गोपी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shrikrishn gopiyon ke sath

gopi shabd ka prayog prachin sahity men pashupalak jati ki stri ke arth men hua hai. is jati ke kuladevata 'gopal krishn' the. bhagavat ki prerana lekar puranon men gopi-krishn ke premakhyan ko adhyatmik roop diya gaya hai. isase pahale mahabharat men yah adhyatmik roop nahin milata. isake bad ki rachanaon- harivnshapuran tatha any puranon men gop-gopiyon ko devata bataya gaya hai, jo bhagavan shrikrishn ke braj men janm lene par prithvi par avatarit hue the. dhire-dhire krishn bhakt snpradayon, visheshat: gaudiy vaishnav chaitany snpraday men, gopi ka chitran krishn ki shakti tatha unaki lila men sahayogi ke roop men hone laga.

kavy men sthan

krishn-bhakt kaviyon ne apane kavy men gopi-krishn ki rasalila ko pramukh sthan diya hai. sooradas ke radha aur krishn prakriti aur purush ke pratik hain aur gopiyan radha ki abhinn sakhiyan hain. radha krishn ke sabase nikat darshaee gee hain, kintu any gopiyan usase eershya nahin karatin. ve svayn ko krishn se abhinn manati hain.

rigved men vishnu ke lie prayukt 'gop', 'gopati' aur 'gopa' shabd gop-gopi-parampara ke prachinatam likhit praman kahe ja sakate hain. in urookram tripad-kshepi vishnu ke tritiy pad-kshep paramapad men madhu ke uts aur bhoorishrringa-anek singonvali guen hain.[1]kadachit in guon ke nate hi vishnu ko gop kaha gaya hai. is alnkarik varnan men anek vidvanon, yatha mekadanel, bloomaphild ne vishnu ko soory mana hai, jo poorv disha se uthakar antariksh ko napate hue tisare pad-kshep men akash men phail jata hai. kuchh logon ne grah-nakshatron ko hi gopi kaha hai, jo soory mandal ke charon or ghoomate hain.

parantu gopi shabd ki pratikatmak vyakhya kuchh bhi huee ho, isaka sadharan arth hai, balki anekanek dharmik vyakhyaon ke bavajood kavy aur sadharan vyavahar donon men nirantar samajha jata raha hai. pashupalak abhiron ya ahiron ki jati parampara se krida-vinodapriy anandi jati rahi hai. isi jati ke kuladev gopal krishn the, jo prem ke devata the, atyant sundar, lalit, madhur-gopiyon ke premaradhy. aisa jan padata hai ki is jati men prachalit krishn aur gopi sambandhi kathaen aur git chhathi shatabdi eesavi tak sampoorn desh men prachalit hone lage the. dhire-dhire unhen puranon men sammilit karake dharmik uddeshyaparak roop diya jane laga.

katha sahity men varnan

dakshin bhagavat dharm alvar bhakti ke giton men gopi-krishn-lila ke anek manohar varnan milate hain. kavy men sabase pahale 'gaha sattasee'[2]men gopi aur unamen vishisht namavali radha tatha krishn ke milan-virah sambandhi prem-prasng sarvatha laukik sandarbh varnit milate hain. aisa jan padata hai ki gopi-krishn ki katha ke anekanek prasng lok-kathaon aur lok-giton ke roop men desh bhar men prachalit rahe honge. in kathaon aur giton ke bhav tatha prasng sahity men bhi yada-kada abhivyakti pate rahe honge, jisake bahut thode se praman shesh rah gaye hain. kadachit sahity ke is ansh ko shisht janon men apekshakrit kam mahattv mila aur isi upeksha ke karan yah nashtapray ho gaya. jo bhi ho, snskrit men 'git govind' (barahavin shati) men usaka vah roop milata hai, jo age chalakar bhasha-kavy men vikasit hua. 'git govind' aur vidyapati ki 'padavali' se is bat ka anuman lagaya ja sakata hai ki gopi-krishn aur radha-krishn ki katha ka lok-sahity us samay bhi bhav-lality ki drishti se kaisa sampann aur manohar raha hoga.

'jamuna'(gopiyon ke sath krishn), dvara- raja ravi varma

ved-puran ullekh

madhyayug men krishn-bhakti-sampradayon ne puranon, mukhy roop men 'shrimadbhagavat' ka adhar lekar gopi-krishn ke premakhyan ko dharmik sandarbh men adhyatmik roop de diya aur gopi, gopi-bhav tatha radha-bhav ki atyant gambhir aur rahasyapoorn vyakhyaen hone lagin. nishchay hi in vyakhyaon ke mooladhar puran hi hain, parantu unake vivaran aur vistar kahin-kahin svatantr roop men kalpit kiye gaye jan padate hain. unaka prayojan pratikatmak hai.

  • 'mahabharat' men gopiyon ke sambandh men koee adhyatmik vyakhya nahin milati.
  • harivnshapuran men, jise mahabharat ka 'khil' kaha jata hai, krishnavatar ka hetu batate hue kaha gaya hai ki "vasudev pahale kashyap the aur kuber ki gay haran karane ke aparadh men shapit hokar unhonne gauon ke bich sthit goparoop men janm liya tha. kashyap ki stri aditi aur surabhi, devaki aur rohini thin. inhin ke yahan krishn ne devataon ko braj men janm lene ki agya dekar, svayn janm lene ki ichchha ki thi. saikado-sahastron devata panchal desh ke kuruvnsh aur vrishnivnsh men utpann hue.[3]harivnsh men spashtat: kaha nahin gaya hai, parantu yah dhvanit hota hai ki gop-gopiyan bhi dev-deviyan hi the.
  • harivnsh ke bad vaishnav puranon men gop-gopiyon ka daivi utpatti-vishayak nyoonadhik ullekh barabar paya jata hai.
  • shrimadbhagavat men bhi gopiyon ko devataon ki striyan kaha gaya hai, jo vasudev ke bhavan men janm lene vale sakshat bhagavan vishnu ka priy karane ke lie prithvi par avatarit huee thin.[4] parantu 'harivnshapuran', 'vishnupuran' aur 'bhagavatapuran' ki gopiyan phir bhi laukik roop men hi chitrit ki gayi hain, unake vishay men koee rahasy-snket nahin hai.
  • 'padmapuran' aur 'brahmavaivarttapuran' puranon men golok ke nity vrindavan ki vishad kalpana milati hai, jisamen paramanandaroop parabrahm shrikrishn radha tatha gopiyon ke sath nity kridarat rahate hain.
  • 'brahmavaitart'[5]men varnan hai ki nand braj men avatirn hone ke poorv shrikrishn ne radha tatha golok ke sab gop aur gopiyon ko braj men janm lene ki agya di.[6]sath hi devi-devataon ne bhi braj men janm lene ke lie gop-gopi ka roop dharan kiya tha.[7]
  • 'padmapuran' ke anusar dandakaranyavasi krishn-bhakt muniyon ne bhi saundary-madhury ka asvadan karane ke hetu gopiyon ka janm paya tha. yahin ek doosare sthal par tantrik prabhav ke karan vnshirav ko anahat nad, kalindi ko sushumna tatha gopiyon ko yogini kaha hai.[8]ek tisare sthal par inhen 'shrutiroopini' bhi kaha gaya hai.[9]
  • madhyayug ke krishn-bhakt-sampradayon ne hi vastut: gopiyon ki utpatti sambandhi rahasyatmak kalpanaen ki hain aur kuchh alochakon ne yahan tak anuman kiya hai ki 'padm' aur 'brahmavaivartt' puranon ke radha aur gopi sambandhi anek vivaran usi ke prabhav hain. jo ho, gopiyon ka utpatti sambandhi ullekh atyant rochak aur vicharaniy hai.
  • nimbark ke sanakadi ya hns-sampraday men krishn-brahm ki achinty shakti ko dvividh bataya gaya hai- aishvary aur madhury.
  • rama, lakshmi ya 'bhoo' namaki unaki aishvary-shakti hai aur
  • gopi aur radha madhury ya prem-shakti
'dashashloki' men ullekh

is prakar radha tatha any gopiyan krishn ki ahladini shakti hain. nimbarkarachit 'dashashloki' men kaha gaya hai-

"ange tu vame vrishabhanujan muda virajamanamanuroop saubhagamh.
sakhisahastrai: parisevitan sada smarem devin sakaleshtakamadamh॥"

arthath "anuroop saubhagaroop se krishn ke vamang men anandapoorvak virajaman, samast manokamanaon ko poorn karane vali brishabhanuji ko namaskar karata hoon, jo sahastron sakhiyon dvara parisevit hain."

gopi sambandhi sabase adhik vistar gaudiy vaishnav (chaitany) sampraday aur pushtimarg((vallabh-sampraday) men milate hain. gaudiy vaishnav mat ke anusar gopiyan bhagavanh shrikrishn ki ahladini shakti hain. ve aprakat tatha prakat donon lilaon men unake nity parikar ke yap men nirantar unake sath rahati hain. shrikrishn ki tarah gop-gopiyon ki prakat aur aprakat, donon sharir hote hain. vrindavan ki prakat lila men gopiyan bhagavan ki svaroop-shakti-pradurbhav-roopa hain. bhagavan ki ahladini guhyavidya ke rahasy ka pravartan unhin ke dvara hota hai. ve nityasiddh hain. roopagosvami prabhriti chaitany-mat ke vivechakon ne gopiyon ka vargikaran karake krishn ki braj vrindavan ki premalila men unake vibhinn sthanon ka nirdesh kiya hai.
'krishnavallabha' ka ullekh

'ujjval nilamani' ke 'krishnavallabha' adhyay ke anusar krishnavallabhaon ko pahale 'svakiya' aur 'parakiya', in do bhagon men banta gaya hai.

  1. svakiya - rukmini, satyabhama, jambavati adi krishn ki vivahita patniyan svakiya hain.
  2. parakiya - shrikrishn ki preyasi gopiyan parakiya hain.

parantu gopiyon ka parakiyatv laukik drishtimatr se hai. vastav men to ve sabhi svakiya hain, kyonki unhonne pran, man aur sharir sabhi kuchh krishnarpan kar rakha hai. phir bhi prakat lila men in gopiyon ka parakiyatv hi svikar kiya gaya hai. parakiya gopiyan-kanya aur parodha do prakar ki hain. kanya avivahit kumariyan hain, jo krishn ko hi apana pati manati hain. prem-bhakti men shreshthata parodhaon ki hi hai.

parodha gopiyan

rasalila ka drishy

parodha gopiyan pun: tin prakar ki hain-

  1. nityapriya
  2. sadhan-para
  3. devi

nityapriya

jo gopiyan nityakal ke lie nity vrindavan men shrikrishn ke lila-parikar ki ang hain, ve nityapriya hain. ye vastut: ve bhakt jiv hain, jinhonne prem-bhakti ke dvara bhagavath-svaroop men pravesh pa liya hai aur jo nityasiddh gopi-deh se unaki lila ke abhinn ang ban gaye hain. nityapriya gopiyon ko prachina bhi kaha gaya hai, kyonki ye ve jiv hain, jo bahut lambi sadhana ke phalasvaroop gopi-deh pate hain. inaka gopi-bhav bhakton ka sadhy nahin hai. nityapriya gopiyon men ath pradhan gopiyan yootheshvari hoti hai. pratyek yooth men yootheshvari gopi ke bhavaki asnkhy gopiyan hoti hain. radha aur chandravali sarvapradhan yootheshvari gopiyan hain. inamen bhi radha sarvashreshth-mahabhav-svaroopa hain. unaka sadhy sadhana-para gopiyon ka roop hai.

sadhan-para

ye sadhana-para gopiyan, 'yauthiki' aur 'ayauthiki' do prakar ki hain.

  1. yauthiki - ye apane gan ke sath prem-sadhana men snlagn rahati hain. yauthiki pun: do prakar ki hoti hain- muni aur upanishad. pauranik pramanon ke anusar anek munigan jo krishn ke madhuryaroop ka avvad lene ke lie gopi-bhavaki akanksha karate hain, gopiyon ka janam pakar krishn ki brajalila men sammilit hone ka saubhagy labh karate hain. ye hi muni-yoothaki gopiyan hain. upanishad-yooth ki gopiyan poorvajanm ke upanishadagan hain, jinhonne tapasya karake braj men gopi roop paya hai.
  2. ayauthiki - gopiyon ka ye roop un kripa prapt jivon ko milata hai, jo gopi-bhav se bhagavan krishn ke prem men rat rahate hain aur anek yoniyon men janm lene ke bad gopiroop pate hain. ye ayauthiki gopiyan navina bhi kahalati hain aur inhen bhakti ke phalasvaroop prachina nityapriya gopiyon ke sath saloky prapti hoti hai.

devi

devi un gopiyon ka nam hai, jo nityapriyaon ke ashn se shrikrishn ke santosh ke lie us samay devi ke roop men janm leti hain, jab svayn shrikrishn devayoni men anshavatar dharan karate hain. uparyukt kanya gopiyan ye hi deviyan hain jo nityapriyaon ki param priy sakhiyon ka pad pati hain.

radha ki sakhiyan

roopagosvami ke anusar nityapriya sushthukantasvaroopa, dhritashodash-shrriganra aur dvadvasha bharanashrita hain. unake anant gun hain. radha ke yooth ki gopiyan bhi sarvagunasampann hain. radha ki ye ashtasakhiyan panch prakar ki hoti hain-

radha-krishn ke sath ashtasakhiyan
  1. sakhi - kusumika, vidya adi
  2. nity-sakhi - kastoorika, manimnjarika adi
  3. pran-sakhi - shashimukhi, vasanti adi
  4. priy-sakhi - kuragankshi, madanalasa, mnjukeshi, mali adi
  5. param shreshth sakhi

ashtasakhiyan

radha ki param shreshth sakhiyan ath mani gayi hain, jinake nam nimnalikhit hain-

  1. lalita
  2. vishakha
  3. champakalata
  4. chitra
  5. sudevi
  6. tungavidya
  7. indulekha
  8. ragdadevi
  9. sudevi

uparokt sakhiyon men se 'chitra', 'sudevi', 'tungavidya' aur 'indulekha' ke sthan par 'sumitra', 'sundari', 'tungadevi' aur 'indurekha' nam bhi milate hain[10]

mnjariyan

radha ki uparokt ashtasakhiyan sab gopiyon men agragany hai. inaki ek-ek sevika bhi hain, jo 'mnjari' mahalati hain. mnjariyon ke nam nimnalikhit hain-

  1. roopamnjari
  2. jivamnjari
  3. anngamnjari
  4. rasamnjari
  5. vilasamnjari
  6. ragamnjari
  7. lilamnjari
  8. kastoorimnjari

in mnjariyon ke nam-roopadi ke vishay men bhinnata bhi milati hai. ye sakhiyan vastut: radha se abhinn unhin ki kayavyooharoopa hain. radha-krishn-lila ka inhin ke dvara vistar hota hai. kabhi ve, jaise khandita dasha men, radha ka paksh-samarthan karake krishn ka virodh karati hai. aur kabhi, jaise man ki dasha men, krishn ka virodh karati hain aur kabhi krishn ke prati pravritti dikhate hue radha ki alochana karati hai. parantu unhen radha se eershya kabhi nahin hoti, ve krishn ka sng-sukh kabhi nahin chahatin, kyonki unhen radha-krishn ke prem-milan men hi atmiy milan-sukh ki paripoornata ka anubhav ho jata hai. at: ve radha-krishn ke milan ki cheshta karati rahati hain.

siddh-shakti 'radha'

vallabh-sampraday (pushtimarg) men bhi shabdon ke kinchit her-pher se gopiyon ke sambandh men isi prakar ke vichar milate hain. vahan bhi golok ke nityaras ki gopiyan bhagavan shrikrishn ke paramanandasvaroop ka vistar karane vali, unhin ki samarthyashakti hain. unaki utpatti svayn shrikrishn brahm ke anandakay se huee hai. unake bina brahm ka paramanand-svaroop apoorn hai. gopiyan krishn dharmi ki dharm-roopa hain. radha un gopiyon men poorn anand ki siddh-shakti hain, at: ve svamini hain. radha aur gopiyon ke roop men ras-roop krishn-brahm apana prasar karake usi prakar prasann hote hain, jaise balak apana pratibimb dekhakar prasann hota hai.

ananyapoorva gopiyan

avatar-dash men paramanandasvaroop shrikrishn-brahm apane sampoorn ras-parikar-radha, gopi, gop, go, vats adi- tatha liladham ke sath braj men prakat hote hain. avatar-lila ki gopiyan ke vallabhamat men bhi 'svakiya' aur 'parakiya', do bhed kiye gaye hain. keval unake nam bhinn hain. ek prakar ki gopiyan 'ananyapoorva' kahi gayi hain, jo pun: do prakar ki hain-

  1. pahali 'kumariyan', jo krishn ko pati ke roop men pane ki sadhana karate hue sadaiv avivahit rahati hain.
  2. doosari ve, jinaka krishn ke sath vivah hota hai.

ye donon prakar ki ananyapoorva gopiyan krishn ka hi varan karati hain. ye gopiyan poorvarag ki avastha ke bad kul ki maryada aur lok ki lajja tyagakar krishn se milati hain. ananyapoorva gopiyan vastut: svakiya hain. anyapoorva gopiyan 'parakiya' kahi ja sakati hain, kyonki ve vivahita hoti hain aur apane laukik patiyon se sambandh tyagakar shrikrishn ko premi-roop men prapt karane ki lalasa rakhati hain. lok, ved aur kul ki maryadaon ka unhen ullnghan karana padata hai.

vallabhaen

uparyukt do prakar ki gopiyon ke atirikt ek samanya gopiyan aur kahi gayi hain, jo nirantar krishn ke bal roop ke prati yashoda ki tarah vatsaly sneh karati hain. chaitanyamat ke svakiya-parakiya ke atirikt tisare prakar ki sadharani 'vallabhaen' kahi gayi hain, jo kubja ki tarah keval kamavasana ki paritripti ke lie prem karati hain. vallabhamat ki samanya gopiyon se ve nitant bhinn hain. vallabhamat men vatsalyabhav ko jo mahatta di gayi hai, use dekhate hue is bhav ki gopiyon ka ek bhinn varg rakhana samichin hain.

pushtimargiy bhakti ka pratham sopan vatsalyabhav ki bhakti hi hai, jise pravahi pushti bhakti kahate hain. pravahi pushti bhakt samany gopiyan uchch bhakt hain. ananyapoorva gopiyan uchchatar bhakt hain, kyonki unamen poorvarag ki avastha men maryada ka bhav rahata hai. unaki bhakti maryada-pushti bhakti hai. uchchatam bhakti pushti-pushti bhakti hota hai, jo jar bhav ki hoti hai. anyapoorva gopiyan hi isaki adhikarini hoti hain. is prakar vallabhamat men bhi chaitanyamat ki bhanti parakiya-bhav ki hi sarvochch kahatta hai. ras-ras ka sukh keval 'anyapoorva' aur 'ananyapoorva' gopiyon ko hi milata hai. 'shrimadbhagavat' ki 'subodhini tika' ke 'rasapnchadhyayi phalaprakaran' men vallabhachary ne ras ki in do prakar ki gopiyon ko pun: tamas, rajas, sattvik, tin gunon ke prabhav se unake mel ke anusar nau aur nau, atharah bhedon men vargikrit kiya hai. inake atirikt unnisavin prakar ki gopi 'gunatita' ya 'nirguna' kahalati hain. vallabhachary ne in gopiyon men radha ka koee ullekh nahin kiya hai.

vallabh sampraday men radha ka mahatmy vitthalanath ke samay men pratishthit hua. yah anuman niradhar nahin hai ki pushtimarg men radha aur gopi-bhav ki itani mahatta bahut kuchh gaudiy tatha radhavallabhiy sampradayon ke sampark ka parinam hai. gopiyon ke uparyukt vargikaran se isaki pushti hoti hai. yadyapi gopiyan krishn ki ras-shakti hain, unase abhinn hain, parantu lila men ve bhinn tatha bhakton men anand-bhav ka avirbhav karane vali rasatmak shakti ki pratik bhi hain. radha ras-siddhi ki pratik hain tatha any gopiyan gopisvaroop banane ki kamana karane vale bhakton ki premabhakti-sadhana ki vividh sthitiyon ki pratik hain.

pushtimargi ashtasakhiyan

krishn tatha gopiyan

vallabh-sampraday men chaitanyamat ki tarah gopiyon ke yoothon ke vivaran to nahin hai, parantu radha aur chandravali ko any shakti-svaroopa gopiyon ki svamini, siddhashakti-svaroopa kaha gaya hai. any gopiyan inhin ki sakhiyan hain. yahan bhi mukhy ath sakhiyan mani gayi hain, parantu unake namon men kuchh antar hai. pushtimargi ashtasakhiyon ke nam is prakar hain-

  1. champakalata
  2. chandrabhaga
  3. vishakha
  4. lalita
  5. padma
  6. bhama
  7. vimala
  8. chandrarekha

puranon ke anusar ashtasakhiyan

puranon men vishesharoop se 'brahmavaivartt' men ashtasakhiyon ke nam kinchit parivartan se is prakar milate hain-

  1. chandravali
  2. shyama
  3. shaivya
  4. padya
  5. radha
  6. lalita
  7. vishakha
  8. bhadra

ashtasakha

ashtachhap ke param bhagavadiy ath bhakt, jo sakhy bhakti karane ke karan gocharan lila ke 'ashtasakha' kahe gaye hain, madhurabhav siddh kar lene ke karan nikunjalila ki ashtasakhi bhi bataye gaye hain. is prakar-

  1. sooradas - champakalata
  2. paramannd das - chandrabhaga
  3. kumbhanadas - vishakha
  4. krishnadas - lalita
  5. chhitasvami - padma
  6. govindasvami - bhama
  7. chaturbhujadas - vimala
  8. nndadas - chandrarekha

ashtachhap kavi

'ashtachhap kaviyon' men sooradas ke kavy men madhury bhakti ka sabase adhik vishad aur vistrit roop milata hai. unhonne radha aur krishn ko prakriti aur purush roop men varnit kiya hai tatha any gopiyon ko radha ki vividh premavastha ki sakhiyon ke roop men. in sabhi kaviyon ne radha aur gopiyon ko ek or to krishn-brahm ki anandaroop-prasarini shakti ke roop men chintit kiya aur doosari or dampaty ya kanta bhav se bhakti karane vale anany bhakton ke roop men. sooradas ne radha ke atirikt lalita aur chandravali ka vishesh ullekh kiya hai aur unhen radha ki param priy, ghanishth sakhiyon ke roop men 'man' aur 'khandita' ke prakaranon men chintit kiya hai. 'khanhuta' prakaranon men in do ke atirikt sooradas ne 'shila', 'sukhama', 'kama', 'vrinda', 'kumuda' aur 'pramada' ka ullekh kiya hai. gopiyon men krishn-prem ki adhikarini ye hi hain. parantu inamen se kisi ka radha se eershyabhav nahin hai. vastav men ye radha se hi nahin, krishn se bhi abhinn hain| sooradas ne kaha hai-

'radhika geh hari-dehavasi.
aur tiy gharani ghar tanuprakasi ॥
brahm pooran dvitiy nahin kooo.
radhika sabai, hari sabai vooo॥
dip saun dip jaise ujari.
tais hi brahm ghar ghar bihari॥"[11]

sooradas ka 'danalila' prasng

sooradas ne 'danalila' ke prasng men gopiyon ki mahima batate hue unhen "shruti ki richaen" bataya hai. krishn ke sagun paramandasvaroop ke dekhane ki shrutiyon ki ichchha poori karane ke lie brahma ne jab nij dham- nityavrindavan dikhaya, jahan prakriti ki ramaniy shobha ke bich kishor shyam gopiyon ke sath krida karate hain, tab shrutiyon ne gopiroop pane ka varadan manga. poorn paramanand brahm ne varadan diya ki jab main bharatakhand ke mathura mandal men, jo hamara nij dham hain, gopavesh dharan karoonga, tab tum gopi hokar mujhase prem karogi. is prakar ved-richaon ne gopi banakar hari ke sath vihar kiya. brahma kahate hain-

'jo kou bharatabhav hriday dhari hari pad dhyavai.
nari-purush kou hoee shrutiricha gati so pavai॥
tinaki padaraj kou jo vrindaban bhoo manh.
par se sooo gopika-gati pavai snshay nahin ॥"

'soor-sagar' ke is pad[12]path men tripad vaman puran ki sakshi di gayi hai. vastav men gadadharadas dvivedi likhit 'sampraday-pradip' namak pustak ke dvitiy prakaran ke 1 se 30 shlokon ka is pad se shabdash: samy paya jata hai. vidyavibhag, kankaroli se prakashit yah pustak snvath 1610 ki likhi kahi gayi hai. prashn uthata hai ki in donon men mool kaun hai aur anuvad kaun? jo ho, pushti-marg men gopiyon ki is prakar ki mahima prachalit rahi hai. uparyukt bharta-bhav, arthath gopi-bhav bhakti ka sarvochch bhav mana gaya hai.

gaudiy vaishnav aur vallabh sampradayon men gopi aur gopi-bhav ki jo mahatta di gayi, use hi thode-bahut vivaran aur avadhan sambandhi antaron ke sath krishn-bhakti ke any sampradayon men bhi apanaya gaya hai. in sampradayon men radha-vallabhiy aur sakhi sampraday vishesh ullekhaniy hain. in donon men hi radha-krishn ko advay manakar unaki sakhiyon ko bhi unhin ka ek abhinn ang mana gaya hai. at: bhakt gan gopiyon ke sakhi-bhav ko apanane ke lie hi lalayit rahate hain. ve gopiyon ke svaroop ka dhyan karate hue unhin ki tarah acharan karate hain tatha unake bhav ko dridh karane ki cheshta karate hain. unaki sabase badi akanksha yahi hoti hai ki kisi prakar unhen yugal moorti ke sannikat rahakar unaki paricharya karane ka avasar mile. [13]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rigved, 1.155.5
  2. gatha-satpashati
  3. harivnsh-adiparv, adhyay 53-55
  4. skn0 puran, 1 23
  5. brahmavaitart.shrikrishnajanmakhand
  6. a0 6| 63-69
  7. vahi, 119
  8. patal., 75 | 10-13
  9. vahi-77.75
  10. 'yumalasarvasv': bharatendu harishchandr, khadgavilas pres, patana 1911
  11. soorasaravali, sabha : pad 3113
  12. soor-sagar(sabha: pad 1793) ke venkateshvar pres ke snskaran (sn. 1980 vi.
  13. [sahayak granth-
    1. 'ujjval nilamani' (snskrit): roopagosvami;
    2. 'shrisubodhini bhashy': vallabhachary;
    3. 'sampraday-pradip' : gadadharadas': dvivedi;
    4. 'soorasagar' : sooradas;
    5. 'ashtachhap aur vallabhasamprada': dinadayalu gupt;
    6. 'sooradas' : vrajeshvar varma;
    7. 'brajabooli' (angrezi): sukumar sen ;
    8. 'shriradha ka kramavikas': (hindi anuvad) shashibhooshanadas gupt.]

snbndhit lekh

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