आयरलैंड  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ayaralaind gret briten ke pashchim men ek bada dvip hai jo 51° 26' u.a. se 55° 21' u.a. tak aur 5° 25' p.de. se 10° 31' p.de. vistrit hai.

dharatal-is dvip ka uttari evn dakshini bhag pahadi hai, madhy men ek chauda nichala maidan hai. parvatamalaon ka kram ghatiyon, nichale maidanon tatha nichi bhoomi ke karan sthan-sthan par toot gaya hai. at: dvip ka dharatal bhinn-bhinn bhaugolik ikaiyon men vibhajit hai, jinaki bhooroopata men vibhinnata milana svabhavik hai.

himakalin yug men kuchh oonche pahadi sthalon ko chhodakar snpoorn ayaralaind barph se dhaka tha, at: sadharanataya dhonke mishrit chikani mitti (boldar kle), him-nadi-janit bajari (gleshiyal graivel) adi madhy ke maidan men har sthan par milati hain. pahadon ke charon aur himodh (morens) milate hain. is prakar samudratal se 1,200 phut tak ki do tihaee bhoomi himanad (gleshyir) dvara nirmit hai.

madhy ka maidan chunahe patthar (laimaston) ka bana hua hai; yah itana nicha tatha samatal hai ki sthan sthan par jalatal (vatar tebul) dharatal tak pahunch jata hai; phalasvaroop anek badi badi jhilen nirmit ho gee hain. kabhi kabhi in jhilon ka jalabhandar itana adhik ho jata hai ki asapas ki kee ek jhilen milakar nikatavarti maidani bhag ko dhnk leti hain. sadharanataya ayaralaind ka bhag jalamagn rahata hai jisamen sadi ghas ke daladal milate hain. ausat roop men ayaralaind ke kshetraphal men pit milata hai. pahadon par to pit har ek sthal par milata hai. ayaralaind jaise vrikshavihin evn koyalavihin desh ke lie pit atynt avashyak vastu hain. har ek ghar men isaka upayog eedhan ke roop men hota hai.

jalavayu-yahan ki jalavayu pashchimi yooropiy prakar ki hai; samudr ke prabhav ke karan jade evn garmi ke tap men bahut antar nahin hota. udaharanasvaroop varleshiya ka tap janavari men 44.3° pha. tatha joon men 59° pha. ke lagabhag rahata hai. varsha varshabhar hoti hai, oonche pahadon par 80" tak tatha maidanon men 30" se 40" tak.

udyam evn utpadan-prakriti ne ayaralaind ko pashupalan ke lie adhik upayukt banaya hai, at: 18vin shatabdi ke prarnbh se hi is desh ne krishi ki apeksha pashupalan ko adhik mahatv diya. yahi karan hai ki krishi bhoomi ki apeksha charagahon ka kshetraphal adhik hai. jotavali bhoomi ka kshetraphal 30,95,770 ekad se 12,47,865 ekad gir gaya tatha charagah ka kshetraphal 87,52,565 ekad se 1,24,59,752 ekad badh gaya. isi prakar 1841 ee. men pashuon ki snkhya prati hajar manushy pichhe 225 thin; 1947 ee. men yah snkhya 1,154 tak pahunch gee. 1968-69 men kul pashuon ki snkhya is prakar thi-dudharu gaen 2,10,000; mans ke lie gaen 2,20,000; prajanan ke lie suari 1,19,000; kul suaron ki snkhya 10,87,000; tatha kul murge murgi 1,31,95,000. phasalon men jee evn aloo mukhy hain. jee ki kheti ghodon ko khilane ke nimit pratyek kisan karata hai. aloo yahan ki mukhy khady vastu hai. jau tatha phlaiks (sanee ki tarah ka paudha) simit kshetron men hi boe jate hain.

gramin jivan-ayaralaind sadaiv se chhote-chhote krishakon ka desh raha hai. yadyapi kheton ki nap ko badhane ka bar bar prayatn hua hai, tathapi aj bhi do tihaee kheton ka kshetraphal 30 ekad se adhik nahin hai. anek logon ka videsh jakar jivananirvah karana avashyak ho jata hai; 19vin shatabdi men lakhon vyakti prati varsh desh chhodate the. ab pravasi vyaktiyon ki snkhya apekshakrit kam ho gee. at: ayaralaind ki samasya janasnkhya ki vriddhi nahin, has hai.

nagarik jivan-gramin kshetron men jivananirvah ke sadhanon ki kami ke karan adhikatar janata samudratat ke bade bade nagaron tatha bndaragahon men nivas karati hai. ayaralaind ke chhah bade nagaron dabalin (janasnkhya 5,68,772), belaphast (janasnkhya 3,98,405), kark (janasnkhya) 1,22,146), limarik (janasnkhya 55,912), lndanaderi (janasnkhya 55,694) tatha vataraphord (janasnkhya 29,842) men desh ki pnchamansh janata nivas karati hai. bhitari bhag ke nagar akar men pray: chhote hain aur unaki janasnkhya 10,000 se adhik nahin hai.

vyapar-ayaralaind ka vyaparik jivan british dvipasamooh se adhik snbaddh hai. yahan ki rashtriy snpatti angreji bajar ke chadhav utar ke anusar badhati ghatati hai. ayaralaind gret briten ko pashu tatha unase utpann vastuen-makkhan, panir, snghanit dugdh, ande, aloo, sooar ka mans adi bhejata hai. yahan ke ayat men gret briten ka karib 80 pr.sh. bhag rahata hai. vahan se koyala, kapada, ata, khad tatha mashinen adi ati hain.

airish phri stet evn uttari ayaralaind-ayaralaind rajanitik evn arthik drishti se gret briten ka ek avichchhinn bhag tha, parntu sadiyon se chalate hue rashtriy andolan ke phalasvaroop 1921 ee. men airish phri stet ka janm hua jisaki rajadhani dabalin (janasnkhya 1966 men 5,68,772) hai. airish phri stet ka vartaman kshetraphal 26,600 varg mil tatha janasnkhya 28,84,002 (1966) hai. uttari ayaralaind ka uttari poorvi bhag (kshetraphal 5,238) varg mil; janasnkhya 14,84,775 (1966) ab bhi gret briten ka rajanitik ang hai. belafast isaki rajadhani hai. ayaralaind ke rashtriy andolan ke pichhai dharmik bhavana mukhy thi. yahan ke adhikansh log (93.4 pr.sh.) roman kaitholik hain. uttari ayaralaind ke kuchh bhagon men bhi kaitholikon ki snkhya adhik hai. in bhagon ko bhi phri stet apani sima ke antargat milane ki mang karati hai. yahan 1969 men pashuon ki snkhya is prakar thi-dhor 56,90,000; bhed (oonavali) 40,06,200; bhed (doodhavali) 11,15,500; ghode 1,24,900 tatha murge murgi 1,03,34,600.[1]


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  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 397-399 |

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