baiktriya ke rajadoot heliyadoras ne devadhidev vasudev ki pratishtha men garoodastambh ka nirman karaya tha. vah apane ko bhagavat kahata tha. ee.poo. pahali shati ke naneghat ke guhabhilekh men any devataon ke sath snkarshan aur vasudev ka bhi namollekh hai. isi samay ka ek aur shilalekh chittaudagadh ke samip ghosundi men mila hai, jisamen kanvavnshi raja sarvatat dvara ashvamedh ygy ke avasar par bhagavan snkarshan aur vasudev ke mandir ke lie 'poojashila-prakar' banavaye jane ka ullekh hai. mathura ke ek mahakshatrap shodas (ee.poo. 80-57) ke samay ke ek shilalekh ke anusar vasu namak ek vyakti ne mahasthan (janmasthan mathura) men bhagavan vasudev ka mandir banavaya tha. in pramanon se soochit hota hai ki bhagavat dharm ka sabase pahala nam vasudev dharm ya vasudevopasana hai. bhagavat nam bhi ee.poo. doosari-tisari shati men prachalit ho gaya tha. prarambh men yah upasana-marg shoorasen (adhunik brajapradesh) men basane vali satvat jati men simit tha, parantu isaka prachar kadachit satvaton ke sthanantaran ke phalasvaroop ee.poo. doosari-tisari shatabdiyon men hi pashchim ki or bhi ho gaya tha tatha kuchh videshi (yoonani) log bhi ise manane lage the.

dakshin ke prachin tamil sahity men vasudev, snkarshan tatha krishn ke anek sandarbh milate hain. in sandarbhon ke adhar par anuman kiya gaya hai ki uparyukt satvat log, jo vaidik puroovnshak ek jati vishesh ke the, magadh ke raja jarasndh dvara akranta hone ke karan kurupanchal ke shoorasen pradesh se pashchimi simant pradesh ki or chale gaye. marg men inamen se kuchh log palav aur usake dakshin ki or bas gaye aur vahin se dakshin desh ke sampoorn uttari kshetr tatha konkan men phail gaye. inhin men se kuchh aur dakshin ki or chale gaye. dakshin ke adviya, andar aur idaiyar jatiyon ke log pashupalak ahir ya abhiron ke samakaksh hain. satvat jati bhi pashupalak kshatriyon ki jati thi. 'aitarey brahman' men dakshin ke satvaton dvara indr ke abhishek ka ullekh milata hai. yah maloom hota hai ki satvaton ka dakshinagaman usase pahale ho chuka tha. ve apane sath apani dharmik paramparaen bhi avashy lete gaye honge.

sahityik ullekh

bhagavat dharm bhi prarambh men kshatriyon dvara chalaya hua ek abrahman upasana-marg tha parantu kalantar men sambhavat: avaidik aur nastik jain-bauddh maton ka prabaly dekhakar brahmanon ne use apana liya aur vaishnav ya narayaniy dharm ke roop men usaka vidhivat snghatan kiya. 'mahabharat' shantiparv[5] ke narayaniy upakhyan men is navin dharm ko vaishnav ygy kaha gaya hai aur ygy pradhan vaidik karmakand ke pravritti-marg ke viparit ise nivritti-marg bataya gaya hai. is vaishnav ygy men pashuvadh ka spasht roop men nishedh tatha tap, saty, ahinsa aur indriyanigrah ka vidhan kiya gaya tha. 'mahabharat' men hi vasudev ko vaidik devata vishnu se abhinn bataya gaya tatha sath hi krishn ko bhi dvitiy vasudev ke roop men unhin ka avatar prasiddh kiya gaya. rigved men vishnu-sambandhi jo thodi-si richaen milati hain, unamen unaka atyant bhavy varnan hua hai. ve trivikram hain tin pad-prakshepon men samagr snsar ko nap lete hain[6] isilie ve uroogay (vistirn gativale) aur urookram (vistirnapad-prakshepavale) kahe gaye hain. unaka tisara pad-kram sabase ooncha hai. unake paramapad men madhu ka uts hai. vishnu prithvi par lokon ke nirmata hain, oordhvalok men akash ko sthir karane vale hain tatha tin dagon se sarvasv ko napane vale hain. rigved men vishnu ko ajey gop vishnurgopa adabhy:[7] bhi kaha gaya hai. unake paramapad men bhoorishrringa chnchal gayon ka nivas hai.[8] unaka vah sarvochch lok golok kahalata hai. ygy-pradhan brahman-kal men vishnu ka mahattv badhata gaya. unhen svayn 'ygy' ki sngya di gayi. unaki apeksha vaidik devata agni ko hin bataya gaya hai. 'aitarey brahman' men ullekh hai, ki vishnu ne asuron se chhinakar samast prithvi indr ko de di thi. aitarey brahman[9] aur 'shatapath brahman'[10] men bhi isi prakar ka ek ullekh hai. is prakar sarvadhik shaktishali vaidik devata indr ki apeksha vishnu ki mahatta brahman kal se hi badhane lagi thi. brahman granthon se vishnu ke avataron- vaman, varah, matsy aur koorm sambandhi praman bhi ekatr kiye gaye hain. jo ho, pashu-ygy-virodhi navin dharm ke upasy banane ke lie vaidik devataon men vishnu hi sabase adhik upayukt the aur isilie 'mahabharat' men unhen vasudev se abhinn bataya gaya tatha vasudevopasakon ke satvat dharm ko vaishnav dharm ke nam se prasiddh kiya gaya.

narayan vasudev

krishn mool vasudev ya vasudev se bhinn hain, aisa anek pramanon se siddh kiya gaya hai. krishn sambandhi vaidik ullekhon- angiras rishi, krishn aur krishsur ke ullekhon men unake vasudev hone ka koee snket nahin hai.

  1. chhandogy upanishad- terahaven khand se unnisaven khand tak 'chhandogy upanishad' ke devaki putr krishn ghor angiras ke shishy hain aur ve guru se aisa gyan upalabdh karate hain, jisase phir kuchh bhi janane ko shesh nahin rahata tatha ygy ki ek aisi saral riti sikhate hain, jisaki dakshina tap, dan, arjav, ahinsa aur saty hai[11] isase spasht vidit hota hai angiras gotr ka ghor namak rishi vaidik angiras ka uttaradhikari tha. angirason men sabase pramukh brihaspati kahe gaye hain, jinhen kisi samay pancharatr mat ka gyan saunpa gaya tha ghor angiras ne devaki putr krishn ko jo uparyukt ygy ki vidhi batayi thi, vah bhi bhagavat ygy ya vaishnav ygy ki hi thi, at: devaki-putr krishn ya vasudev (krishn) bhagavat dharm ke adi pravartak nahin the. yah bat svayn gita[12] se pramanit hoti hai ki krishn se bhinn koee aur vasudev pahale ho chuka tha. 'mahabharat' shantiparv men varnit uparyukt vaishnav ygy ke upasy ka asali nam narayan hai, jinhen vishnu se abhinn kahakar bataya gaya hai ki yahi narayan vasudev hain aur yahi duratma kns ka nash karane ke lie dvapar aur kali yug ki sandhi men mathura men janm lenge. vishnu ne koorm, matsy, varah, nrisinh, vaman, parashuram, ram, krishn ka avatar liya aur kalayug men kalki avatar lenge.[13]

vibhinn kal

anek pramanon se yah spasht vidit hota hai ki mahabharat ke samay tak adhyatmatattv ke devata narayan, aitihasik poojy purush vasudev aur vaidik devata uroogay vishnu ekakar hokar bharat-yuddh ke krishn men samanvit hone lage the aur nana prakar se yah udyog hone laga tha ki krishn hi ekamatr dvitiy vasudev, narayan, hari, bhagavat aur vishnu ke avatar hain. harivnsh tatha anek puranon men krishn ke ekamatr dvitiy vasudev hone ke, shrrigal vasudev aur pondr, vasudev sambandhi akhyan milate hain. mahabharat aur puranon men krishn ko sattvatarshabh kaha gaya hai, jisase krishn ke bhi vrishnivnshiy sattvat hone ki soochana milati hai. is prakar sattvaton ke kul-dharm ko mahabharat aur puranon ki sahayata se ek vyapak lokadharm banane ka satat udyog kiya gaya. kadachit bhagavat dharm ki yah parinati chauthi-panchavin shatabdi men gupt vnsh ke rajyakal men huee. gupt samrat apane ko param bhagavat ghoshit karane men garv ka anubhav karate the. unhonne pauranik vaishnav dharm ko paryapt protsahan diya. phir bhi guptavnsh ki udar dharmik niti ke phalasvaroop shaiv aur bauddh dharm bhi yathesht unnati kar rahe the. vaidik brahman dharm ka smart roop, jisamen vishnu, shiv, durga, soory aur ganesh- in panch devataon ki pooja vihit thi, vyapak prachar pa raha tha. vaishnav dharm ke prachar se hi ahinsa aur avataravad ke siddhant ka vyapak roop men prachalan ho gaya tha. is prakar lagabhag 600 ee. poo. se 500 ee. tak bhagavat dharm ke pratham utthanakal men hi usake prachar ke prachur sadhan pauranik sahity ke roop men taiyar ho gaye the. ramayan aur mahabharat ki bhi vaishnav parinati ho chuki thi.

bhakti

chhathi shatabdi se chaudahavin shatabdi ki lagabhag samapti tak uttar bharat men bhagavat dharm unnati nahin kar saka. smart vaidik dharm aur bauddh dharm men lokaruchi ko akrisht karane ki hod si ho rahi thi. isi pratispardha men bauddh dharm ne ek or vaishnav dharm ki anek baten apana lin tatha doosari or lok-vishvason aur lok-prathaon ko apanata hua vah mahayan, mantrayan, vajrayan, sahajayan adi roopon men parinat hota hua dhire-dhire nam shesh ho gaya. pauranik dharm aur shnkarachary ke udyog bhi bauddh-dharm ko nasht karane men dhire-dhire saphal hone lage. parantu is kal men dakshin bharat men bhagavat dharm ka utkarsh ho raha tha. dakshin ke alavar bhakton ki parampara navin shatabdi tak avichchhinn chalati rahi. unaki bhakti men prapatti ki bhavana aur bhagavan ke anugrah ka sabase adhik mahattv hai. alavaron ki snkhya barah mani jati hai. inake bhavapoorn git tamil ke 'prabandham' men sngrahit hain, jinhen tamil ved ki sngya di jati hai. in alavar bhakton men goda ya andal nam ki ek prasiddh stri bhakt bhi huee hai. in prapattibhav pradhan bhakton ne vishnu, vasudev ya narayan tatha unake avatar ram aur krishn ke prati ananyabhav ka prem prakat kiya hai tatha krishn aur gopiyon ki anand-kridaon ka tanmayatapoorvak varnan karate hue unake prati dasy, vatsaly aur madhury bhav ki bhakti prakat ki hai.

granth

alavaron ki bhaktibhavapoorn giti-rachanaon men keval bhakti ke sadhan paksh ka udghatan milata hai. navin-dasavin shati men tamil pradesh men hi alavaron ke bhakti andolan ko vaidik aur shastriy roop dene vale acharyon ka uday hua. shnkar mayavad-advaitavad ke sath bhakti ka samnjasy kaise ho, yah ek vikat samasya thi. at: advait ke sthan par vishishtadvait ka pratipadan kiya gaya aur mayavad ka prabal tarkon ke adhar par khandan kiya gaya. sabase pahale achary rnganath muni (824-924 ee.) hue, jo nath muni ke nam se prasiddh hain. luptapray tamil ved[14] ka uddhar karake unhonne shrirngam ke prasiddh mandir men usake gayan ki vyavastha ki. 'yogarahasy' aur 'nyay-tattv' namak inake do snskrit granth bhi kahe jate hain, jinamen vishishtadvait ka pratipadan hua hai. nath muni ke pautr yamunachary (alabndar) hue, jinhonne 'gitarth-sngrah, 'siddhitray', 'mahapurush-nirnay' aur 'agam pramany' adi anek granthon ki rachana karake vishishtadvait siddhant ka samarthan, mayavad ka khandan, vishnu ki shreshthata ka pratipadan tatha pancharatr-siddhant ki vaidik pramanikata ki sthapana ki. parantu vaishnav acharyo men sabase adhik prasiddh shri ramanujachary (1016-1137) hue. unhonne brahmasootr par 'shribhashy' likha. isake atirikt 'vedarthasngrah', 'vedantasar', 'vedantadip', 'gadyatray' aur 'gitabhashy' ki rachana karake inhonne shnkar advait', aur bhedabhed vadi bhaskar mat ka khandan apane mayavirahit vishishtadvait tatha us par adharit prapattipoorn bhaktidharm ka pratipadan kiya. ramanuj dvara sthapit bhakti-dharm shrivaishnav kaha jata hai, kyonki vishvas kiya jata hai ki isaka pravartan svayn shri lakshminarayan ke dvara hua hai. lakshminarayan isake upasy dev hain.

ramanuj ki mrityu ke sau varsh ke bhitar dakshin men ek any achary madhv hue, jinake nam par madhv mat prasiddh hua. madhvachary ka adhyatmik siddhant bhedavad ya dvaitavad hai. bhakti ke prachar ke lie unhonne brahmasampraday ki sthapana ki, kyonki usake mool pravartak svayn brahm mane jate hain. madhvachary ne spasht roop men mayavad-advaitavad ka khandan karake bhakti ka path prashast kiya. dakshin bharat men is bhakti-sampraday ne, vishesh roop se karnatak aur dakshini maharashtr men krishnabhakti ka vyapak prachar kiya. bngal ka gaudiy vaishnav sampraday bhi madhv mat ki ek shakha kaha jata hai. madhvachary ka ek nam anandatirth bhi tha. inake likhe tis granth kahe jate hain, jinamen 'gitabhashy', 'brahmasootrabhashy', 'anubhashy', 'anupakhyan' , 'dashopanishadabhashy' , 'gitatatparyanirnay' , 'bhagavatatatpary-nirnay', 'mahabharatatatpary-nirnay' mukhy hai.

dakshin ke achary

dakshin ke hi ek aur achary nimbark ya nimbadity prasiddh hain. ramagopal bhandarakar ke anusar inaka samay barahavin shatabdi (mrityu 1162 ee.) hai. kuchh logon ka vichar hai ki ye isase bhi poorv hue the aur inaka bhakti-sampraday sabase prachin hai. jati ke ye tailng brahman aur belari zile ke nivasi bataye jate hain. parantu dakshin men nimbark ki koee parampara nahin milati. inake sampraday ka pradhan kendr vrindavan hi hai tatha govardhan ke samip nimb ganv inaka sthan kaha jata hai. inaka asali nam niyamand tha, nimbadity ya nimbark nam ek chamatkar ke phalasvaroop mila tha. kahate hain, svayn devarshi narad ne inhen gopalamantr ki diksha dekar krishnopasana ka upadesh diya tha. apane 'vedantaparijatasaurabh' men inhonne bina kisi ka khandan kiye brahmasootr ki snkshipt sritti ke roop men apane dvaitadvait siddhant ka pratipadan kiya hai. 'dashashloki' 'shrikrishnastavaraj', 'mantrarahasyashodashi' , 'prapannakalpaballi' adi inaki kuchh aur chhoti-chhoti rachanaen hain. bhakti ke prachar ke lie apane dvaitadvaitavad par adharit 'sanakadi-sampraday' inhonne sthapit kiya. ise hns-sampraday, sanatan-sampraday aur devarshi-sampraday bhi kahate hain.


dakshin ke uparyukt tin acharyon ke atirikt vishnusvami nam ke ek aur achary prasiddh hain. parantu unake samay, sthan tatha dharmik vishvas ke sambandh men itana adhik matabhed hai tatha use door karane ki samagri itani svalp hai ki unake sambandh men kuchh bhi nishchit roop se kah sakana sambhav nahin jan padata. kaha jata hai ki vishnusvami dravid desh ke kisi raja ke mantri ke putr the. balyakal se hi unake hriday men dharmik snskar dridh ho gaye the. svayn vnshidhari kishor shyam ne unhen darshan dekar bataya tha ki nirakar roop ke atirikt mera sakar roop bhi hota hai. mujhe prapt karane ka sugam upay sakar ki bhakti hi hai. phalat: vishnusvami ne balakrishn ki moorti ki pratishtha karayi aur bhakti ka upadesh dena prarambh kiya. bhaktamal 'bhaktamal[15] ke ullekh ke adhar par vishnu svami ka samay 13 vin shati anuman kiya hai, parntu yah nirnay bahut many nahin kaha ja sakata. vishnusvami nam ke kam-se-kam tin bhakton ka pata chala hai. inamen se kaun vishnusvami shudvadvait mat ke pratipadak tatha bhakti ke 'rudrasampraday' ke snsthapak the, yah kahana sambhav nahin hai. vastusthiti yah jan padati hai ki shuddhadvait ki prachinata pramanit karane ke lie hi usaka sambandh vishnusvami se joda jata hai.

shastriy roop

dasavin se terahavin-chaudahavin shati tak is prakar bhakti ka andolan dakshin men shastriy roop dharan karake tatha adhyatmik paksh men dridh hokar pun: uttar ki or aya aur chaudahavin shatabdi se unnisavin shatabdi tak prabal veg ke sath desh ke vistrit bhoobhag men maharashtr, gujarat, pnjab, madhyadesh, magadh, utkal, asam aur vngadesh men phailakar vyapak lokadharm ban gaya. uttar bharat men isaka navin roop men prachar karane vale sabase pratham aur sabase adhik shaktishali svami ramanand hue, jinhonne adhyatmik drishti se ramanuj ke vishishtadvait ko hi manate hue bhakti ka prithakh sampraday sthapit kiya, jisamen dakshinaty shrivaishnavon ki tarah sparshasparsh ke niyam kathor nahin the. lakshminarayan ke sthan par unhonne sitaram ko upasy dev banaya. ramanandi vaishnav vairagi vaishnav kahe jate hain. ramanand ki do prakar ki shishy-paramparaen aur thin. ek men nimn jatiyon ke log the aur doosari men savarn log. madhyayug men bhakti ka prachar karane vale bhakt-kaviyon men ek ke pratinidhi kabiradas aur doosari ke tulasidas hue.


chaudahavin-pandahavin shati men kabir, raidas adi nirgunopasak santon ki bhakti adhik prabal rahi, parantu age ki shatabdiyon men vallabhachary (1478-1530) ke shuddhadvait par adharit pushtimarg, nimbachary dvara pratipadit nimbark snpraday aur uttar bharat men unake shishy shrinivasachary, audumbarachary, gauramukhachary aur lakshman bhatt dvara pracharit sanakadi sampraday, madhvachary ke brahm ya madhv sampraday, gosaee hitaharivnsh (1503) ke radhavallabh sampraday, svami haridas ke haridasi ya sakhi sampraday tatha chaitany mahaprabhu ke gaudiy vaishnav sampraday ne krishnabhakti-andolanon ke roop men bhagavat dharm ko samay ke avashyakatanusar navin roop diya aur samagr lok-jivan ko amool prabhavit karake use nayi asha, umng aur kriyatmak shakti se anupranit kiya. doosari or gosvami tulasidas ne ramabhakti ke roop men prem bhakti aur maryada bhakti ka apoorv samanvay karake bhakti-dharm ko ek navin samajik shakti pradan ki. madhyayug men bhakti ka prachar karane vale sabhi sampradayon par unake anuyayi bhakt kaviyon ne 'shrimadbhagavat' hi madhyayugin bhagavat dharm ka akshay srot hai. vallabh-sampraday men to use prasthanatrayi ke sath sammilit karake 'prasthanachatushtay' nam se bhakti-dharm ka akar mana gaya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shatapath brahman 13.6.1
  2. mahabharat, shantiparv (339:11-12
  3. shatapath brahman (13.6.1
  4. panini ashtadhyayi- vasudevarjunabhyan bunri (4.3.98
  5. mahabharat shantiparv
  6. rigved (1.1.54.2
  7. rigved (1 / 22/ 18
  8. rigved(1 / 154 / 6
  9. aitarey brahman (8 / 3 /15
  10. shatapath brahman (1 / 9,3 / 9)
  11. chhandogy upanishad (3/ 17 / 4/ 6
  12. gita 'vrishninan vasudevonasmi' (10/ 37
  13. mahabharat shanti parv, adhyay
  14. bhaktipoorn giti-kavy
  15. nabhadas, chhappay (48)

(sahayak granth)-

  1. vaishnavijm, shaivijm adi: ar. ji. bhandarakar;
  2. introukshan tu param snhita (gayakavad snskrit sirij): divan bahadur es0 krishnasvami aiyngar;
  3. bhagavat dharm : (baladev upadhyay)-br. v.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

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