मास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

varsh ganana ke jaise kee bhed hain, vaise hi mas ganana ke bhi char bhed hain-

  1. saur,
  2. savan,
  3. chandr aur
  4. nakshatr.

inamen se nakshatr aur savan mas visheshat: vaidik karyon men dekhe jate hain. saur evn chandr mason ka vyavahar lok men chalata hai. inamen bhi saur mas khagol evn bhoogol se sambandh rakhanevale hain. ye kshay-vriddhi se rahit tatha ganana rakhane men sugam hain. inake nam bhi akashiy nakshatron ke anusar hain.

  • akash men 27 nakshatr hain,
  • in nakshatron ke 108 pad hote hain.
  • inamen se nau padon ki akriti ke anusar mesh, vrish, mithun, kark, sinh, kanya, tula, vrishchik, dhanu, makar, kumbh aur min- ye barah saur mas hote hain.
  • prithvi par bhi in mason (rashiyon) ki rekha sthir ki gayi hai, jise 'kranti' kahate hain.
  • ye krantiyan vishuvat rekha se 24 uttar men aur 24 dakshin men mani jati hain. uttarayan men vishuvat rekha se uttar 12 ansh tak mesh, 20 ansh tak vrish, 24 ansh tak mithun, 24 uttar kram men kark rekha aur phir ulate kram se 20 ansh tak kark, 12 ansh tak sinh tatha vishuvat rekha tak kanya rashi hoti hai. isi prakar dakshinayan men vishuvatarekha se dakshin 12 ansh tak tula, 20 ansh tak vrishchik, 24 ansh tak dhan aur 24 ansh ko makar rekha kahate hain. phir ulate kram se 20 ansh tak makar, 12 ansh tak kumbh aur vishuvat rekha tak min rashi hoti hai. mason ka yah sthan soory ki gati ke anusar hai.

chandramas

  • jaise saur mas ka sambandh soory se hai, vaise hi chandr mas ka sambandh chandrama se hai.
  • amavasya ke pashchath chandrama jab mesh rashi aur ashvini nakshatr men prakat hokar pratidin ek-ek kala badhata hua 15 ven din chitra nakshatr men poornata ko prapt karata hai, tab vah mas 'chitra' nakshatr-ke karan 'chaitr' kaha jata hai.
  • jis paksh men chandrama kramash: badhata hua shuklata – prakash ko prapt karata hai, vah shukl paksh aur jisamen ghatata hua krishnata-andhakar badhata hai, vah krishn paksh kaha jata hai.
  • mas ka nam us nakshatr ke anusar hota hai, jo mahine bhar saynkal se prat:kal tak dikhalayi pade aur jisamen chandrama poornata prapt kare. chitra, vishakha, jyeshtha, poorvashadha nakshatr, uttarashadha nakshatr, shravan, uttara bhadrapad nakshatr, poorva bhadrapad nakshatr, ashvini, krittika, mrigashira, pushy, magha aur phalguni nakshatron ke anusar hi chandr mason ke nam kramash:
  1. chaitr
  2. vaishakh
  3. jyeshth
  4. ashadh
  5. shravan
  6. bhadrapad
  7. ashvin
  8. kartik
  9. margashirsh
  10. paush
  11. magh
  12. phalgun hote hain.
  • chandr varsh saur varsh se 11 din, 3 ghadi 48 pal kam hota hai. saur varsh se chandr varsh ka samnjasy rakhane ke liye 32 mahine, 16 din, 4 ghadi par ek chandr mas ki vriddhi mani jati hai. is par bhi poora samnjasy n hone se lagabhag 140 ya 190 varsh ke bad ek chandr mas ka kshay mana jata hai; kintu jis varsh men kshay-mas hota hai, us varsh men kshay-mas se tin mas poorv ke aur tin mas pashchath ke donon chandr mason ki vriddhi hoti hai. is prakar us varsh do adhik mas bhi hote hain. kshay-mas kartik, margashirsh aur paush-in tin mason men se hi koee hota hai; kyonki inhin mahinon men saur mas chandr mas se nyoon ho sakata hai.
  • kartik mas madhy ka hai, at: isaki vriddhi ya kshay donon sambhav hain.
  • magh mas sthir mas hai. yah n kshay hota hai, n badhata hi hai. jab do amavasyaon ke bich men soory ki do snkrantiyan pad jayn to vah chandr mas kshay mana jayaga; kyonki samast puny karm tithiyon ke anusar hote hain, atev dharmik krityon men to chandr mas hi upayog men a sakata hai.
  • rajanitik 'karyon men saur mas ka upayog hona chahiye; kyonki usamen tithiyon ke ghatane-badhane ki bat n hone se hisab hi thik rakha ja sakata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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