विवाह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vivah

vivah manav samaj ki atynt mahattvapoorn pratha ya snstha hai. yah samaj ka nirman karane vali sabase chhoti ikaee parivar ka mool hai. ise manav jati ke sataty ko banae rakhane ka pradhan sadhan mana jata hai. is shabd ka prayog mukhy roop se do arthon men hota hai. isaka pahala arth vah kriya, snskar, vidhi ya paddhati hai jisase pati-patni ke sthayi snbndh ka nirman hota hai. prachin evn madhyakal ke dharmashastri tatha vartaman yug ke samajashastri samaj dvara svikar ki gee 'parivar ki sthapana karane vali kisi bhi paddhati' ko vivah manate hain. manusmriti ke tikakar medhatithi[1] ke shabdon men 'vivah ek nishchit paddhati se kiya jane vala, anek vidhiyon se snpann hone vala tatha kanya ko patni banane vala snskar hai.' raghunndan ke matanusar 'us vidhi ko vivah kahate hain jisase koee stri (kisi ki) patni banati hai.' vaistaramark ne ise ek ya adhik purushon ka ek ya adhik striyon ke sath aisa snbndh bataya hai, jo is snbndh ko karane vale donon pakshon ko tatha unaki sntan ko kuchh adhikar evn kartavy pradan karata hai.

vivah ka doosara arth samaj men prachalit evn svikrit vidhiyon dvara sthapit kiya jane vala danpaty snbndh aur parivarik jivan bhi hota hai. is snbndh se pati patni ko anek prakar ke adhikar aur kartavy prapt hote hain. isase jahan ek or samaj pati patni ko kamasukh ke upabhog ka adhikar deta hai, vahan doosari or pati patni tatha sntan ke palan evn bharanaposhan ke lie badhy karata hai. snskrit men 'pati' ka shabdarth hai palan karane vala tatha 'bharya' ka arth hai bharanaposhan ki jane yogy nari. pati ke sntan aur bachchon par kuchh adhikar mane jate hain. vivah pray: samaj men navajat praniyon ki sthiti ka nirdharan karata hai. snpatti ka uttaradhikar adhikansh samajon men vaidh vivahon se utpann sntan ko hi diya jata hai.

vivah ka udgam

manav samaj men vivah ki snstha ke pradurbhav ke bare men 19vin shatabdi men vekhophan (1815-80 ee.), morgan (1818-81 ee.) tatha maikalinan (1827-81) ne vibhinn pramanon ke adhar par is mat ka pratipadan kiya tha ki manav samaj ki adim avastha men vivah ka koee bndhan nahin tha, sab nar-nariyon ko yathechchh kamasukh ka adhikar tha. mahabharat [2] men pandu ne apani patni kunti ko niyog ke lie prerit karate hue kaha hai ki purane jamane men vivah ki koee pratha n thi, stri purushon ko yaun snbndh karane ki poori svatntrata thi. kaha jata hai, bharat men shvetaketu ne sarvapratham vivah ki maryada sthapit ki. chin, misr aur yoonan ke prachin sahity men bhi kuchh aise ullekh milate hain. inake adhar par lard evabari, phison, havit, telar, spensar, jilanakov levaski, liyyart aur shurts adi pashchimi vidvanon ne vivah ki adim dasha kamachar (pramisakuiti) ki avastha mani. kropatakin vlakh aur vraphalt ne pratipadit kiya ki prarnbhik kamachar ki dasha ke bad bahubharyata (polijini) ya anek patniyan rakhane ki pratha vikasit huee aur isake bad ant men ek hi nari ke sath panigrahan karane (monogemi) ka niyam prachalit hua.

kintu charls darvin ne pranishastr ke adhar par vivah ke adim roop ki is kalpana ka prabal khndan kiya, vaistaramark, laung gras tatha krale prabhriti samajashastriyon ne is mat ki pushti ki. prasiddh samajashastri rirkkh ne likha hai ki hamare pas is kalpana ka koee pusht praman nahin hai ki bhootakal men kabhi kamachar ki samany dasha prachalit thi. vivah ki snstha manav samaj men jivashastriy avashyakataon se utpann huee hai. isaka mool karan apani jati ko surakshit banae rakhane ki chinta hai. yadi purush yaun snbndh ke bad prithakh ho jae, garbhavastha men patni ki dekhabhal n ki jae, sntan utpann hone par usake samarth evn bada hone tak usaka poshan n kiya jae to manav jati ka avashyamev unmoolan ho jaega. at: atmasnrakshan ki drishti se vivah ki snstha ki utpatti huee hai. yah keval manav samaj men hi nahin, apitu manushy ke poorvaj samajhe jane vale gorilla, chinpaji adi men bhi paee jati hain. at: kamachar se vivah ke pradurbhav ka mat apramanik aur amany hai.

vivah ke vibhinn paksh

vaiyaktik drishti se vivah pati-patni ki maitri aur sajhedari hai. donon ke sukh, vikas aur poornata ke lie avashyak seva, sahayog, prem aur svarthatyag ke anek gunon ki shiksha vaivahik jivan se milati hai. nar-nari ki anek akankshaen vivah evn sntan prapti dvara poorn hoti hain. unhen yah sntosh hota hai ki unake n rahane par bhi sntan unaka nam aur kul ki parnpara akshunn rakhegi, unaki snpatti ki uttaradhikarini banegi tatha vriddhavastha men unhen avalnb degi. hindoo samaj men vaidik yug se yah vishvas prachalit hai ki patni manushy ka adha ansh hai, manushy tab tak adhoora rahata hai, jab tak vah patni prapt karake sntan nahin utpann kar leta [3]. purush prakriti ke bina aur shiv shakti ke bina adhoora hai.

dharmik paksh

vivah ek dharmik snbndh hai. prachin yoonan, rom, bharat adi sabhi sabhy deshon men vivah ko dharmik bndhan evn kartavy samajha jata tha. vaidik yug men ygy karana pratyek vyakti ke lie anivary tha, kintu ygy patni ke bina poorn nahin ho sakata, at: vivah sabake lie dharmik drishti se avashyak tha. 'patni' shabd ka arth hi ygy men sath baithane vali stri hai. shri ram ka ashvamedh ygy patni ke bina poora nahin ho saka tha, at: unhen sita ki pratima sthapit karani padi. yagyvalky[4] ne ek patni ke marane par ygykary chalane ke lie phauran doosari patni ke lane ka adesh diya hai. pitaron ki atmaon ka uddhar putron ke pindadan aur tarpan se hi hota hai, is dharmik vishvas ne bhi vivah ko hindoo samaj men dharmik kartavy bataya hai. romanon ka bhi yah vishvas tha ki paralok ke mrit poorvajon ka sukhi rahana is bat par avalnbit tha ki unaka mritak snskar yathavidhi ho tatha unaki atma ki shanti ke lie unhen apane vnshajon ki prarthanaen, bhoj aur bhenten yathasamay milati rahen. yahoodiyon ki dharmasnhita ke anusar vivah se bachane vala vyakti unake dharmagrnth ke adeshon ka ullnghan karane ke karan hatyare jaisa aparadhi mana jata tha. vivah ka dharmik mahatv hone se hi adhikansh samajon men vivah ki vidhi ek dharmik snskar mani jati rahi hai.

mee, 1955 se lagoo hone vale 'hindoo vivah qanoon' se pahale hindoo samaj men dharmik snskar se snpann hone vala vivah avichchhedy tha. roman kaitholik charch ise ab tak aisa dharmik bndhan samajhata hai. kintu ab audyogik kranti se utpann hone vale parivartanon se tatha dharmik vishvason men astha shithil hone se vivah ke dharmik paksh ka mahatv kam hone laga hai.

arthik paksh

prasooti ke samay men tatha usake bad kuchh kal tak karyaksham n hone ke karan patni ko pati ke avalnb ki avashyakata hoti hai, is karan donon men shramavibhajan hota hai, patni bachchon ke lalan palan aur ghar ke kam ko snbhalati hai aur pati patni tatha sntan ke bharanaposhan ka dayitv leta hai. 18vin shatabdi ke ant men hone vali audyogik kranti se pahale tak vivah dvara utpann hone vali parivar arthik utpadan ka kendr tha; krishak athava qarigar apane ghar men rahata hua ann vastradi ka utpadan karata tha; parivar ke sab sadasy use is kary men sahayata dete the. ghareloo avashyakata ki lagabhag sabhi vastuon ka utpadan ghar men hi parivar ke sab sadasyon dvara ho jane ke karan parivar arthik drishti se svavalnbi ikaee tha. kintu karakhanon men vastr adi ka nirman hone se utpadan ka kendr ghar nahin, milen ban geen. milon dvara prabhoot matra men taiyar kie ge mal ne ghar men inake utpadan ko anavashyak bana diya. vivah evn parivar ki snstha se usake kuchh arthik kary chhin ge, striyan karakhanon adi men kam karane ke karan arthik drishti se svavalnbi ho geen, isase unaki sthiti men kuchh antar ane laga hai. phir bhi, patni aur bachchon ke palanaposhan ke arthik vyay ko vahan karane ka uttaradayitv abhi tak pradhan roop se pati ka mana jata hai. pati dvara uparjit dhan par usaki patni aur vaidh putron ka hi adhikar svikar kiya jata hai.

vidhik paksh

vivah ka ek qanooni ya vidhik paksh bhi hai. parinay sahavas matr nahin hai. kisi bhi manav samaj men nar-nari ko us samay tak danpaty jivan bitane aur sntan utpann karane ka adhikar nahin diya jata, jab tak isake lie samaj ki svikriti n ho. yah svikriti dharmik karmakand ko athava qanoon dvara nishchit vidhiyon ko poora karane se tatha vivah se utpann hone vale dayitvon ko svikar karane se prapt hoti hai. anek adhunik samajon men vivah ko var-vadhoo ki sahamati se hone vala vishuddh qanooni anubndh samajha jata hai. kintu yah smaran rakhana chahie ki yah any sabhi prakar ke anubndhon ya snvidaon se bhinn hai kyonki unamen anubndh karane vale vyakti isaki sharten tay karate hain, kintu vivah ke kartavy aur dayitv var-vadhoo ki ichchha par avalnbit nahin hain; ve samaj ki roodhi, parnpara aur qanoon dvara nishchit hote hain.

samajik paksh

vivah ka samajik aur naitik paksh bhi mahattvapoorn hai. vivah se utpann hone vali sntati parivar men rahate hue hi samuchit vikas aur prashikshan prapt karake samaj ka upayogi ang banati hai, balak ko kisi samaj ke adarshon ke anuroop dhalane ka tatha usake charitr nirman ka pradhan sadhan parivar hai. yadyapi ajakal shishu-shalaen, balodyan, skool aur rajy bachchon ke palan, shikshan aur samajikaran ke kuchh kary apane oopar le rahe hain, tathapi yah nirvivad hai ki balak ka samuchit vikas parivar men hi snbhav hai. pratyek samaj vivah dvara manushy ki uddam evn uchchhnkhal yaun bhavanaon par ankush lagakar use niyntrit karata hai aur samaj men naitikata ki raksha karata hai.

kisi bhi samaj men manushy vivah karane ke lie poorn roop se svatntr nahin hai. use is vishay men kee prakar ke niyamon ka palan karana padata hai. ye niyam pradhan roop se nimnalikhit baton ke snbndh men hote hain-

  1. var-vadhoo ke chunav ke niyam
  2. patni prapt karane ke niyam
  3. vivah snskar ki vidhiyan
  4. vivah ke vibhinn roop
  5. vivah ki avadhi ke niyam.

var-vadhoo chunane ke niyam

lagabhag sabhi samajon men vadhoo chunane ke snbndh men do prakar ke niyam hote hain. pahale prakar ke niyam antarvivah vishayak (endogemas) hote hain. inake anusar ek vishisht varg ke vyaktiyon ko usi varg ke andar rahane vale vyaktiyon men se hi vadhoo ko chunana padata hai. ve us varg se bahar ke kisi vyakti ke sath vivah nahin kar sakate. doosare prakar ke bahirvivahi niyamon ke anusar pratyek vyakti ko ek vishisht samooh se bahar ke vyaktiyon ke sath hi, vivah karana padata hai. ye donon niyam oopar se paraspar virodhi hote hue bhi vastav men aise nahin hain, kyonki inaka snbndh vibhinn prakar ke samoohon se hota hai. inhen vritton ke udaharan se bhali bhanti samajha ja sakata hai. pratyek samaj men ek vishal bahari vritt hota hai. is vritt se bahar kisi vyakti ke sath vaivahik snbndh varjit hota hai, kintu is bade vritt ke bhitar anek chhote chhote samoohon ke anek vritt hote hain, pratyek vyakti ko is chhote vritt ke samooh ke bahar, kintu bade vritt ke bhitar hi vidyaman kisi any samooh ke vyakti ke sath vivah karana padata hai. hindoo samaj men is prakar ka vishal vritt jati ka hai aur chhote vritt vibhinn gotron ke hain. samany roop se is shatabdi ke arnbh tak pratyek hindoo ko apani jati ke bhitar, kintu gotr se bahar vivah karana padata tha. vah apani jati se bahar aur gotr ke bhitar vivah nahin kar sakata tha.

patni prapti ki vidhiyan

antarvivah aur bahirvivah ke niyamon ka palan karate hue vadhoo ko prapt karane ki vidhiyon ke snbndh men manav samaj men bada vaividhy drishtigochar hota hai. bharyaprapti ki vibhinn vidhiyon ko apaharan, kray aur sahamati ke tin bade vargon men banta ja sakata hai.

apaharan vidhi

apaharan ki vidhi ka tatpary patni ki tatha usake snbndhiyon ki ichchha ke bina usapar balapoorvak adhikar karana hai. ise bharatiy dharmashastr men 'rakshas aur paishach vivahon' ka nam diya gaya hai. yah aj tak kee vany jatiyon men paee jati hai. udisa ki bhuiyan janajati ke bare men kaha jata hai ki yadi kisi yuvak ka yuvati se prem ho, kintu yuvati athava usake mata pita us vivah ke lie sahamat n hon to yuvak apani mitramndali ki sahayata se apani premika ka apaharan kar leta hai aur isase pray: bhishan ladaiyan hoti hain. snthal, munda, bhoomij, gond, bhil aur naga adi aranyak jatiyon men yah pratha paee jati hai. any deshon aur jatiyon men bhi isaka prachalan milata hai.

kray ya seva vivah

patni prapti ka doosara sadhan kray vivah arthath‌ paisa dekar ladaki ko kharidana hai. hindoo shastron ki paribhasha ke anusar ise 'asur vivah' kaha jata hai. bharat ki snthal, ho, oranv, khadiya, gond, bhil adi jatiyon men kanya ke mata pita ko kanyashulk[5] dekar patni prapt karane ki paripati hai. hindoo samaj ke uchch varg men ladakon ka mahatv hone se unake mata-pita kanya ke mata-pita se dahez roop men dhan prapt karate hain, kintu nimn varg men vany jatiyon men kanya ka arthik mahatv hone ke karan kanya ka pita var se athava var ke mata-pita se kanya dene ke badale men dhanarashi prapt karata hai. yadi var dhanarashi dene men asamarth hota hai to vah shvasur ke yahan seva karake kanyashulk pradan karata hai. gondon aur baiga logon men shvasur ke yahan is prakar tin se panch varsh tak naukari tatha kadi mehanat karane ke bad patni prapt hoti hai. ise 'seva vivah' bhi kaha jata hai.

mata-pita ki sahamati se

patni-prapti ka tisara sadhan var-vadhoo ke mata-pita ki sahamati se vyavasthit kiya jane vala vivah hai. is shatabdi ke arnbh tak hindoo samaj men bal vivah ki pratha prachalit hone ke karan sabhi vivah isi prakar ke hote the, ab bhi yadyapi shiksha ke prasar tatha arthik svavalnban ke karan var-vadhoo ki sahamati se hone vale 'pranay athava gndharv vivahon' ki snkhya badh rahi hai, tathapi adhikatar vivah ab bhi mata-pita ki sahamati se hote hain.

patni-prapti ke uparyukt sadhan adhunik samajashastriy vidvanon ke vargikaran ke adhar par hain. prachin bharatiy dharmashastrakaron ne inhin ko 'brahm', 'daiv', 'arsh', 'prajapaty', 'asur', 'gandharv', 'rakshas' aur 'paishach' namak ath prakar ke vivahon ka nam diya tha. inamen se pahale char prakar ke vivah prashast tatha dharmanukool samajhe jate the. ye sab vivah mata-pita ki sahamati se kie jane vale uparyukt vivah ke antargat hain. dharmik vidhi ke sath snpann hone vale sabhi vivahon men kanya ko vastrabhooshan se alnkrit karake usaka dan kiya jata tha. kintu pichhale char vivahon men kanya ka dan nahin hota, vah mooly se ya prem se ya balapoorvak li jati hai.

  • asur vivah uparyukt kray vivah ka doosara roop hai. isamen var kanya ke pita ko kuchh dhanarashi dekar use prapt karata hai. isaka prasiddh udaharan pandu ke sath madri ka vivah hai.
  • gandharv vivah var aur vadhoo ke parasparik prem aur sahamati ke karan hota hai. isaka prasiddhatam prachin udaharan dushynt aur shakuntala ka vivah tha.
  • rakshas vivah men var kanyapaksh ke snbndhiyon ko marakar ya ghayal karake roti chikhati kanya ko apane ghar le ata tha. yah pratha kshatriyon men prachalit thi. isaka prasiddh udaharan shrikrishn dvara rukmini ka tatha arjun dvara subhadra ka haran hai.
  • paishach vivah men soee huee, sharab adi pine se unmatt stri se ekant men snbndh sthapit karake vivah kiya jata tha. manu ne[6] isaki ninda karate hue ise sabase adhik papapoorn aur adharm vivah kaha hai.

vivah ke vibhinn roop

bahurbhayata, bahubhartrita, ek vivah, yahi-pati ya patni ki snkhya ke adhar par vivah ke tin roop mane jate hain. isake atirikt bhi kee prakar ke vivah hote hain, jo nimnalikhit hain-

  1. antarvivah
  2. bahirvivah
  3. bahubharyata vivah
  4. ekapatnitv vivah
  5. bahubhartrita vivah
  6. bal vivah
  7. vidhava vivah

vaivahik vidhiyan

lagabhag sabhi samajon men vivah ka snskar kuchh vishisht vidhiyon ke sath snpann kiya jata hai. yah nar-nari ke pati-patni banane ki ghoshana karata hai, snbndhiyon ko snskar ke samaroh men bulakar unhen is navin danpaty snbndh ka sakshi bataya jata hai, dharmik vidhiyon dvara use qanooni manyata aur samajik sahamati pradan ki jati hai. vaivahik vidhiyon ka pradhan uddeshy navin snbndh ka vigyapan karana, ise sukhamay banana tatha nana prakar ke anishton se isaki raksha karana hai. vivah snskar ki vidhiyon men vismayavah vaividhy hai. kintu inhen char bade vargon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai.

pahale varg men var vadhoo ki sthiti men anevale parivartan ko soochit karane vali vidhiyan hain. vivah men kanyadan kanya ke pita se pati ke niyntran men jane ki sthiti ko dyotit karata hai. inglaind, pailestain, java, chin men vadhoo ko ne ghar ki dehali men pravesh ke samay uthakar le jana vadhoo dvara ghar ke parivartan ko mahattvapoorn banana hai. skatalaind men vadhoo ke pichhe purana joota yah soochit karane ke lie phenka jata hai ki ab pita ka us par koee adhikar nahin raha.

doosare varg ki vidhiyon ka uddeshy dushprabhavon ko door karana hai. yoorop aur aphrika men vivah ke samay dushtatmaon ko mar bhagane ke lie ban phenke jate hain aur bndooken chhodi jati hain. dushtatmaon ka nivasasthan andhakarapoorn sthan hote hain aur vivah men agni ke prayog se inaka vidravan kiya jata hai. vivah ke samay var dvara talavar adi ka dharan, inglaind men vadhoo dvara dushtatmaon ko bhagane men samarth samajhi jane vali ghode ki nal le jane ki vidhi ka karan bhi yahi samajha jata hai.

tisare varg men urvarata ki pratik aur sntan samriddhi ki kamana ko soochit karane vali vidhiyan ati hain. bharat, chin, malaya men vadhoo par chaval, anaj tatha phal dalane ki vidhiyan prachalit hain. jis prakar ann ka ek dana bisiyon ne danen paida karata hai, usi prakar vadhoo se prachur snkhya men sntan utpann karane ki asha rakhi jati hai. slav deshon men vadhoo ki god men isi uddeshy se ladaka baithaya jata hai.

chauthe varg ki vidhiyan var vadhoo ki ekata aur abhinnata ko soochit karati hain. dakshini selibij men varavadhoo ke vastron ko sikar un par ek kapada dal diya jata hai. bharat aur eeran men prachalit grnthibndhan ki paddhati ka bhi yahi uddeshy hai.

vivah ki avadhi tatha talak

is vishay men manav samaj ke vibhinn bhagon men bada vaividhy drishtigochar hota hai. vestaramark ke matanusar sabhyata ke nimn star men rahane vali, akhet tatha arnbhik krishi se jivanayapan karane vali, shrilnka ki bedda tatha andaman adivasi jatiyon men vivah ke bad pati-patni mrityu paryat ikattha rahate hain aur inamen talak nahin hota. jin samajon men vivah ko dharmik snskar mana jata hai, unamen pray: vivah avichchhedy snbndh mana jata hai. hindoo evn roman kaitholik eesaee samaj isake sundar udaharan hai. kintu vivah vichchhed ya talak ke niyamon ke snbndh men atyadhik bhinnata hone par bhi kuchh maulik siddhanton men samanata hai. vivah mukhy roop se sntanaprapti evn danpaty snbndh ke lie kiya jata hai, kintu yadi kisi vivah men ye prapt n hon to danpaty jivan ko narakiy ya viphal banane ki apeksha vivah vichchhed ki anumati di jani chahie. is vyavastha ka durupayog n ho, is drishti se talak ka adhikar anek pratibndhon ke sath vishesh avastha men hi diya jata hai. talak ka mukhy adhar vyabhichar hai kyonki yah vaivahik jivan ke mool par hi kutharaghat karane vala hai. isake atirikt kuchh any karan bhi hai.

vivah ka bhavishy

pleto ke samay se vicharak vivah-pratha ki samapti ki tatha rajy dvara bachchon ke palan ki kalpana kar rahe hain. vartaman samay ke audyogik evn vaigyanik parivartanon se tatha pashchimi deshon men talakon ki badhati huee bhayavah snkhya ke adhar par vivah ki snstha ke lop ki bhavishyavani karane valon ki kami nahin hai. isamen koee sndeh nahin hai ki is samay vivah ke parnparagat svaroopon men kee karanon se bade parivartan a rahe hain. vivah ko dharmik bndhan ke sthan par qanooni bndhan tatha pati-patni ka niji mamala manane ki pravritti badh rahi hai. audyogik kranti aur shiksha ke prasar se striyan arthik drishti se svavalnbi ban rahi hain. pahale unake sukhamay jivanayapan ka ekamatr sadhan vivah tha, ab aisi sthiti nahin rahi. vivah aur talak ke navin qanoon danpaty adhikaron men nar-nari ke adhikaron ko saman bana rahe hain. dharm ke prati astha men shithilata aur garbhanirodh ke sadhanon ke avishkar ne vivah vishayak purani manyataon ko, pragvaivahik satitv aur pavitrata ko gahara dhakka pahunchaya hai. kintu ye sab parivartan hote hue bhi bhavishy men vivah pratha ke bane rahane ka prabal karan yah hai ki isase kuchh aise prayojan poore hote hain, jo kisi any sadhan ya snstha se nahin ho sakate. pahala prayojan vnsh vriddhi ka hai. yadyapi vigyan ne kritrim garbhadhan ka avishkar kiya hai kintu kritrim roop se shishuon ka prayogashalaon men utpadan aur vikas snbhav pratit nahin hota. doosara prayojan sntan ka palan hai, rajy aur samaj shishushalaon aur balodyanon ka kitana hi vikas kar le, unamen inake sarvangin samuchit vikas ki vaisi vyavastha snbhav nahin, jaisi vivah evn parivar ki snstha men hoti hai. tisara prayojan sachche danpaty prem aur sukh prapti ka hai. yah bhi vivah ke atirikt kisi any sadhan se snbhav nahin. in prayojanon ki poorti ke lie bhavishy men vivah ek mahattvapoorn snstha bani rahegi, bhale hi usamen kuchh n kuchh parivartan hote rahen.[7][8]

hindoo vivah adhiniyam 1955

smriti kal se hi hinduon men vivah ko ek pavitr snskar mana gaya hai aur hindoo vivah adhiniyam 1955 men bhi isako isi roop men banae rakhane ki cheshta ki gee hai. kintu vivah, jo pahale ek pavitr evn atoot bndhan tha, adhiniyam ke antargat, aisa nahin rah gaya hai. kuchh vidhi vicharakon ki drishti men yah vicharadhara ab shithil pad gee hai. ab yah janm janmantar ka snbndh athava bndhan nahin varanh‌ vishesh paristhitiyon ke utpann hone par, (adhiniyam ke antargat) vaivahik snbndh vighatit kiya ja sakata hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (3.20)
  2. (1.122.3-31)
  3. (shatapath brahman, 5.2.1.10)
  4. (1.89)
  5. braid prais
  6. (3.34)
  7. sndarbh grnth- vestaramark : histri aauv hyooman mairij, tisara khnd; haridatt vedalnkar : hindoo vivah ka itihas.
  8. . vivah (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 8 apral, 2013.

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