मध्यकालीन भारत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(मध्य काल se punarnirdeshit)
bharat ka itihas
pashan yug- 70000 se 3300 ee.poo
meharagadh snskriti 7000-3300 ee.poo
sindhu ghati sabhyata- 3300-1700 ee.poo
hadappa snskriti 1700-1300 ee.poo
vaidik kal- 1500–500 ee.poo
prachin bharat - 1200 ee.poo–240 ee.
mahajanapad 700–300 ee.poo
magadh samrajy 545–320 ee.poo
satavahan samrajy 230 ee.poo-199 ee.
maury samrajy 321–184 ee.poo
shung samrajy 184–123 ee.poo
shak samrajy 123 ee.poo–200 ee.
kushan samrajy 60–240 ee.
poorv madhyakalin bharat- 240 ee.poo– 800 ee.
chol samrajy 250 ee.poo- 1070 ee.
gupt samrajy 280–550 ee.
pal samrajy 750–1174 ee.
pratihar samrajy 830–963 ee.
rajapoot kal 900–1162 ee.
madhyakalin bharat- 500 ee.– 1761 ee.
dilli saltanat
gulam vnsh
khilaji vnsh
tugalaq vnsh
saiyyad vnsh
lodi vnsh
mugal samrajy
1206–1526 ee.
1206-1290 ee.
1290-1320 ee.
1320-1414 ee.
1414-1451 ee.
1451-1526 ee.
1526–1857 ee.
dakkan saltanat
bahamani vnsh
nizamashahi vnsh
1490–1596 ee.
1358-1518 ee.
1490-1565 ee.
dakshini samrajy
rashtrakoot vnsh
hoyasal samrajy
kakatiya samrajy
vijayanagar samrajy
1040-1565 ee.
736-973 ee.
1040–1346 ee.
1083-1323 ee.
1326-1565 ee.
adhunik bharat- 1762–1947 ee.
maratha samrajy 1674-1818 ee.
sikh rajyasngh 1716-1849 ee.
aupanivesh kal 1760-1947 ee.
madhyakalin bharat (500 ee.– 1761 ee.)

lagabhag 632 ee. men 'hazarat muhammad' ki mrityu ke uparant 6 varshon ke andar hi unake uttaradhikariyon ne siriya, misr, uttari afrika, spen evn eeran ko jit liya. is samay khalifa samrajy frans ke layar namak sthan se lekar aksas evn kabul nadi tak phail gaya tha. apane is vijay abhiyan se prerit arabiyon ki lalachaee ankhe bharatiy sima par padin. unhonne jal evn thal donon margon ka upayog karate hue bharat par anek dhave bole, par 712 ee. tak unhen koee mahattvapoorn saphalata prapt nahin huee. madhyakalin bharat men yahi vah samay tha, jab bharat men soofi andolan ki shuruat huee.

bharat par arabon ka akraman

apani saphalataon ke josh se bhare hue arabon ne ab sindh par akraman karana shuroo kiya. sindh par arabon ke akraman ke pichhe chhipe karanon ke vishay men vidvanon ka manana hai ki, eerak ka shasak 'al hajjaj' bharat ki sampannata ke karan use jit kar sampann banana chahata tha. doosare karan ke roop men mana jata hai ki, arabon ke kuchh jahaz, jinhen sindh ke deval bandaragah par kuchh samudri luteron ne loot liya tha, ke badale men khalifa ne sindh ke raja dahir se jurmane ki mang ki. kintu dahir ne asamarthata jatate hue kaha ki, usaka un dakuon par koee niyntran nahin hai. is javab se khalifa ne kruddh hokar sindh par akraman karane ka nishchay kiya. lagabhag 712 men hajjaj ke bhatije evn damad muhammad bin kasim ne 17 varsh ki avastha men sindh ke abhiyan ka saphal netritv kiya. usane deval, neroon, sivistan jaise kuchh mahattvapoorn durgon ko apane adhikar men kar liya, jahan se usake hath dher sara loot ka mal laga. is jit ke bad kasim ne sindh, bahamanabad, alod adi sthanon ko jitate hue madhy pradesh ki or prasthan kiya.

muhammad bin kasim ke akraman (711-715 ee.)

kasim ke dvara kiye ge akramanon men usaki nimn vijay ullekhaniy hain-

deval vijay

ek badi sena lekar muhammad bin kasim ne 711 ee. men deval par akraman kar diya. dahir ne apani adooradarshita ka parichay dete hue deval ki raksha nahin ki aur pashchimi kinaron ko chhodakar poorvi kinaron se bachav ki ladaee prarambh kar di. dahir ke bhatije ne rajapooton se milakar qile ki raksha karane ka prayas kiya, kintu asaphal raha.

neoon vijay

neoon pakistan men vartaman haidarabad ke dakshin men sthit charak ke samip tha. deval ke bad muhammad kasim neoon ki or badha. dahir ne neoon ki raksha ka dayitv ek purohit ko saunp kar apane bete jayasinh ko brahmanabad bula liya. neoon men bauddhon ki snkhya adhik thi. unhonne muhammad bin kasim ka svagat kiya. is prakar bina yuddh kie hi mir qasim ka neoon durg par adhikar ho gaya.

sehavan vijay

neoon ke bad muhammad bina kasim sehavan (sivistan) ki or badha. is samay vahan ka shasak majhara tha. isane bina yuddh kie hi nagar chhod diya aur bina kisi kathinaee ke sehavan par muhammad bin kasim ka adhikar ho gaya.

sisam ke jaton par vijay

sehavan ke bad muhammad bin kasim ne sisam ke jaton par apana agala akraman kiya. bajhara yahin par mar dala gaya. jaton ne muhammad bin kasim ki adhinata svikar kar li.

raor vijay

sisam vijay ke bad kasim raor ki or badha. dahir aur muhammad bin kasim ki senaon ke bich ghamasan yuddh hua. isi yuddh men dahir mara gaya. dahir ke bete jayasinh ne raor durg ki raksha ka dayitv apani vidhava man par chhodakar brahmanavad chala gaya. durg ki raksha karane men apane ap ko asaphal pakar dahir ki vidhava patni ne atmadah kar liya. isake bad kasim ka raor par niyntran sthapit ho gaya.

brahmanavad par adhikar

brahmanavad ki suraksha ka dayitv dahir ke putr jayasinh ke oopar tha. usane kasim ke akraman ka bahaduri ke sath samana kiya, kintu nagar ke logon ke vishvasaghat ke karan vah parajit ho gaya. brahmanavad par kasim ka adhikar ho gaya. kasim ne yahan ka kosh tatha dahir ki doosari vidhava rani ladi ke sath usaki do putriyon sooryadevi tatha paramal devi ko apani qabze men kar liya.

alor vijay

brahmanavad par adhikar ke bad kasim alor pahuncha. prarambh men alor ke nivasiyon ne kasim ka samana kiya, kintu ant men vivash hokar atmasamarpan kar diya.

multan vijay

alor par vijay prapt karane ke bad kasim multan pahuncha. yahan par antarik kalah ke karan vishvasaghatiyon ne kasim ki sahayata ki. unhonne nagar ke jalasrot ki janakari arabon ko de di, jahan se durg nivasiyon ko jal ki apoorti ki jati thi. isase durg ke sainikon ne atmasamarpan kar diya. kasim ka nagar par adhikar ho gaya. is nagar se mir qasim ko itana dhan mila ki, usane ise 'svarnanagar' nam diya.

muhammad bin kasim ki vapasi

714 ee. men hajjaj ki aur 715 ee men khalifa ki mrityu ke uparant muhammad bin kasim ko vapas bula liya gaya. sambhavatah sindh vijay abhiyan men muhammad bin kasim ki vahan ke bauddh bhikshuon ne sahayata ki thi. arab ki rajanitik sthiti samany n hone ke karan dahir ne apane putr jayasinh ko bahamanabad par punah qabza karane ke lie bheja, parantu sindh ke rajyapal junaid ne jayasinh ko hara kar bndi bana liya. brahmanabad ke patan ke bad muhammad bin kasim ne dahir ki doosari vidhava rani ladi aur dahir ki do kanyaon sooryadevi aur paramaladevi ko bandi banaya. kalantar men kee bar junaid ne bharat ke antarik bhagon ko jitane hetu senaain bheji, parantu nagabhatt pratham, pulakeshi pratham evn yashovarman (chaluky) ne ise vapas khaded diya. is prakar arabiyon ka shasan bharat men sindh prant tak simat kar rah gaya. kalantar men unhen sindh ka bhi tyag karana pada.

arabon ke bharat par akraman ka parinam

arab akraman ka bharatiy sabhyata evn snskriti par lagabhag 1000 ee. tak prabhav raha. prarambh men arabiyon ne kathorata se islam dharm ko thopane ka prayas kiya, par tatkalin shasakon ke virodh ke karan unhen apani niti badalani padi. sindh par arabon ke shasan se paraspar donon snskritiyon ke madhy pratikriya huee. arabiyon ki muslim snskriti par bharatiy snskriti ka kafi prabhav pada. arab vasiyon ne chikitsa, darshan, nakshatr vigyan, ganit (dashamalav pranali) evn shasan prabndh ki shiksha bharatiyon se hi grahan ki. charak snhita evn pnchatntr grnthon ka arabi bhasha men anuvad kiya gaya. bagadad ke khalifaon ne bharatiy viddhanon ko snrakshan pradan kiya. khalifa mnsoor ke samay men arab viddhanon ne apane sath brahmagupt dvara rachit 'brahmasiddhant' evn 'khandanakhady' ko lekar bagadad gaye aur al-fajari ne bharatiy vidvanon ke sahayog se in grnthon ka arabi bhasha men anuvad kiya. bharatiy sampark se arab sabase adhik khagol shastr ke kshetr men prabhavit hue. bharatiy khagol shastr ke adhar par arabon ne is vishay par anek pustakon ki rachana ki, jisamen sabase pramukh al-fajari ki kitab-ul-jij hai

arabon ne bharat men any vijit pradeshon ki tarah dharm par adharit rajy sthapit karane ka prayas nahin kiya. hinduon ko mahattv ke padon par baithaya gaya. islam dharm ne hindoo dharm ke prati sahishnuta ka pradarshan kiya. arabon ki sindh vijay ka arthik kshetr bhi prabhav pada. arab se ane vale vyapariyon ne pashchim samudr evn dakshin poorvi eshiya men apane prabhav ka vistar kiya. atah yah svabhavik tha ki, bharatiy vyapari us samay ki rajanitik shaktiyon par dabav dalate ki, ve arab vyapariyon ke prati sahanubhooti poorn rukh apanayen.

turki akraman

arabon ke bad turko ne bharat par akraman kiya. turk, chin ki uttari-pashchimi simaon par nivas karane vali ek asabhy evn barbar jati thi. unaka uddeshy ek vishal muslim samrajy sthapit karana tha. alaptagin namak ek turk saradar ne gazani men svatantr turk rajy ki sthapana ki. 977 ee. men alaptagin ke damad subuktagin ne gazani par adhikar kar liya. bharat par akraman karane vala pratham muslim muhammad bin kasim (arabi) tha, jabaki bharat par akraman karane vala pratham turki musalaman subuktagin tha. subuktagin se apane rajy ko hone vale bhavi khatare ka poorvanuman lagate hue dooradarshi hindushahi vnsh ke shasak jayapal ne do bar us par akraman kiya, kintu durbhagyavash prakriti ki bhayabhay lilaon ke karan use parajay ka munh dekhana pada. apaman evn kshobh se sntapt jayapal ne atmahatya kar li. 986 ee. men subuktagin ne hindushahi rajavnsh ke raja jayapal ke khilaf ek sngharsh men bhag liya, jisamen jayapal ki parajay huee. subuktagin ke marane se poorv usake rajy ki simayen afaganistan, khurasan, balkh evn pashchimottar bharat tak phaili thi.

subuktagin ki mutyu ke bad usaka putr evn uttaradhikari mahamood gazanavi gazani ki gaddi par baitha. ‘tarikh e gujida’ ke anusar mahamood ne sistan ke raja khalaph bin ahamad ko parajit kar sultan ki upadhi dharan ki. itihasavidon ke anusar sultan ki upadhi dharan karane vala mahamood pahala turk shasak tha. mahamood ne bagadad ke khalifa se ‘yaminudaula’ tatha ‘amir-ul-millah’ upadhi prapt karate samay pratigya ki thi, ki vah prati varsh bharat par ek akraman karega. islam dharm ke prachar aur dhan prapti ke uddeshy se usane bharat par 17 bar akraman kiye. iliyat ke anusar ye sare akraman 1001 se 1026 ee. tak kiye gaye. apane bharatiy akramanon ke samay mahamood ne ‘jehad’ ka nara diya, sath hi apana ‘but shikan’ rakha. halanki itihasakar mahamood gazanavi ko muslim itihas men pratham sultan manate hain, kintu sikkon par usaki upadhi keval ‘amir mahamood’ milati hai.

mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay bharat ki dasha

10vin shatabdi ee. ke ant tak bharat apani bahari suraksha-prachir jabulistan tatha afaganistan kho chuka tha. parinamasvaroop is marg dvara hokar bharat par sidhe akraman kiya ja sakata tha. is samay bharat men rajapoot rajaon ka shasan tha.

kabul evn pnjab ka hindushahi rajy

mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay pnjab evn kabul men hindushahi vnsh ka shasan tha. vah rajy chinab nadi ke hindukush tak phaila hua tha. is rajy ke svami brahman rajavnsh ke shahiya athava hindushah the. isaki rajadhani udbhandapur thi. mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay yahan ka shasak jayapal tha.

multan

yah hindushahi rajy ke dakshin men sthit tha. yahan ka shasak karamathi shiya musalamanon ke hath men tha. mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay yahan ka shasak fateh daood tha.

sindh

arabon ke akraman ke samay se hi sindh par unaka adhipaty tha. majamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay sindh prant men arabon ka shasan tha.

kashmir ka lohar vnsh

mahamood gazanavi ke sinhasanaroodh ke samay kashmir ki shasika rani didda thi. 1003 ee. men didda ki mutyu ke bad sngramaraj gaddi par baitha. usane lohar vnsh ki sthapana ki.

kannauj ke pratihar

mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay kannauj par pratiharon ka shasan tha. pratiharon ki rajadhani kannauj thi. sabase pahale bngal ke raja dharmapal ne is nagar par akraman kiya tatha kuchh varsho tak shasan kiya. mahamood gazanavi ke akraman (1018 ee.) ke samay yahan ka shasak rajyapal tha. usane rajadhani kannauj ko bari men sthanantarit kiya tha.

bngal ka pal vnsh

pal vnsh ki sthapana 750 ee. men gopal ne ki thi. is vnsh ka mahattvapoorn shasak devapal tha. mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay yahan ka sabase mahanh shasak mahipal pratham (992-1026 ee.) tha.

dilli ke tomar

tomar rajapooton ki ek shakha thi. tomar shasak anngapal dilli nagar ka snsthapak tha.

malava ka paramar vnsh

is vnsh ki sthapana navi shatabdi eesavi ke poorvarddh men krishnaraj ne kiya thi. is vnsh ka sabase mahattvapoorn shasak raja bhoj tha. yahan mahamood gazanavi ka samakalin shasak sindhuraj tha.

gujarat ka chaluky vnsh

mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay gujarat par chalukyon ka shasan tha. is kal men chaluky vnsh ke char hue - chamundaraj (997-1009ee.), vallabh raj (1009ee.), durlabh raj (1009-24ee.) tatha bhim pratham (1024-64ee.).

bundelakhand ke chndel

majamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay bundelakhnd men chndelon ka shasan tha. us samay bundelakhand ki rajadhani khajuraho thi.

tripuri ke kalachuri vnsh

kalachuri vnsh ko haihay vnsh bhi kaha jata hai. gujarat ke solnki vnsh se isaka sngharsh chalata tha. mahamood gazanavi ke akraman ke samay dakshin ke do rajy pramukh the. (1) chaluky aur (2) chol. chol shasakon men rajaraj pratham (1014-1015 ee.) mahattvapoorn shasak the.

mahamood gazanavi ke bharat par akraman (1001-1026 ee.)

999 ee. men jab mahamood gazanavi sinhasan par baitha, to usane pratyek varsh bharat par akraman karane ki pratigya ki. usane bharat par kitani bar akraman kiya yah spasht nahin hai. kintu sar henari iliyat ne mahamood gazanavi ke 17 akramanon ka varnan kiya.

pratham akraman (1001 ee.)- mahamood gazanavi ne apana pahala akraman 1001 ee. men bharat ke samipavarti nagaron par kiya. par yahan use koee vishesh saphalata nahin mili.

doosara akraman (1001-1002 ee. - apane doosare abhiyan ke antargat mahamood gazanavi ne simant pradeshon ke shasak jayapal ke viruddh yuddh kiya. usaki rajadhani baihind par adhikar kar liya. jayapal is parajay ke apaman ko sahan nahin kar saka aur usane ag men jalakar atmadah kar liya.

tisara akraman (1004 ee.)- mahamood gazanavi ne uchchh ke shasak vajira ko dandit karane ke lie akraman kiya. mahamood ke bhay ke karan vajira sindhu nadi ke kinare jngal men sharan lene ko bhaga aur ant men usane atmahatya kar li.

chautha akraman (1005 ee.)- 1005 ee. men mahamood gazanavi ne multan ke shasak daood ke viruddh march kiya. is akraman ke dauran usane bhatinda ke shasak anandapal ko parajit kiya aur bad men daood ko parajit kar use adhinata svikar karane ke lie badhy kar diya.

panchava akraman (1007 ee.)- pnjab men ohind par mahamood gazanavi ne jayapal ke pautr sukhapal ko niyukt kiya tha. sukhapal ne islam dharm grahan kar liya tha aur use naushashah kaha jane laga tha. 1007 ee. men sukhapal ne apani svatntrata ki ghoshana kar di thi. mahamood gazanavi ne ohind par akraman kiya aur naushashah ko bandi bana liya gaya.

chhatha akraman (1008 ee.)- mahamood ne 1008 ee. apane is abhiyan ke antargat pahale anandapal ko parajit kiya. bad men usane isi varsh kangadi pahadi men sthit nagarakot par akraman kiya. is akraman men mahamood ko apar dhan ki prapti huee.

satavan akraman (1009 ee.)- is akraman ke antargat mahamood gazanavi ne alavar rajy ke narayanapur par vijay prapt ki.

athavan akraman (1010 ee.)- mahamood ka athavan akraman multan par tha. vahan ke shasak daood ko parajit kar usane multan ke shasan ko sada ke lie apane adhin kar liya.

nauva akraman (1013 ee.)- apane nave abhiyan ke antargat mahamood gazanavi ne thaneshvar par akraman kiya.

dasavan akraman (1013 ee.)- mahamood gazanavi ne apana dasavan akraman nandashah par kiya. hindoo shahi shasak anandapal ne nandashah ko apani nayi rajadhani banaya. vahan ka shasak trilochan pal tha. trilochanapal ne vahan se bhag kar kashmir men sharan liya. turko ne nandashah men lootapat ki.

gyarahavan akraman (1015 ee.)- mahamood ka yah akraman trilochanapal ke putr bhimapal ke viruddh tha, jo kashmir par shasan kar raha tha. yuddh men bhimapal parajit hua.

barahavan akraman (1018 ee.)- apane barahaven abhiyan men mahamood gazanavi ne kannauj par akraman kiya. usane bulndashahar ke shasak haradatt ko parajit kiya. usane mahaban ke shasak bulachnd par bhi akraman kiya. 1019 ee. men usane punah kannauj par akraman kiya. vahan ke shasak rajyapal ne bina yuddh kie hi atmasamarpan kar diya. rajyapal dvara is atmasamarpan se kalinjar ka chndel shasak krodhit ho gaya. usane gvaliyar ke shasak ke sath sndhi kar kannauj par akraman kar diya aur rajyapal ko mar dala.

terahavan akraman (1020 ee.)- mahamood ka terahavan akraman 1020 ee. men hua tha. is abhiyan men usane bari, bundelakhand, kirat tatha lohakot adi ko jit liya.

chaudahavan akraman (1021 ee.)- apane chaudahaven akraman ke dauran mahamood ne gvaliyar tatha kalinjar par akraman kiya. kalinjar ke shasak gonda ne vivash hokar sndhi kar li.

pandrahavan akraman (1024 ee.)- is abhiyan men mahamood gazanavi ne lodorg (jaisalamer), chikalodar (gujarat), tatha anhilavad (gujarat) par vijay sthapit ki.

solahavan akraman (1025 ee.)- is 16ven abhiyan men mahamood gazanavi ne somanath ko apana nishana banaya. usake sabhi abhiyanon men yah abhiyan sarvadhik mahattvapoorn tha. somanath par vijay prapt karane ke bad usane vahan ke prasiddh mndiron ko tod diya tatha apar dhan prapt kiya. yah mndir gujarat men samudr tat par apani apar snpatti ke lie prasiddh tha. is mndir ko lootate samay mahamood ne lagabhag 50,000 brahmanon evn hinduon ka katl kar diya. pnjab ke bahar kiya gaya mahamood ka yah antim akraman tha.

satrahavan akraman (1027 ee.)- yah mahamood gazanavi ka antim akraman tha. yah akraman sindh aur multan ke tatavarti kshetron ke jaton ke viruddh tha. isamen jat parajit hue.

mahamood ke bharatiy akraman ka vastavik uddeshy dhan ki prapti tha. vah ek moortibhnjak akramanakari tha. mahamood ki sena men sevadnray evn tilak jaise hindoo uchch padon par asin vyakti the. mahamood ke bharat akraman ke samay usake sath prasiddh itihasavidh, ganitgy, bhoogolavetta, khagol evn darshan shastr ke gyata tatha ‘kitabul hind’ ka lekhak alabarooni bharat aya. alabarooni mahamood ka darabari kavi tha. ‘tahakik-e-hind’ pustak men usane bharat ka vivaran likha hai. isake atirikt itihasakar ‘utabi’, 'tarikh-e-subuktagin' ka lekhak ‘behaki’ bhi usake sath aye. behaki ko itihasakar lenapool ne ‘poorvi peps’ ki upadhi pradan ki hai. ‘shahanama’ ka lekhak 'firadausi’, faras ka kavi jari khurasani viddhan tusi, mahanh shikshak aur vidvanh unsuri, vidvanh asjadi aur farookhi adi darabari kavi the.

bharat men turk rajy ki sthapana

shihabuddin urph mueejuddin muhammad gori ne bharat men turk rajy ki sthapana ki. gazani aur herat ke madhy sthit chhota pahadi pradesh gor pahale mahamood gazanavi ke qabze men tha. gor men ‘shnsabani vnsh’ sabase pradhan vnsh tha. muhammad gori ne bhi anek akraman kiye. usane pratham akraman 1175 ee. men multan ke viruddh kiya. ek doosare akraman ke antargat gori ne 1178 ee. men gujarat par akraman kiya. yahan par solnki vnsh ka shasan tha. isi vnsh ke bhim dvitiy (moolaraj dvitiy), ne muhammad gori ko aboo parvat ke samip parast kiya. sambhavatah yah muhammad gori ki pratham bharatiy parajay thi. isake bad 1179-86 ee. ke bich usane pnjab par akraman kar vijay prapt ki. 1179 ee. men usane peshavar ko tatha 1185 ee. men syalakot ko jita. 1191 ee. men prithviraj chauhan ke sath gori ki bhidant tarain ke maidan men huee. is yuddh men gori buri tarah parast hua. is yuddh ko ‘taraeen ka pratham yuddh’ kaha gaya hai. ‘tarain ka dvitiy yuddh’ 1192 ee. men taraeen ke maidan men hua, par is yuddh ka parinam muhammad gori ke paksh men raha tatha isake uparant prithviraj chauhan ki hatya kar di gee. 1194 ee. men prasiddh chandavar ka yuddh muhammad gori evn rajapoot naresh jayachandr ke bich lada gaya. jayachandr ki parajay ke uparant usaki hatya kar di gee. jayachandr ko parajit karane ke uparant muhammad gori apane vijit pradeshon ki zimmedari apane gulam kutubuddin aibak ko saunp kar vapas gazani chala gaya. aibak ne apani mahattvapoorn vijay ke antargat 1194 ee. men ajamer ko jitakar yahan par sthit jain mndir evn snskrit vishvavidyalay ko nasht kar unake malave par kramashah ‘kuvval-ul-islam’ evn ‘dhaee din ka jhopada’ ka nirman karavaya. aibak ne 1202-03 ee. men bundelakhand ke mazaboot kalinjar ke kile ko jita. 1197 se 1205 ee. ke madhy aibak ne bngal evn bihar par akraman kar udandapur, bihar, vikramashila evn nalanda vishvavidyalay par adhikar kar liya.

1205 ee. men muhammad gori punah bharat aya aur is bar usaka muqabala khokkharon se hua. usane khokkharon ko parajit kar unaka buri tarah katl kiya. is vijay ke bad muhammad gori jab vapas gazani ja raha tha, to marg men 13 march 1206 ko usaki hatya kar di gee. antatah usake shav ko gazani le jakar dafanaya gaya. gori ki mrityu ke bad usake gulam saradar kutubudaddin aibak ne 1206 ee. men gulam vnsh ki sthapana ki.


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adhar
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