मराठा साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maratha samrajy
chhatrapati shivaji maharaj
vivaran bharat ke ve pramukh log, jo itihas men kshetr rakshak yoddha aur hindoo dharm ke samarthak ke roop men vikhyat hain, inaka grihakshetr, aj ka marathi bhashi kshetr maharashtr rajy hai. maratha samrajy ko 'maharatta' ya 'maharatti' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai.
sthapana 17vin shatabdi
bhasha marathi
rajy maharashtr
maratha yuddh pratham yuddh- 1775-1782 ee.

dvitiy yuddh- 1803-1805 ee.
tritiy yuddh- 1817-1818ee.

shasan aur sainy vyavastha maratha samrajy hindoo tatha musalaman shasan evn sainy vyavastha ka mishrit roop tha. isaka sootrapat shivaji ne kiya, isamen samast rajyashakti raja ke hath men rahati thi.
snbndhit lekh shivaji, shahaji bhonsale, jijabaee, shambhaji, shahoo, tarabaee, balaji bajirav, balaji vishvanath, bajirav pratham, bajirav dvitiy maharashtr, tukaram, marathi
any janakari shivaji ne 'hindoo pad padashahi' evn 'hindutv dhamoddharak' ki upadhi grahan kar punah brahmanon ki raksha ka pran kiya, jo maratha utkarsh ka ek karan raha. in sab karanon ke sath marathon ke utthan men shivaji ki bhoomika evn unake chamatkari vyaktitv ko bhulaya nahin ja sakata.

maratha logon ko 'maharatta' ya 'maharatti' bhi kaha jata hai, bharat ke ve pramukh log, jo itihas men kshetr rakshak yoddha aur hindoo dharm ke samarthak ke roop men vikhyat hain, inaka grihakshetr, aj ka marathi bhashi kshetr maharashtr rajy hai, jisaka pashchimi kshetr samudr tat ke kinare munbee (bhootapoorv bnbee) se gova tak aur antarik kshetr poorv men lagabhag 160 kimi. nagapur tak phaila hua tha.

maratha jati

maratha shabd ka tin milate-julate arthon men upayog hota hai-marathi bhashi kshetr men isase ekamatr prabhutvashali maratha jati ya marathon aur kunbhi jati ke ek samooh ka bodh hota hai, maharashtr ke bahar mote taur par isase samoochi kshetriy marathi bhashi abadi ka bodh hota hai, jisaki snkhya lagabhag 6.5 karod hai. aitihasik roop men yah shabd maratha shasak shivaji dvara 17vin shatabdi men sthapit rajy aur unake uttaradhikariyon dvara 18vin shatabdi men vistarit kshetriy rajy ke lie prayukt hota hai.

maratha jati ke log mukhyatah gramin kisan, zamindar aur sainik the, kuchh marathon aur kunbhiyon ne kabhi-kabhi kshatriy hone ka dava bhi kiya aur isaki pushti ve apane kul-nam v vnshavali ko mahakavyon ke nayakon, uttar ke rajapoot vnshon ya poorv madhyakal ke aitihasik rajavnshon se jodakar karate hain, maratha aur kunbhi samooh ki jatiyan tatiy, pashchimi pahadiyon aur dakkan ke maidan ke upasamoohon men bnti huee hain aur unake bich apas men vaivahik snbndh kam hi hote hain. pratyek up kshetr men in jatiyon ke gotron ko vibhinn samaj mndalon men kramashah ghatate hue kram men vargikrit kiya gaya hai. sabase bade samajik mndal men 96 gotr shamil hain. jinamen sabhi asali maratha batae jate hain. lekin in 96 gotron ki soochiyon men kafi vividhata aur vivad hain.

samrajy vistar

jab mugal dakkan ki or badh rahe the, tab ahamadanagar tatha bijapur men marathe prashasan tatha sainik sevaon men mahattvapoorn padon par niyukt the tatha rajy ke kam-kaj men unaka prabhav aur unaki shakti badhati ja rahi thi. dakkan ke sultanon tatha mugalon, donon ne marathon ka samarthan prapt karane ki cheshta ki. malik ambar ne apani sena men badi snkhya men marathon ki bharti ki. yadyapi more, ghataghe tatha nibalakar jaise kuchh prabhashali maratha parivaron ne kuchh kshetron men prabhav qayam kar liya tha tathapi marathe rajapooton ki tarah bade tatha susngathit rajy sthapit karane men saphal nahin hue the. samrajy ki sthapana ka shrey 'shahaji bhonsale' tatha putr 'shivaji' ko hai. jaisa ki pata chalata hai ki kuchh samay tak shahaji ne mugalon ko chunauti di. ahamadanagar men usaka itana prabhav tha ki shasakon ki niyukti men bhi usaka hi hath hota tha. lekin 1636 ki sndhi ke antargat shahaji ko un kshetron ko chhodana pada, jin par usaka prabhav tha. usane bijapur ke shasak ki seva men pravesh kiya aur apana dhyan karnatak ki or lagaya. us samay ki ashant sthiti ka labh uthakar shahaji ne bngalaur men arddh-svayatt rajy ki sthapana ka prayatn kiya. isake pahale golakunda ka ek pramukh saradar mir jumala koromndal tat ke ek kshetr par apana adhikar qayam karane men saphal ho gaya tha. isake alava kuchh abisiniyaee saradar pashchim tat par apana shasan qayam karane men saphal ho gaye the. poona ke as-pas ke kshetron men apana shasan sthapit karane ke shivaji ke prayason ki yahi prishthabhoomi thi.

maratha mahasngh

isaka sootrapat doosare peshava bajirav pratham (1720-40 ee.) ke shasanakal men hua. ek or senapati dabhade ke netritv men maratha kshatriy saradaron ke virodh tatha doosari or uttar tatha dakshin men maratha samrajy ka shighrata se vistar hone ke karan peshava bajirav pratham ko apane un svamibhakt samarthakon par adhik nirbhar rahana pada, jinaki sainik yogyata yuddh bhoomi men pramanit ho chuki thi. phalasvaroop usane apane bade-bade kshetr in samarthakon ke adhin kar diye.

mugalon ka dabav

mugalon ke dabav ke karan maharashtr, pashchim bharat men shivaji ke rajy ke patan ke bad 18vin shatabdi men bana gathabndhan, mugal badashah aurngazeb ki mrityu (1707) ke bad shivaji ke pautr shahoo ke netritv men maratha shakti ka purarutthan hua, unhonne brahman bhat parivar ko shakti pradan ki, jo khanadani taur par peshava (pramukh mntri) bane, unhonne peshavaon ki senaon ke sath uttar men apane rajy ka vistar karane ka nishchay kiya. shahoo ke jivan kal ke uttarardh men peshava aur shaktishali ho ge. shahoo ki mrityu (1749) ke bad peshava prabhavashali shasak ho ge. pramukh maratha parivar sindhiya, holkar, bhonsale v gayakavad ne uttar tatha madhy bharat men vijay yatra jari rakhi aur ve adhik svatntr v aniyntrit ho ge.

panipat

panipat (1761) men afaganon ke hathon parajay aur 1772 men yuva peshava madhavarav pratham ki mrityu ke bad peshavaon ka prabhavashali niyntran samapt ho gaya. isake bad maratha rajy pashchimi bharat ke poona (vartaman pune) men peshava ke namamatr ke netritv men panch pramukhon ka mahasngh raha. halanki ve mauke par sngathit ho jate the. jaise angrezon ke khilaf (1775-82), lekin adhikansh samay ve apas men ladate rahate the. peshava bajirav dvitiy ne 1802 men holkar se parajit hone ke bad british samrajy se suraksha mangi aur unaki ghusapaith ne 1818 tak mahasngh ko chhinn-bhinn kar diya. yah mahasngh maratha rashtriyata ki bhavanaon ka parichayak tha. lekin apane pramukhon ki apasi eershya ke karan vah kadavahat bhare mahaul men khndit ho gaya.

maratha yuddh

1775-82, 1803-05, 1817-18

british senaon aur maratha mahasngh ke bich hue tin yuddh, jinaka parinam tha mahasngh ka vinash. pahala yuddh(1775-82) raghunath dvara mahasngh ke peshava (mukhyamntri) ke dave ko lekar british samarthan se prarambh hua. janavari 1779 men badaganv men angrez parajit ho ge, lekin unhonne marathon ke sath salabaee ki sndhi (mee 1782) hone tak yuddh jari rakha; isamen angrezon ko bnbee (vartaman munbee) ke pas salaset dvip par kabje k roop men ekamatr labh mila.

doosara yuddh (1803-05)

peshava bajirav dvitiy ke holkaron (ek pramukh maratha kul) se harane aur disambar, 1802 men besin ki sndhi ke tahat angrezon ka snrakshan svikar karane se prarambh hua. sindhiya tatha bhonsale parivaron ne is samajhaute ka virodh kiya, lekan ve kramashah lasapadi v dilli men laaurd lek aur asay v araganv men sar arthar velezali (jo bad men vailingatan ke dyook bane) ke hathon parajit hue. usake bad holkar parivar bhi isamen shamil ho gaya aur madhy bharat v rajasthan ke kshetr men maratha bilkul azad ho ge.

tisara yuddh (1817-18)

british gavarnar-janaral laaurd hestings dvara pindari dasyuon ke khilaf karravaee karane ke kram men maratha kshetr ke atikraman se prarambh hua. peshava ki senaon ne bhonsale aur holkar ke sahayog se angrezon ka muqabala kiya (navambar 1817), lekin sindhiya ne isamen koee bhoomika nahin nibhaee. bahut jaldi marathe har ge, jisake bad peshava ko penshan dekar unake kshetr ka british rajy men vilay kar liya gaya. is tarah bharat men british rajy ka adhipaty poornaroop se sthapit ho gaya.

chhatrapati shivaji maharaj
Chatrapati Shivaji Mahraj

raghoba

bharat men angrezon ke sath 1775-82 ee., 1803-05 ee. tatha 1817-19 ee. men hue. pahala maratha yuddh (1775-82 ee.) peshava narayanarav ke chacha raghova ke phalasvaroop hua. raghova narayanarav ki mrityu ke bad utpann usake putr evn uttaradhikari madhavarav narayan ko peshava gaddi se hatana chahata tha. isake lie usane eestindiya kampani ko sashti tatha basee dene ka vayada karake angrezon ka samarthan prapt karane ki koshish ki. kampani ne bhi samrajy-lipsa ke vashibhoot ho marathon ke uttaradhikar yuddh se labh uthane ki cheshta ki. pahala maratha-yuddh lamba chala aur angrezon ke lie agauravapoorn siddh hua.

karnal kaimak ke netritv men british sena ne badaganv (1779 ee.) men atmasamarpan kar diya aur angrezon ne badaganv samajhauta karake raghova ko saunp dene ka vachan de diya. parantu varen hestigs ne, jo us samay gavarnar-janaral tha, is samajhaute ko namnjoor kar diya aur yuddh punah shuroo ho gaya. yadyapi lesli tatha godard ke netritv men ek hindustani evn angrez sena 1779 ee. men bngal se madhy bharat hokar soorat tak pahunchane men saphal ho gayi tatha 1780 ee. men mejar paupham ne gvaliyar par adhikar kar liya, phir bhi angrez koee nirnayatmak vijay nahin prapt kar sake aur n maratha sena angrezon ko nirnayatmak roop se hara saki. aisi paristhiti men angrezon ne mahadaji shinde ko madhyasth banakar salabaee ki sndhi (1782 ee.) ke dvara yuddh samapt kar diya. isake dvara angrezon ne apane kathaputali raghova ki penshan niyat kara di aur donon pakshon ne ek doosare ke jite hue ilake lauta diye. marathon ne sashti kampani ko saunp diya.

maratha saradaron men apasi dushmani aur pratidvandvita

is prakar marathon aur angrezon, donon ko apani-apani shakti aur kamazori ka pata chal gaya aur agale bis varshon tak unake bich shanti rahi. maratha saradaron men apasi dushmani aur pratidvandvita chalati rahi aur 25 aktoobar 1802 ee. ko tatkalin peshava bajirav dvitiy ko apane chngul men karane ke lie shinde aur holkar men poona ke bahar yuddh hua. bajirav dvitiy kayar aur shadayntrakari tha aur use rajy ke hit ki koee chinta nahin thi. jis samay poona ka yuddh chal hi raha tha, vah pratidvandvi maratha saradaron ke chngul se apane ko bachane ke lie poona se bhagakar basee angrezon ki sharan men chala gaya. vahan usane 31 disambar 1802 ee. ko basee ki lajjajanak sndhi kar li, jisake dvara usane peshava pad phir se prapt karane ka manorath banaya tha. is prakar bajirav dvitiy ne maratha rajy ki svatntrata bech di aur vah angrezon ke dvara punah poona ki gaddi par asin kar diya gaya. parantu maratha saradaron, vishesh roop se shinde, bhonsale aur holkar ne is vyavastha ko svikar nahin kiya aur phalasvaroop doosara maratha-yuddh (1803-05 ee.) chhid gaya.

maratha saradaron men punah ekata sthapit nahin ho saki. gayakavad angrezon se mil gaya. yadyapi shinde aur holkar snyukt ho gaye, tathapi holkar ne unaka sath nahin diya. yadyapi vah bhi basee ki sndhi ka utana hi virodhi tha jitana shinde aur bhonsale. parinam yah hua ki is snkatakal men bhi marathe apani sampoorn shakti se angrezon ka muqabala karane men asamarth rahe. phir unake pas koee mahanh senapati tatha ranavidya-visharad nahin tha. phalatah dakkhin men sar arthar veljali (bhavi dyook aph velingtan) ke netritv men british sena ne sitnbar 1803 ee. men asee ki ladaee men shinde aur bhonsale ki snyukt sena ko hara diya. isake bad navambar men usane araganv ki ladaee men bhonsale ko is prakar nirnayatmak riti se parast kar diya ki agale mahine usane angrezon se devaganv ki sndhi kar li. is sndhi ke dvara usane katak angrezon ko de diya aur ek prakar se unaka ashrit ho gaya.

angrezon ka ashrit mugal badashah

is bich uttari bharat men laaurd lek ke netritv men british sena ne aligadh aur dilli par qabza kar liya aur ant men lasavadi ki ladaee men shinde ko is prakar nirnayatmak riti se parajit kiya ki vah 30 disambar 1803 ee. ko surji arjunaganv ki sandhi karane ke lie vivash hua. isase poorv araganv ki ladaee men bhi shinde hara tha. surji arjun ganv ki sndhi ke dvara shinde ne gnga nadi aur yamuna nadi ke bich ka sara pradesh angrezon ko saunp diya, mugal badashah, peshava tatha nijam ke oopar niyntran karane ka apana sara dava tyag diya, angrezon ki svikriti ke bina kisi phirngi ko naukar n rakhane ke lie raji ho gaya tatha ek prakar se angrezon ka ashrit ho gaya.

holkar

holkar abhi tak yuddh se alag raha tha. jab usake pratidvandvi shinde ki shakti angrezon ne nasht kar di, tab vah moorkhatavash 1804 ee. men akele angrezon ke viruddh yuddh men utar pada. prarambh men rajapootana men use angrezon ke viruddh kuchh saphalata mili, parantu aktoobar men vah dilli ko n le saka aur navambar 1804 ee. men dig ki ladaee men har gaya. bharatapur ka raja holkar ki or se yuddh kar raha tha. laaurd lek ne gvaliyar ka qila chhinane ki koshish ki, parantu saphal n ho saka. usaki is viphalata ke phalasvaroop inglaind men yuddh ko jari rakhane ke viruddh bhavana zor pakadati gee aur 1805 ee. men laaurd velezali ko vapas bula liya gaya. usake uttaradhikari ne holkar se jin anukool sharton par sndhi kar li, unaki vah pahale asha nahin kar sakata tha. holkar ne chambal nadi ke uttar men sare pradesh par apana dava chhod diya aur apane rajy ka adhikansh punah prapt kar liya (1806 ee.).

doosare yuddh ke parinam

doosare angrez maratha-yuddh ke parinam se ne to kisi maratha saradar ko sntosh hua, n peshava ko. un sabako apani satta aur pratishtha chhin jane se khed hua. peshava bajirav dvitiy shadyntrakari manovrittika to tha hi, usane avicharapoorn riti se angrezon ko jo satta saunp di thi, use phir prapt karane ki asha se 1817 ee. men angrezon ke viruddh maratha saradaron ka sngathan banane men netritv kiya aur is prakar tisare maratha yuddh (1817-19 ee.) ka sootrapat kiya. parantu is bar gavarnar janaral laaurd hestings ke netritv men bharat ki british senaen bahut shaktishali siddh huee. yuddh ke arnbh men hi unhonne samarik kaushal ka parichay dete hue shinde ko is tarah alag kar diya ki vah yuddh men koee bhag n le saka. bhonsale ko 1817 ee. men sitabaldi aur nagapur ki ladaeeyon men aur holkar ko usi varsh mahidapur ki ladaee men parast kiya tha. peshava ko, jisane yuddh ka sootrapat kiya tha, pahale 1817 ee. men khadaki ki ladaee men parast kiya gaya. isake bad janavari 1818 ee. men koreganv ki ladaiyon men aur ek mahine ke bad ashti ki ladaee men punah haraya gaya. is antim har ke phalasvaroop peshava ne joon 1818 ee. men angrezon ke age atmasamarpan kar diya. is prakar tisare maratha yuddh men angrezon ki poorn vijay huee. unhonne ab peshava ka pad tod diya aur bajirav dvitiy ko kanapur ke nikat bithoor men jakar rahane ki ijajat de di. unhonne usaki penshan bandh di aur usaka sara samrajy ab angrezon ke niyntran men a gaya. bhonsale ka narmada nadi se uttar ka sara ilaka angrezon ne le liya aur shesh ilaka raghuji bhonsale dvitiy ke ek nabalig pautr ke havale kar diya aur use ashrit raja bana liya gaya. isi prakar holkar ne narmada ke dakshin ke samast zile angrezon ko saunp diye, rajapoot rajyon par apana samast adhipaty tyag diya, apane kshetr men ek ashrit sena rakhana svikar kar liya aur angrezon ki kripa par rajy karane laga. is prakar pnjab tatha sindh ko chhodakar samast bharat men angrezon ki sarvabhaum satta sthapit ho gayi.

maratha shasan aur sainy vyavastha

  • hindoo tatha musalaman shasan evn sainy vyavastha ka mishrit roop. isaka sootrapat shivaji ne kiya, isamen samast rajyashakti raja ke hath men rahati thi. vah ashtapradhanon ki sahayata se shasan karata tha, jinaki niyukti vah svayn karata tha.
  • ashtapradhanon ke nayabon ki niyukti bhi raja karata tha. malagujari ki vasooli ka kary patelon ke hathon men tha. bhoomi ki upaj ka ek tihaee bhag malagujari ke roop men vasool kiya jata tha.
  • shivaji ne shasan vyavastha ke sath-sath sena ki bhi vyavastha ki. sena men mukhy roop se paidal sainik tatha ghudasavar hote the. yah sena chhapamar yuddh tatha parvatiy kshetron men ladane ke lie bahut upayukt thi. raja svayn sainik ka chunav karata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

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