संवत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(संवत् se punarnirdeshit)

kal-ganana men kalp, manvantar, yug adi ke pashchath snvatsar ka nam ata hai. yug bhed se sat yug men brahm-snvat, treta men vaman-snvat, parashuram-snvat (sahastrarjun-vadh se) tatha shri ram-snvat (ravan-vijay se), dvapar men yudhishthir-snvat aur kali men vikram, vijay, nagarjun aur kalki ke snvat prachalit hue ya honge.

bharat men janm-patrikaon men snvato ka prayog lagabhag 2000 varshon se adhik prachin nahin hai. snvat ka prayog hindoo-sithiyanon dvara, jinhonne adhunik afaganistan evn uttar-pashchimi bharat men lagabhag ee. poo. 100 evn 100 ee. ke bich shasan kiya, unake vrittanton men hua. yah bat keval bharat men hi nahin payi gayi, pratyut misr, bebilon, yoonan evn rom men snvat ka lagatar prayog bahut bad men jakar prarambh hua.

  • jyotirvidabharan men [1] kaliyug ke 6 vyaktiyon ke nam ae hain, jinhonne snvat chalaye the, yatha-
  1. yudhishthar
  2. vikram
  3. shalivahan
  4. vijayabhinandan
  5. nagarjun
  6. kalki
  • yah kram se 3044, 135, 18000, 10000, 400000 evn 821 varshon tak chalate rahe. prachin deshon men snvat ka lagatar prayog nahin tha, keval shasan-varsh hi prayukt hote the.

itihas

ashok ke adesh lekhanon men keval shasan-varsh hi prayukt hai. kautily [2] ne malaguzari sngrah karane vale ki kary vyavastha karane ke lie kalon ki or bhi, snket kiya hai, jinase malaguzari ekatr karane vale sambandhit the, jaise - rajavarsh, mas, paksh, din adi.[3]

  • phlit, shamashastri adi ne vachan ko kee dhng se anoodit kiya hai. vibhinn arthon ka karan hai 'vyusht' shabd ka prayog. 'vyusht' ka shabdik arth hai 'pratahkal ya prakash' aur yahan tatpary hai 'varsh ka pratham din, jo shubh mana jata hai.' [4] lekhak is kathan ka anuvad is prakar karata hai, "rajavarsh, mas, paksh, din, shubh (varsh ka pratham din), tin rituon, yatha varsha, hemant, grishm ke tisare evn sataven paksh men ek din (30 men) kam hai, any paksh poorn hain (mas men poorn 30 din hain), malamas (adhik mas) prithakh (kalavadhi) hai. ye sabhi ve kal hain, jinhen malaguzari sngrah karane vala dhyan men rakhega.[5]
  • yahi ganana vyavahar roop se kushanon evn satavahanon ke kalon tak chalati gayi aur shasan-varsh hi prayog men laye jate rahe. saikadon varshon tak bharat men vibhinn prakar ke snvat prayog men ate rahe, isase kal nirnay evn itihas men bade-bade bhram upasthit ho ge hain.[6]

snvat ke prakar

  1. shriharsh,
  2. vikramadity,
  3. shak,
  4. vallabh evn
  5. gupt snvat.
  • prachin kal men bhi kaliyug ke arambh ke vishay men vibhinn mat rahe hain. adhunik mat hai ki kaliyug ee. poo. 3102 men arambh hua. is vishay men char pramukh drishtikon hain-
  1. yudhishthar ne jab rajy sinhasanarohan kiya;
  2. yah 36 varsh uparant arambh hua jab ki yudhishthar ne arjun ke pautr parikshit ko raja banaya;
  3. puranon ke anusar krishn ke dehavasan ke uparant yah arambh hua.[8];
  4. varahamihir ke mat se yudhishthar-snvat ka arambh shak-snvat ke 2426 varsh pahale hua, arthat doosare mat ke anusar, kaliyug ke 653 varshon ke uparant prarambh hua.
  • aihol shilalekh ne sambhavatah doosare mat ka anusaran kiya hai; kyonki usamen shak-snvat 556 se poorv 3735 kaliyug snvat mana gaya hai.[9]
  • pashchatkalin jyotiahshastriy granthon ke anusar kaliyug snvat ke 3719 varshon ke uparant shak snvat ka arambh hua. [10]
  • kaliyug snvat ke vishay men sabase prachin snket aryabhat dvara diya gaya hai. unhonne kaha hai ki jab ve 23 varsh ke the tab kaliyug ke 3600 varsh vyatit ho chuke the arthat ve 476 ee. men utpann hue.
  • ek chol vrittantalekhan kaliyug snvat 4044 (943 ee.) ka hai. [11], jahan bahut-se shilalekhon men ullikhit kaliyug snvat ka vivechan kiya gaya hai.
  • madhyakal ke bharatiy jyotishiyon ne mana hai ki kaliyug evn kalp ke prarambh men sabhi grah, soory evn chandr ko milakar chaitr shukl-pratipada ko ravivar ke sooryoday ke samay ek sath ekatr the.[12]
  • barges evn da. saha jaise adhunik lekhak is kathan ko keval kalpanatmak manate hain. kintu prachin siddhant lekhakon ke kathan ko keval kalpana man lena uchit nahin hai. yah sambhav hai ki siddhant lekhakon ke samaksh koee ati prachin parampara rahi ho.[13]
  • pratyek dharmik krity ke snkalp men krityakarta ko kal ke bade bhagon evn vibhagon ko shvetavarah kalp ke arambh se kahana padata hai, yatha vaivasvat manvantar, kaliyug ka pratham charan, bharat men krity karane ki bhaugolik sthiti, soory, brihaspati evn any grahon vali rashiyon ke nam, varsh ka nam, mas, paksh, tithi, nakshatr, yog evn karan ke nam.
  • deval ka kathan hai ki yadi krityakarta mas, paksh, tithi, (krity ke) avasar ka ullekh nahin karata to vah krity ka phal nahin prapt karega [14]. yah hai bharatiyon ke dharmik jivan men snvaton, varshon evn inake bhagon evn vibhagon ki mahatta. atah pratyek bharatiy (hindoo) ke lie pnchang anivary hai.

shastron men is prakar bhoot evn vartaman kal ke snvaton ka varnan to hai hi, bhavishy men prachalit hone vale snvaton ka varnan bhi hai. in snvaton ke atirikt anek rajaon tatha sampradayacharyon ke nam par snvat chalaye gaye hain. bharatiy snvaton ke atirikt vishv men aur bhi dharmon ke snvat hain. tulana ke liye unamen se pradhan-pradhan ki talika di ja rahi hai- varsh eesvi san1,949 ko manak manate hue nimn ganana ki gayi hai.

bharatiy-snvat

kr0sn0

nam

vartaman varsh

1

kalpabd

1,97,29,49,050

2

srishti-snvat

1,95,58,85,050

3

vaman-snvat

1,96,08,89,050

4

shriram-snvat

1,25,69,050

5

shrikrishn snvat

5,175

6

yudhishthir snvat

5,050

7

bauddh snvat

2,524

8

mahavir (jain) snvat

2,476

9

shrishnkarachary snvat

2,229

10

vikram snvat

2,006

11

shalivahan snvat

1,871

12

kalachuri snvat

1,701

13

valabhi snvat

1,629

14

fasali snvat

1,360

15

bngala snvat

1,356

16

harshabd snvat

1,342


videshiy-snvat

kr0sn0

nam

vartaman varsh

1

chini san

9,60,02,247

2

khataee sanh

8,88,38,320

3

parasi sanh

1,89,917

4

mistri sanh

27,603

5

turki sanh

7,556

6

adam sanh

7,301

7

eerani sanh

5,954

8

yahoodi sanh

5,710

9

ibrahim sanh

4,389

10

moosa sanh

3,653

11

yoonani sanh

3,522

12

roman sanh

2,700

13

brahma sanh

2,490

14

malayaketu sanh

2,261

15

parthiyan sanh

2,196

16

eesvi sanh

1,949

17

java san

1,875

18

hijari san

1,319


yah tulana is bat ko to spasht hi kar deti hai ki bharatiy snvat atyant prachin hain. sath hi ye ganit ki drishti se atyant sugam aur sarvatha thik hisab rakhakar nishchit kiye gaye hain. navin snvat chalane ki shastriy vidhi yah hai ki jis naresh ko apana snvat chalana ho, use snvat chalane ke din se poorv kam-se-kam apane poore rajy men jitane bhi log kisi ke rini hon, unaka rin apani or se chuka dena chahiye. kahana nahin hoga ki bharat ke bahar is niyam ka kahin palan nahin hua. bharat men bhi mahapurushon ke snvat unake anuyayiyon ne shraddhavash hi chalaye; lekin bharat ka sarvamany snvat vikram snvat hai aur maharaj vikramadity ne desh ke sampoorn rin ko, chahe vah jis vyakti ka raha ho, svayn dekar ise chalaya hai. is snvat ke mahinon ke nam videshi snvaton ki bhanti devata, manushy ya snkhyavachak kritrim nam nahin hain. yahi bat tithi tatha ansh (dinank) ke sambandh men bhi hain ve bhi soory-chandr ki gati par ashrit hain. saransh yah ki yah snvat apane ang-upangon ke sath poornat: vaigyanik satyapar sthit hai.


ujjayini-samrath maharaj vikram ke is vaigyanik snvat ke sath vishv men prachalit eesvi sanh par bhi dhyan dena chahiye. eesvi sanh ka mool roman-snvat hai. pahale yoonan men olimpiyad snvat tha, jisamen 360 din ka varsh mana jata tha. rom nagar ki pratishtha ke din se vahi roman snvat kahalane laga. eesvi sanh ki ganana eesa masih ke janm se tin varsh bad se ki jati hai. roman samrat jooliyas sijar ne 360 din ke badale 365.25 din ke varsh ko prachalit kiya. chhathi shatabdi men dayonisiyas ne is sanh men phir snshodhan kiya; kintu phir bhi prativarsh 27 pal, 55 vipal ka antar padata hi raha. sanh 1739 men yah antar badhate-badhate 11 din ka ho gaya; tab pop gregari ne agya nikali ki 'is varsh 2 sitnbar ke pashchath 3 sitnbar ko 14 sitnbar kaha jay aur jo eesvi sanh 4 ki snkhya se vibhajit ho sake, usaka faravari mas 29 din ka ho. varsh ka prarambh 25 march ke sthan par 1 janavari se mana jay.' is agya ko itali, denamark, haaulaind ne usi varsh svikar kar liya. jarmani aur svitazaralaind ne sanh 1759 men, inglaind ne sanh 1809 men, prashiya ne sanh 1835 men, ayaralaind ne sanh 1839 men aur roos ne sanh 1859 men ise svikar kiya. itana snshodhan hone par bhi is eesvi sanh men soory ki gati ke anusar prativarsh ek pal ka antar padata hai. samany drishti se yah bahut thoda antar hai, par ganit ke liye yah ek badi bhool hai. 3600 varshon ke bad yahi antar ek din ka ho jayaga aur 36,000 varshon ke bad das din ka aur is prakar yah antar chaloo raha to kisi din joon ka mahina vartaman aktoobar ke shital samay men padane lagega.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. yah pashchatkalin rachana hai, jisamen yah aya hai ki yah gatakali 3068 arthath eesa snvath se 33 varsh poorv men nirmit hua
  2. kautily arthashastr, 2.6, pri0 60
  3. rajavarsh masaah paksho divasashch vyushtn varshahemantagrishmanan tritiyasaptama divasonaah pakshaah shesha poornaah prithagadhimasak iti kalah. kautily arthashastr (11.6, pri0 60).
  4. panini 5.1.96-97 -tatr ch diyate kary bhavavath. vyushtadibhyonh.
  5. prachin kalon men varsh men 6 rituen thin, 12 mas the aur pratyek mas men 30 din the . arthashastr ka yahan kathan hai ki chhah paksh aise hain jinamen pratyek men 14 din hain, atah chandr varsh (14×6+15×6+30×3=354) 354 dinon ka hoga. ise saur varsh ke sath chalane ke lie adhik mas ka samavesh kiya gaya.
  6. snvaton ki soochiyon ke vishay men kaningham krit 'indiyan eraz'; svamikannu pillee krit 'indiyan ephemeris' (jild 1, bhag 1, pri0 53-55); bi0 bi0 ketakar krit 'indiyan end phaauren kronolaauji' (pri0 171-172); pi0 si0 senagupt krit 'aishyent indien eraz' (pri0 222-238); da. meghanath saha ka lekh 'sains end kalchar' (1952, kalakatta, pri0 116) tatha kailendar riphaaurm kamiti (1955) dekhe ja sakate hain.
  7. sachau, jild 2, pri0 5
  8. vishnu puran 4.24.108-113
  9. trinshatsu trisahasreshu bharatadahavaditah.
    saptabdashatayukteshu gateshvabdeshu pnnchashatsu kalau kale shatsu panchashatasu ch.
    samasu samatitasu shakanamapi bhoobhujamh..

    epigraiphiya indika (jild 4, pri0 7). yahan par spasht roop se kaliyug ka arambh mahabharat yuddh ke uparant mana gaya hai.
  10. 'yataah shanmanavo yugani bhamitanyanyadyugandhritrayn nandadrindugunastava shakanripasyante kalervatsaraah.. - siddhantashiromani (1.28). 'nandadrinduguna' 3179 ke barabar hai (nand=9, adri=7, indu=1, gun=3).
  11. je0 ar0 e0 es0 (1911, pri0 689-694
  12. lnkanagaryamudayachch bhanostasyaiv vare prathamn babhoov.
    madhoah sitaderdinanamasavarshayugadikanan yugapath pravrittiah..

    grahaganit, madhyamadhikar, shlok 15, bhaskarachary;

    chaitrasitaderudayadh bhanordinamasavarsh yugakalpaah.
    srishtyadau lnkayan samn pravatta dinearkasy.. - brahmasphutasiddhant (1.4).

  13. epigraiphiya indika (jild 8, pri0 261). epi0 indika (jild 28, pri0 36) men arkeshvar dev ke kee patt-lekh hain jinamen yugabd 4248 (kaliyug snvat) ka ullekh hai, jo 6 faravari 1148 ee. ka hai aur 'ainals aauph sains' (jild 8, snkhya 3, 1952, pri0 221-228) jahan pro0 neugebabar evn da. o0 shchimadt ka 'hindoo aistranomi et nyoo minstar in 1428' namak lekh hai, jisamen inglaind ke nyoominstar sthan men likhit ek agyat lekhak ke ek prabandh ki or snket kiya gaya hai, jisamen 1428 varsh evn nyoominstar ke akshansh ke lie jyotiahshastriy gananaen ki gayi hain. us prabandh men aya hai ki katipay arabi lekhakon ke uddharan hain, jinamen ek 'omar' ya umar, jo 815 men mara, ka ullekh hai aur prabandh men aya hai ki elphainjo ne avatar ke 3102 varsh poorv 16 faravari ko badh (phlad) ke varsh ka arambh kiya; yah tithi spasht roop se kaliyug snvat (jise bharatiy jyotishacharyon ne prayukt kiya hai) ke arambh se sarvatha milati-julati hai.
  14. shantimayookh, pri0 2

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