शिवाजी की शासन व्यवस्था  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shivaji ki pratima

shivaji mahanh vijeta hone ke sath-sath ek kushal prashasak bhi the. unaki prashasanik vyavastha kafi kuchh dakshini rajyon evn mugal prashasan se prabhavit thi. madhyakalin shasakon ki tarah shivaji ke pas bhi shasan ke sampoorn adhikar surakshit the. shasan karyon men sahayata ke lie shivaji ne mntriyon ki ek parishad, jise 'ashtapradhan' kahate the, ki vyavastha ki thi, par inhen kisi bhi arth men mntrimndal ki sngya nahin di sakati thi. ye mntri 'sachiv' ke roop men kary karate the. vah pratyaksh roop men n to koee nirnay le sakate the aur n hi niti nirdharit kar sakate the. unaki bhoomika matr paramarshakari hoti thi, kintu mntriyon se paramarsh ke lie shivaji badhy nahin the.

ashtapradhan

chhatrapati shivaji ne kisi bhi mntri ke pad ko anuvnshik nahin hone diya. 'ashtapradhan' men peshava ka pad sarvadhik mahattvapoorn samman ka hota tha. peshava raja ka vishvasiy hota tha. snbhavatah apani anubhav shoonyata ke karan shivaji paurohity evn lekha vibhag men hastakshep nahin karate the. shivaji ne raghunath pandit hanumante ke nirikshan men chune huye visheshgyon dvara 'rajavyavahar kosh' namak shasakiy shabdavali ka shabdakosh taiyar karaya tha. shivaji ke ashtapradhan ka snkshipt vivaran is prakar hai-

  1. peshava - yah rajy ke prashasan evn arthavyavastha ki rekh-dekh karata tha tatha raja ki anupasthiti men rajy ki bagador snbhalata tha. usaka vetan 15,000 hoon prativarsh tha.
  2. sar-e-naubat (senapati) - isaka mukhy kary sena men sainikon ki bharti karana, sngathan evn anushasan aur sath hi yuddh kshetr men sainikon ki tainati adi karana tha.
  3. mamuadar ya amaty - amaty rajy ke ay-vyay ka lekha jokha taiyar karake us par hastakshar karata tha. usaka vetan 12,000 hoon prativarsh tha.
  4. vakayanavis - yah soochana, guptachar evn sndhi vigrah ke vibhagon ka adhyaksh hota tha aur ghareloo mamalon ki bhi dekh-rekh karata tha.
  5. shurunavis ya chitanis - rajakiy patron ko padh kar unaki bhasha-shaili ko dekhana, paraganon ke hisab-kitab ki janch karana adi isake pramukh kary the.
  6. dabir ya sumant (videsh mntri) - isaka mukhy kary videshon se aye rajadooton ka svagat karana evn videshon se sambandhit sandhi vigrah ki karyavahiyon men raja se salah aur mashavira adi prapt karana tha.
  7. sadar ya pnditarav - isaka mukhy kary dharmik karyon ke lie tithi ko nirdharit karana, galat kam karane evn dharm ko bhrasht karane valon ke lie dand ki vyastha karana, brahmanon men dan ko bntavana evn praja ke acharan ko sudharana adi tha. ise 'danadhyaksh' bhi kaha jata tha.
  8. nyayadhish - sainik v asainik tatha sabhi prakar ke mukadamon ko sunane evn nirnay karane ka adhikar isake pas hota tha.

uparyukt adhikariyon men antim do adhikari- 'panditarav' evn 'nyayadhish' ke atirikt ashtapradhan ke sabhi padadhikariyon ko samay-samay par sainik karyavahiyon men hissa lena hota tha. senapati ke atirikt sabhi pradhan brahman the. in ath pradhanon ke atirikt rajy ke patr-vyavahar ki dekhabhal karane vale 'chitanis' aur 'munshi' bhi mahattvapoorn vyakti the. shivaji ke samay balaji avaji chitanis ke roop men aur niloji munshi ke roop men bahut sammanit the. pratyek pradhan ki sahayata ke lie anek chhote adhikariyon ke atirikt 'davan', 'majamuadar', 'phadanis', 'subanis', 'chitanis', 'jamadar' aur 'potanis' namak ath pramukh adhikari bhi hote the.

shivaji ka prantiy shasan

shivaji ne shasan ki suvidha ke lie 'svaraj' kahe jane vale vijit pradeshon ko char pranton men vibhakt kiya tha-

  1. uttari prant - isake antargat soorat se lekar poona tak ka kshetr shamil tha. shivaji ne yahan ka shasan peshava moro trimbak pingale ko saunpa tha.
  2. dakshini-pashchimi prant - isamen samudr tatiy pradesh evn tatkalin bambee ke dakshin konkan ka kshetr shamil tha. shivaji ne sachiv annaji datton ko yahan ka shasan saunpa tha.
  3. dakshini-poorvi prant - satara, kolhapur, belaganv evn tharavar kshetr vale is prant ka shasan shivaji ne mntri dattaji pant ko saunpa tha.
  4. dakshini prant - is prant men jinji aur usake as-pas ka prant sammilit tha. yah kshetr raghunath pant hanumante ke adhin tha.

shivaji ne apane durgon ki suraksha ke lie 'havaladar', 'sar-e-naubat' evn 'subanis' nam ke adhikariyon ki vyavastha ki thi. havaladar qile ki antarik vyavastha ko dekhata tha. sar-e-naubat qile ki sena ka netritv evn un par niyntran rakhata tha. subanis qile ki arthavyavastha, patr-vyavahar evn bhandar adi ki dekh-bhal karata tha. sar-e-naubat evn havaladar ka pad prayah marathon ko evn subanis ka pad brahmanon evn kayasthon ko pradan kiya jata tha. svaraj pradesh sidhe shivaji ke adhin tha. pratyek prant mahalon men vibhakt tha. isaka adhikari 'sarahavaladar' hota tha. mahalon ko taraphon men banta gaya tha, jo 'havaladar' namak adhikari ke adhin tha. isake adhin 'karakun' tatha 'parityakar' namak adhikari hote the. 'mauja' (ganv) sabase chhoti ikaee thi. isamen patil ya patel hote the. inaka sahayak kulakarni hota tha.

sainy vyavastha

shivaji un shasakon men se the, jinhen rajy satta ka bhog varadan men nahin prapt hua tha. inhen shoony se maratha rajy ki sthapana tak kathin shram karana pada tha, jisake lie ek shaktishali sena avashyak hi nahin, apitu anivary bhi thi. shivaji ki sena tin mahattvapoorn bhagon men vibhakt thi

  1. paga sainik
  2. silahadar
  3. paidal sena

shivaji ki mrityu ke samay unaki sena men lagabhag 45,000 paga, 60,000 ghudasavar evn lagabhag ek lakh paidal sainik the.

paga sena

yah shivaji ki sena ka sabase mahattvapoorn ang tha. shivaji ki is niyamit sena ke ghudasavaron ko 'vyaktigat ghudasavar' ya 'rajakiy ghudasavar' kaha jata tha. shivaji ki sena shreniyon men vibhajit thi- 25 sadharan sainikon ke oopar ek havaladar, 5 havaladaron ke oopar ek hazari evn panch ek hazariyon ke oopar ek panch hazari vahan kiya jata tha. paga sena 'sar-e-naubat' adhikari ke adhin rahati thi. 25 ghudasavaron ki ek tukadi ko 'ek bhishti' evn ek 'nalaband' pradan kiya jata tha. paga ya shahi ghudasavaron ko 'baragir' pukarate the. inhen raja ki or se shastr ka doosara bhag tha.

silahadar

asthayi ghudasavaron ka dal 'silahadar' sena ka doosara bhag tha. is shreni ke sainikon ko apana ghoda evn sajon-saman ke sabhi kharch svayn uthane padate the. sarakar ki or se vetan n prapt karane vali sena ki is tukadi ko tabhi bulaya jata tha, jab isaki avashyakata hoti thi. in sainikon ko yuddh ke samay ladaee bhatta milata tha.

paidal

shivaji ki paidal sena men 'maval' ke bahadur viron ki snkhya adhik thi. inake sajo-saman evn hathiyaron par rajy ke dvara kafi dhan kharch kiya jata tha. paidal sena men adhikariyon ka pad vibhajan kiya gaya tha. 9 sainikon ya paikon ka adhikari nayak, das nayakon ka ek havaladar, do ya tin havaladaron ka adhikari ek jumaladar, das jumaladaron ka adhikari ek hazari tatha sat ek hazariyon ka adhikari ek sat hazari hota tha. paidal sena men pnch hazari pad nahin tha. shivaji ki sena men musalaman sainik bhi the.

  • shivaji ki sena men guptachar, topakhana evn samudri bedon ki bhi vyavastha thi. sena ko jagir ke roop men vetan milane ka koee bhi praman nahin milata. sena ke sath yuddh men striyon ka jana varjit tha.

rajasv ke srot

rajasv ke pramukh srot ke roop men 'bhoomikar', 'chauth' evn 'saradeshamukhi' ka prachalan tha. isake atirikt vyapar kar, udyog kar, yuddh men prapt dhan, bhent adi bhi rajasv ke srot the.

bhoomikar

snbhavatah shivaji ki kar vyavastha malik ambar ki kar vyavastha par adharit thi. shivaji ne rassi dvara map ki vyavastha ke sthan par 'kathi' evn 'manak chhadi' ke prayog ko arambh kiya tha. '20 chhadi' arthat ek bigha; 120 bighe arthat ek chavar.

1670 ee. men shivaji ke adesh par annaji datton ne vyapak star par bhoo-sarvekshan karavaya. shivaji ke samay men kul upaj ka 33 pratishat bhag rajasv ke roop men liya jata tha, jo kalantar men badhakar 40 pratishat ho gaya tha. bnjar bhoomi par se alp matra men kar liya jata tha. rajasv ko nakad evn upaj donon roopon men vasoola ja sakata tha. rajy ki or se kisanon ko bij evn pashu ke kray hetu rin milata tha. shivaji ne zamindari evn jagiradari ki vyavastha ka virodh karate hue 'raiyyatavadi vyavastha' ko apanaya tha.

chauth

chauth ek prakar ka kar tha. isake vishay men vidvanon men matabhed hai. vidvan rana ke anusar chauth sena ke lie diya jane vala anshadan matr nahin tha, apitu bahm shakti ke akraman se suraksha pradan karane ke badale diya jane vala kar tha. vidvan saradesaee ka manana hai ki yah kar shatruta rakhane vale v vijit kshetron se vasoola jata tha. jadunath bhattachary sarakar ka manana hai ki yah kar maratha akramanon se bachane ke badale men vasoole jane vale shulk se adhik kuchh nahin tha, atah ise ek prakar ka bhayadohan hi kaha jana chahie. samany roop se chauth mugal kshetron ki bhoomi v padosi rajyon ki ay ka chautha hissa hota tha, jise vasool karane ke lie marathi sena ko us kshetr par akraman tak karana padata tha.

saradeshamukhi

is kar ko shivaji isalie vasool karate the, kyonki vah maharashtr ke pushtaini 'saradeshamukhi' the. yah kar rajyon ki ay ka 1/10 bhag hota tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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