मुग़लकालीन शासन व्यवस्था  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugalakalin shasan vyavastha ke bare men kuchh mahattvapoorn kritiyon se janakari milati hai. ye kritiyan hain - 'aeena-e-akabari', 'dastoor-ul-amal', 'akabaranama', 'iqabalanama', 'tabakate akabari', 'padashahanama', 'bahadurashahanama', 'tujuk-e-jahangiri', 'muntakhab-ut-tavarikh' adi. isake atirikt kuchh videshi paryatak jaise 'tamas ro', 'haaukins', 'phrensis barniyar', 'dauntan' evn 'tairi' se bhi 'mugalakalin shasan vyavastha ke baren men janakari milati hai. in videshi paryatakon aur aitihasik sakshyon ke adhar par mugalakalin sainy vyavastha ki bhi janakari hamen prapt hoti hai.

prashasan-svaroop

mugalakalin kuchh padadhikari
mustaufi mahalekhakar
mir-e-arj yachika prabhari
mir-e-mal rajyabhatta adhikari
mir-e-tojak dharmanushthan adhikari
mushariph rajasv sachiv
mir-e-barr van adhikshak
mir bahari jal sena ka pradhan
vakiya navis soochana adhikari
savanih nigar samachar lekhak
khufiya navis gupt patr lekhak
harakara jasoos aur sndesh vahak

mugalakalin shasan vyavastha atyadhik kendrikrit naukarashahi vyavastha thi. isamen bharatiy tatha videshi (faras v arab) tatvon ka sammishran tha. mugal samrajy ke snsthapak babar ne dilli saltanat ke sultanon se alag ‘padashah’ ki upadhi grahan ki. padashah shabd ke ‘pad’ ka shabdik arth hai- 'sthayitv evn svamitv' tatha 'shah' ka arth hai- 'mool evn svami'. is tarah poore shabd ‘padashah’ ka shabdik arth hai- ‘aisa svami ya shaktishali raja, jise upadasth n kiya ja sake. ’ mugal samrajy choonki poorn roop se kendrikrit tha, isalie ‘padashah’ ki shakti asim thi. niyam banana, usako lagoo karana, nyay karana adi usake sarvochch adhikar the. mugal badashahon ne namamatr ke lie bhi khalifa ka adhipaty svikar nahin kiya. humayoon badashah ko prithvi par khuda ka pratinidhi manata tha. mugalakalin shasakon men babar, humayoon, aurngazeb ne apana shasan adhar quran ko banaya, parantu is parampara ka virondh karate hue akabar ne apane ko samrajy ki samast janata ka shasak bataya. mugal badashah bhi shasan ki sampoorn shaktiyon ko apane men samete hue poornaroop se nirakunsh the, parantu svechchhachari nahin the. inhen ‘udar nirnkush’ shasak bhi kaha jata tha.

mntriparishad

samrat ko prashasan ki gatividhiyon ko bhali-bhanti snchalit karane ke lie ek mntriparishad ki avashyakata hoti thi. babar ke shasan kal men vazir ka pad kafi mahattvapoorn tha, parantu kalantar men yah pad mahatvahin ho gaya. vazir rajy ka pradhanamntri hota tha. akabar ke samay pradhanamntri ko ‘vakil’ aur vitamntri ko ‘vazir’ kahate the. arnbh men vazir mugalakalin rajasv pranali ka sarvochch adhikari tha, kintu kalantar men any vibhagon par bhi usaka adhikar ho gaya.

vakil (vakil-e-mutalak)

samrat ke bad shasan ke karyon ko snchalit karane vala sabase mahattvapoorn adhikari vakil tha. akabar ka vakil bairam khan choonki apane adhikaron ka durupayog karane laga tha, isalie akabar ne is pad ke mahatv ko kam karane ke lie apane shasanakal ke athaven varsh men ek naya pad ‘divan-e-vazirat-e-kul’ ki sthapana ki, jisaka mukhy kary tha- ‘rajasv evn vittiy’ mamalon ka prabandh dekhana. bairam khan ke patan ke bad akabar ne munam khan ko vakil ke pad par niyukt kiya. parantu vah nam matr ka hi vakil tha.

divan ya vazir

farasi mool ke shabd divan ka niyntran rajasv evn vittiy vibhag par hota tha. akabar ke samay men usaka vitt vibhag divan muzaphphar khan, raja todaramal evn khvajashah mnsoor ke adhin 23 varshon tak raha. jahangir afazal khan, islam khan evn sadulla khan ke adhin rajasv vibhag lagabhag 32 varshon tak raha. aurngajeb ke samay men ‘asnd khan’ sarvadhik 31 varshon tak divan ya vazir ke nirikshan men kary karane vale mukhy vibhag 'divan-e-khalasa' (khalasa bhoomi ke lie), 'divan-e-tan' (naqad tanakhvahon ke lie), 'divan-e-tabajih' (sainy lekha-jokha ke lie ), 'divan-e-jagir' (rajasv ke karyon ke lie diya jane vala vetan), 'divan-e-bayootat' (mir saman vibhag ke lie), 'divan-e-sadat' (dharmik mamalon ka lekha-jokha) adi the.

mir bakhshi

isake pas ‘divan ajir’ ke samast adhikar hote the. mugalon ki manasabadari vyavastha ke karan yah pad aur bhi mahattvapoorn ho gaya tha. mir bakhshi dvara ‘sarakhat’ nam ke patr par hastakshar ke bad hi sena ko har mahine ka vetan mila pata tha. mir bakhshi ke do any sahayak ‘bakhshi-e-huzoor' v bakhshi-e-shahagird the. manasabadaron ki niyukti, sainikon ki niyukti, unake vetan, prashikshan evn anushasan ki zimmedari v ghodon ko dagane evn manasabadaron ke niyntran men rahane vale sainikon ki snkhya ka nirikshan adi zimmedari ka nirvah mir bakhshi ko karana hota tha. pranton men niyukt ‘vakiyanavis’ mir bakhshi ko sidhe snndesh deta tha.

sadr-us-sadr ya sudoor- yah dharmik mamalon, dharmik dhan -sampati vn dan vibhag ka pradhan hota tha. ‘shariyat’ ki raksha karana isaka mukhy kartavy tha. isake atirikt ulema ki kadi nigarani, shiksha, dan evn nyay vibhag ka nirikshan karana bhi usake kartavyon men shamil tha. samrajy ke pramukh sadr ko sadr-us-sudoor, shekh-ul-islam evn sadr-e-kul kaha jata tha. jab kabhi sadr nyay vibhag ke pramukh ka kary karata tha tab use ‘kaji’ (kaji-ul-kujat) kaha jata tha. sadr dan men di jane vali laganahin bhoomi ka bhi nirikshan karata tha. is bhoomi ko ‘sayooragal’ ya ‘madad-e-mash’ kaha jata tha.

mir-e-saman

yah samrat ke ghareloo vibhagon ka pradhan hota tha. yah samrat ke dainik vyay, bhojan evn bhandar ka nirikshan karata tha. mugal samrajy ke antargat ane vale karakhanon (bayootat) ka bhi sngathan evn prabandhan mir saman ko karana padata tha. mir saman ke adhin 'divan-e-bayootat', mushariph, daroga evn tahasiladar (karakhanon ke lie avashyak naqadi evn mal ka prabhari) adi kary karate the. is prakar vakil ya vazir ki shaktiyan in char mntriyon ke madhy vibhajit thin.

bayootat

yah upadhi us manushy ko di jati thi, jisaka kary mrit purushon ke dhan aur sampatti ko rakhana, rajy ka hissa katakar us sampatti ko usake uttaradhikari ko saunpana, vastuon ke dam nirdharit karana, shahi karakhanon ke lie mal lana tatha inake dvara nirmit vastuon aur kharche ka hisab rakhana tha.

pradhan qazi

isake 'qazi-ul-kujjat' bhi kaha jata tha. yah prant, zila evn nagaron men qaziyon ki niyukti karata tha. vaise to samrat nyay ka sarvochch adhikari hota tha aur pratyek budhavar ko apani kachahari lagata tha, kintu samayabhav aur usake rajadhani men n rahane par samrat ki jagah pradhan qazi kary karata tha. pradhan qazi ki sahayata ke lie pradhan 'mufti' hota tha. mufti arabi nyayashastr ke vidvanh hote the.

muhatasib

‘shariyat’ ke pratikool kary karane valon ko rokana, am janata ko dushcharitrata se bachana, sarvajanik sadachar ki dekhabhal karana, sharab, bhang ke upayog par rok lagana, jue ke khel ko pratibandhat karana, mndiron ko tudavana (aurngazeb ke samay men) adi isake mahattvapoorn kary the. is pad ki sthapana aurngazeb ne ki thi.

mir-e-atish ya daroga-e-topakhana

yah bandooqachiyon evn shahi topakhane ka pradhan hota tha. yuddh ke samay topakhane ke mahatv ke karan ise mntri ka sthan milata tha.

daroga-e-dak chauki

yah soochana evn guptachar vibhag ka pradhan hota tha. yah rajy ki har soochana badashah tak pahunchata tha.

  • mugal kal men shasan ke samast kary choonki kagazon men kiya jate the, isalie mugal sarakar ko kabhi-kabhi ‘kagazi sarakar’ bhi kaha jata tha.

prantiy prashasan

akabar ke shasan kal men sarvapratham prantiy prashasan hetu naya adhar prastut kiya gaya. sarvapratham 1580 ee. men akabar ne apane samrajy ko 12 soobon men vibhajit kiya. bad men soobon ki snkhya 15 ho gee, jisamen ilahabad, agara, avadh, ajamer, bngal, bihar, ahamadabad, dilli, multan, lahaur, kabul, malava, khanadesh evn ahamadanagar shamil the. jahangir ne kangada ko jit kar lahaur men milaya, shahajahan ne kashmir, thatta evn udisa ko jit kar soobon ki snkhya 18 ki. aurngazeb ne shahajahan ke 18 soobon men golakunda evn bijapur ko jodakar 20 kar li. 1707 ee. men aurngazeb ki mrityu ke samay mugal samrajy men kul 21 prant the. inamen se 14 uttari bharat men, 6 dakshini bharat men aur ek prant bharat ke bahar afaganistan tha. in pranton ke nam hai- agara, ajamer, ilahabad, avadh, bngal, bihar, dilli, gujarat, kashmir, lahaur, malava, multan, udisa, thatta, kabul (afaganistan), aurngabad maharashtr, barar, bidar, bijapur, haidarabad (golakunda) aur khanadesh.

prashasan ki drishti se mugal samrajy ka vibhajan soobon men, soobe ‘sarakar men’, sarakar paragana ya mahal men bnte the, paragane se zile ya dastoor bane the, jisake antargat gram hote the, jo prashasan ki sabase chhoti ikaee hoti thi. ganvon ko ‘mavada’ ya ‘dih’ bhi kahate the. mavada ke antargat sthit chhoti-chhoti bastiyon ko ‘nagala’ kaha jata tha. shahajahan ne apane shasan kal men sarakar evn paragana ke madhy ‘chakala’ nam ki ek nee eekaee ki sthapana ki thi.

soobedar

mugal kal men is pad par kary karane vala vyakti garvanar, sipahasalar (akabar ke samay men), 'sahib sooba' ya 'soobedar' kaha jata tha. soobedar ki sarakari upadhi ‘najim’ thi. isaki niyukti samrat dvara ki jati thi. isaka pramukh kary hota tha- pranton men shanti sthapit karana, samrat ki agyaon ka palan karavana, rajy karon ki vasooli men sahayata karana adi. is tarah kaha ja sakata hai ki, soobedar pranton men sainik evn asainik donon tarah ke karyon ka snchalan karata tha. mugal kal men soobedaron ko kisi rajy se sndhi karana ya saradaron ko manasab pradan karane ka adhikar nahin tha. apavad svaroop gujarat ke soobedar todaramal ko akabar ne ye suvidhaen de rakhi thin. usake pramukh sahayak divan, bakhshi, faujadar, kotaval, qazi, sadr, amil vitikachi, potadar, vakiyanavis adi hote the.

divan

yah garvanar ke adhin n hokar sidhe shahi divan ke prati javabadeh hota tha. shahi divan ke anurodh par hi prantiy divan ki niyukti ki jati thi. prant ka rajasv vibhag isake ekadhikar men hota tha. divan prayah soobedar ka pratidvandvi hota tha. pratyek ko yah asha thi ki, vah doosare par kadi nazar rakhe, taki donon men koee shaktishali n ban sake. vastutah soobe men vidroh ki ashnka ko samapt karane ke lie aisi vyavastha ki gayi thi. uttarakalin mugal badashah is vyavastha ko sthapit n kar sake, balki kuchh avasaron par nizam (soobedar) aur divan ke pad ek hi vyakti ko de diye gaye. bahadurashah ke samay men bngal, bihar aur udisa ke soobedar murshid kuli khan ko divan ke adhikar bhi diye gaye the.

mugalakalin soobe
shasak ka nam soobon ki snkhya ne jude soobe
akabar 12 soobe (12 + 3= 15)

(aina-e-akabari men varnit)

3 (barar, khanadesh, ahamadanagar)
jahangir 15 soobe

(kangada jitakar lahaur men milaya)

-
shahajahan 18 soobe 3 (kashmir, thatta aur udisa)
aurngazeb 20 athava 21 soobe 2 (bijapur-1686; golakunda-1687)

divan ka pramukh kary

  1. mahalon se rajasv ekatr karana
  2. rokad-bahi evn rasidon ke hisab ka lekha-jokha rakhana
  3. dan ki bhoomi ki dekh-rekh karana
  4. prant ke adhikariyon ka vetan nirdharit karana evn bantana
  • divan evn garvanar men mahattvapoorn antar yah tha ki, garvanar karyakarini ka pradhan evn divan rajasv ka pradhan hota tha.

bakhshi

prantiy bakhshi ki niyukti shahi mir bakhshi ke anurodh par ki jati thi. isaka mukhy kary sainikon ki bharti karana, sainik tukadi ko anushasit rakhana, ghodon ko dagane ki pratha ke niyamon ko lagoo karavana adi hota tha. isake atirikt bakhshi ‘vakiyanigar’ ke roop men prant men ghatane vali sabhi ghatanaon ki janakari badashah ko deta tha.

sadr-e-qazi

prantiy star ke vivadon men nyay karane vale 'sadr-e-qazi' ki niyukti shahi qazi ke anuradh par ki jati thi. snvadadataon ke samooh ko ‘savani navis’ ya ‘khufiya navis’ kaha jata tha. isaki niyukti ‘daroga-e-dak’ karata tha.

zile ka prashasan

prashasan ki suvidha ke lie soobon ko zilon v sarakaron men vibhajit kiya gaya tha. zila star par kary karane vale mukhy adhikari nimnalikhit the-

faujadar

zile ke pradhan sainik adhikari ke roop men kary karane vale faujadar ke pas sena ki ek tukadi rahati thi. isaka mukhy kary qanoon evn vyavastha ko banaye rakhana hota tha.

amil ya amalaguzar

zile ke pramukh rajasv adhikari ke roop men kary karane vala amil ‘khalasa bhoomi’ se lagan ekatr karata tha. amalaguzar ko ay-vyay ki varshik riport shahi darabar men bhejani padati thi. kotaval ki anupasthiti par ise nyayik kartavyon ka bhi nirvah karana padata tha. vitikachi isake sahayogi ke roop men kary karata tha jisaka pramukh kary tha- krishi se jude hue kagazat evn ankade ekatr karana.

khazanadar

yah sarakar ka khazanchi tha, jo amalaguzar ki adhinata men kary karata tha. sarakari khazane ki suraksha isaka mukhy uttaradayitv tha.

  • pratyek sarakar men ek qazi hota tha, jisaki niyukti 'sadr-us-sudoor dvara ki jati thi. isaki sahayata ke lie ek mufti hota tha.

vitikachi

yah sarakar men rajasv pranali ka doosara adhikari hota tha. yah bhoomi ki paimaish, upaj ka nirdharan, usaki shreni adi tay karane men amalaguzar ki sahayata karata tha.

kotaval

kotaval ki niyukti 'mir atish' ke anurodh par kendriy sarakar karati thi. yah nagar men ghatane vali samast ghatanaon ke prati uttaradayi hota tha. aparadhiyon ko dand dene men asamarth hone par kotaval ko harjana bharana padata tha.

paragana ka prashasan

mugal kal men paragane athava mahal ke antargat prashasan men nimnalikhit adhikari shamil the-

shikadar

yah paragane ka pramukh adhikari hota tha. paragane men shanti vyavastha ke sath aparadhiyon ko dandit karana isake pramukh kary tha. rajasv ki vasooli men yah amil ko sahayog karata tha.

amil

isaka mukhy kary rajasv ko nirdharit karana ev vasoolana hota tha. isake lie ise ganv ke krishakon se pratyaksh sambandh banana hota tha. ise ‘munsiph’ ke nam se bhi jana jata tha.

qanoonago

yah paragane ke patavariyon ka adhikari hota tha. isaka mukhy kary bhoomi ka sarvekshan evn rajasv vasooli karana tha.

photadar

paragane ke khazanchi ko photadar kahate the.

karakoon

klark (lipik) ke roop men kary karata tha.

mugalakalin ganvon ko prashasan men kafi svayatta prapt thi. ganv ka mukhy adhikari pradhan hota tha. ise ‘khoot’, ‘mukaddam’, ‘chaudhari’ adi kaha jata tha. isake pramukh sahayogi ke roop men patavari kary karata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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