अल्यूशियन द्वीपपुंज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alyooshiyan dvipapunj lagabhag 14 bade aur 55 chhote dvipon tatha anek chotiyon se bana hai. yah pahale kaitherin dvipapunj ke nam se prasiddh tha. yah kamachataka prayadvip ke poorv se alaska prayadvip ke pashchim tak lagabhag 900 mil ke vistar men phaila hua hai. isaki sthiti a. 52° u. se 55° u. tak aur de. 172° p. se 163° p. tak hai. yah snyukt rajy (amarika) ke alaska rajy ka ek bhag hai.

1741 ee. men roos sarakar ki prerana se denamark ke vaits bering tatha roos ke aleski chirikov donon ne sent pitar tatha sent pal namak jahajon se uttari mahasagar ki or yatra ki. raste men samudrik toophanon se ye bichhud ge. chirokov alyooshiyan dvipon par a pahunche aur bering kamachataka hote hue kamandar dvipapunj par ae. tabhi se in dvipon ka gyan yooropavalon ko hua. yahan inaka dehant ho gaya. 1876 ee. tak alyooshiyan dvipapunj roosiyon ke hath men tha, parntu bad men amarika ke hath men aya.

alyooshiyan dvipapunj ke char pratham dvipasamooh phaks, andriyanaph, rait aur nikat dvip (niyar ailainds) kahalate hain. phaks aur andriyanaph ke bich men chatu:parvatiy dvip (ailainds aauv for mauntens) sthit hai. phaks dvipasamooh sabase poorv men hai aur isake pratham dvipon ke nam yunimak, unalaska aur umanak hain. chatu:parvatiy dvipon men chuginadakh‌, harbart, karalail, kagamil tatha uliaga pradhan hain. isamen amaliya, atka, gret sitakinh‌, adak, kanaga, tatha tanaga sammilit hain. rait dvipasamooh ka nam isamen pae janevale choohon ki adhikata ke karan pada. nikat dvipasamooh ka nam roos ke sabase samipa rahane ke karan pada. semisopochanaye, amachitka, kiska tatha buldir rait dvipasamooh men hain aur semichi dvip, agatoo tatha atoo nikat dvipasamooh men hain.

alyooshiyan dvipapunj ka nam alaska sthit alyooshiyan pahad se pada hai. in dvipon ki ridh alaska ke pas dakshin pashchim ki or jhuki hai, parntu 1790 p.de. ke bad isaki disha badal jati hai. vaigyanikon ke mat se yah dvipasamooh jvalamukhi udgar ke karan bana hai aur isalie agney dararon ki disha ke anusar isaki ridh ki disha bani huee hai. inamen se adhikatar dvipon par agniudgar ke chinh spasht hain tatha kee ek dvipon par sakriy jvalamukhi vidyaman hain, jaise unimak men maunt shishaldin ya smoking mozaj, isake pas isanotaski pik (8,088 phut) aur maunt raundatap (6,155 phut). inake atirikt umanak men maunt sividoph (7,236 phut), unalaska men maunt makushin (5,000 phut) aur chookinadak men maunt kvivalaind, ye sab agney giri hain. inamen se adhikatar pahadon par himanadi pravahit ho rahi hai. yah anchal adhikansh sthanon men agney chattanon se bana hai. phir bhi ravadar chattane, patthar, paratadar chattanen, tatha liganait paryapt matra men milate hain. inake upakool kate-phate hain aur isalie inapar pahunchane ka marg bhayavah hai. dekhane se lagata hai, ye pahadiyan samudr ke oopar sidhi khadi hain.

is dvipapunj ke itana uttar men hote hue bhi yahan ki jalavayu samudrik prabhav ke karan samashitoshn hai tatha varsha adhik hoti hai. alaska ki tulana men isaka shitakalin tap lagabhag ek sa rahata hai, parntu grishmakalin tapakram men paryapt antar ho jata hai, arthath‌ alaska ki apeksha yahan garmi kam padati hai. yahan pray: sal bhar kuhara rahata hai. yahan ki kheti men kuchh sabjiyan ugaee jati hain. krishi ka kary mee se sitnbar tak (lagabhag 135 din) hota hai. yahan par vriksh kahin-kahin dikhaee dete hain. prakritik vanaspati men pray: ghas ki jati ke paudhe hi adhik hain.

yahan ke logon ka mukhy vyavasay samudri machhali pakadana tatha akhet hai. ajakal bhed tatha renadiyar (harin) palane ka bhi prayatn chal raha hai. yahan par rahane vali merupradeshiy nili lomadi ke shikar ke lie 18vin shatabdi men roos ke oornajinavikreta (phar dilars) yahan akar jame the, parntu jab se yah amarika ke hath men a gaya, adivasiyon ko chhodakar inhen marane ki agya kisi ko nahin hai. in vyavasayon ke atirikt yahan ki striyon ki banaee huee tokariyan tatha unapar bane sookshm kadhaee ke kary prasiddh hain. ye log silaee karane tatha kapada bunane men bhi chatur hain.

alyooshiyan dvipapuj ke adivasi esakvimavan jati ke hain. inaki bhasha, rahan-sahan, kary karane ki shakti adi eskimon se milati-julati hai. inake ganv upakool ke samip base hain, kyonki upakool ke pas inhen pakshi, machhali, samudri jntu adi sugamata se upalabdh ho jate hain tatha jalane ki lakadi bhi prapt ho jati hain. pahale ye log jamin ke niche ghar banakar rahate the aur kabhi-kabhi samuhik grih bhi banaya karate the. inaki sharirik gathan men balishth deh, chhoti gardan, chhota kad, kala mukhamndal, kali ankhen tatha kale kesh pratyek videshi ki drishti apani or akrisht karate hain. eesaee dharm ka prachar yahan poorn roop se hua aur yahan ke nivasiyon ka vartaman rahan-sahan pashchaty sabhyata se paryapt prabhavit hua hai.abadi adhikatar alaska dvipon men kendrit hai. ye dvip kaphi unnati par hain. snyukt rajy (amarika) ke paharevale jahajon ka yah ek adda hai. sanh‌ 1949 tak alaska men ek dach bndaragah bhi tha. is samay yah bnd ho gaya hai aur atoo men ek chhota sa bndaragah chaloo rakha gaya hai.[1]


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  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 268 |

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