मुग़लकालीन शिक्षा एवं साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugalakalin shasakon ne apane shasanakal men shiksha ke prachar-prasar ke lie bahut kary kiya. in shasakon ne apane rajy men shiksha aur sahity ke kshetr men mahattvapoorn yogadan kiya tha. is samay ki masjidon men ‘makatab’ ki vyavastha hoti thi, jisamen ladake-ladakiyan prarnbhik shiksha grahan karate the. babar ke samay men ek vibhag ‘shuharate am’ hota tha, jo skool-kaaulejon ka nirman karavata tha.

mugal shasakon ka yogadan

humayoon jyotish evn bhoogol ka gyata tha. usane dilli ke purane qile ke ‘sher mandal’ nam ke hal men apane vyaktigat pustakalay ki sthapana ki thi. humayoon ko pustakon men badi ruchi thi. vah sadaiv apane sath ek chuna hua pustakalay lekar chalata tha. humayoon dvara eeran se bharat vapas ane ke uparant bhari snkhya men eerani pravasiyon ka bharat men agaman hua, jinhen bharat men uparyukt sahityik vatavaran prapt hua, jo unhen eeran men prapt nahin tha. unhonne bharatiy sahityik manishiyon ke sath ek prithakh bharatiy shaili 'sabak-e-hindi' ka vikas kiya. shlesh, tithibandh vyng, mool upamaen tatha pratyay adi is shaili ki pramukh visheshataen thin.

shiksha ke kshetr men akabar dvara kiya gaya prayas niahsndeh smaraniy hai. badayoonni ke anusar akabar ne gujarat ko jitane ke bad apane pustakalay ko anek durlabh pustakon se bhar diya. usane ek anuvad vibhag ki sthapana ki. akabar ke pustakalay ki prashnsa men smith ne kaha ki, 'akabar ka pustakalay us kal v usake poorv ke kal ka advitiy pustakalay tha'. isake atirikt akabar ne fatehapur sikari, agara evn any anek sthanon par anek 'khanaqah' (ashram) evn 'madarason' (pathashala) ki sthapana ki. akabar ki upamata maham anaga ne dilli men 'khairool manajit' nam se ek madarasa sthapit kiya tha. fatehapur sikari muslim shiksha ka mukhy kendr tha. akabar ke samay fatehapuri sikari men abdul kadir shekh, faizi, nizamuddin jaise vidvanh rahate the.

akabar ka shasan kal bharat men farasi sahity ke ‘punarjagaran’ ka kal tha. ‘aina-e-akabari’ men akabar ke rajadarabar ke 59 mahanh farasi kaviyon ke nam milate hain. akabar ka rajakavi 'abul faizi', amir khusaro se lekar mugal yug tak ke bharatiy farasi sahity ka mahanatam kavi tha. 'abbas khan saravani' ne akabar ke adesh par 'tohafa-e-akabarashahi' ki rachana ki thi. is pustak men sherashah soori ke karyakalapon ko ujagar karane ki bharapoor koshish ki gee hai.

jahangir ko farasi evn turki bhasha ka achchha gyan tha. usane apane kal men ek mahattvapoorn parivartan ki ghoshana ki, jisake anusar yadi koee sampann vyakti bina kisi uttaradhikari ke mar jata hai to, usaki snpatti rajy lekar usase madarase aur mathon ka nirman v marammat karavayega. shahajahan ne dilli men ek kaaulej ka nirman evn ‘darrul baka’ namak kaaulej ki marammat karayi. mugal rajaparivar ka sarvadhik vidvanh dara shikoh tha, usane shrimadbhagavadagita, yogavashishth, upanishad evn ramayan ka anuvad farasi men karavaya tha. usane ‘sir-e-akabar’ (mahan rahasy) nam se 52 upanishadon ka anuvad karaya tha.

mugal kal men rajakumariyan, raniyan evn uchch gharanon ki ladakiyan bhi shiksha prapt karati thin, jinamen prasiddh thin- 'gulabadan begam' (babar ki putri), farasi pady lekhika 'salima sultan' (humayoon ki bhatiji), noorajahan, mumataz mahal, jahanara, jebunnisa, durgavati, chand bibi adi. akabar ki man ne purane qile men ‘kher-dal-mnzil’ namak madarase ki sthapana karavayi thi.

mugal kal men shiksha ke pramukh kendr

mugal kal men shiksha ke mahattvapoorn kendr ke roop men agara, fatehapur sikari, dilli, gujarat, lahaur, siyalakot, jaunapur, ajamer adi vishesh roop se prasiddh the. mugal kal ke shasakon ne ‘farasi’ ko apani rajabhasha banaya tha. is kal ka farasi sahity kafi samriddh tha. farasi ke atirikt hindi, snskrit, urdoo ka bhi mugal kal men vikas hua.

farasi sahity

mugalakalin farasi sahity ki pramukh kritiyan is prakar hain-

babaranama (tujuke babari)

babar dvara rachit turki bhasha ki yah kriti, jisaka akabar ne 1583 ee. men arbdurahaman khanakhana dvara anuvad karavaya tha, bharat ki 1504 se 1529 ee. tak ki rajanitik evn prakritik sthiti par varnanatmak prakash dalati hai.

tarikh-e-rashidi

humayoon ki shahi fauj men kamandar ke pad par niyukt mirza haidar dogalat dvara rachit yah kriti madhy eshiya men turkon ke itihas tatha humayoon ke shasan kal par vistarapoorvak prakash dalati hai.

qanoone humayoonni

1534 ee. men khvandamir dvara rachit is kriti men humayoon ki chapaloosi karate hue use 'sikandar-e-ajam', khuda ka saya adi upadhiyan dene ka varnan hai.

humayoonnama

hindi sahity
rachana rachanakar
ramacharitamanas tulasidas
vinayapatrika tulasidas
soorasagar sooradas
premavatika rasakhan
sundar shrrigar sundar kaviray
kavita ratnakar senapati
kavindr kalpataroo kavindr achary
kavipriya keshavadas
alnkar mnjari keshavadas
ramachndrika keshavadas

do bhagon men vibhajit yah pustak ‘gulabadan begam’ dvara likhi gayi, jisake ek bhag men babar ka itihas tatha doosare men humayoon ke itihas ka ullekh hai. isake atirikt is pustak se tatkalin samajik sthiti par bhi prakash padata hai.

tajakiratul vakayat

1536-1537 ee. men 'jauhar apatabachi' dvara rachit is pustak men humayoon ke jivan ke utar-chadhav ka ullekh hai.

vakayat-e-mushtaki

lodi evn soor kal ke vishay men janakari dene vali yah kriti 'rijakullah mushtaki' dvara rachit hai.

tohafa-e-akabarashahi

akabar ko samarpit is pustak ko 'abbas khan saravani' ne akabar ke nirdesh par likha tha. is pustak se sherashah me vishay me janakari milati hai.

tarikh-e-shahi

bahalol lodi ke kal se prarambh hokar evn hemoo ki mrityu ke samay samapt hone vali yah pustak 'ahamad yadagar' dvara rachit hai.

tajakira-e-humayoon v akabar

akabar dvara apane darabariyon ko hoomayoon ke vishay men jo kuchh janate hain, likhane ka adesh dene par akabar ke rasoee prabndhak 'bayarjad bayat' ne yah pustak likhi thi.

naphais-ul-masir

akabar ke samay yah pratham aitihasik pustak 'mir alauddaula kajavini' dvara rachit hai, jisase 1565 se 1575 ee. tak ki sthiti ka pata chalata hai.

tarikh-e-akabari

9 bhagon men vibhajit yah pustak 'nizamuddin ahamad' dvara rachit hai. isake pratham do bhag mugalon ke itihas ka ullekh karate hain tatha shesh bhag dakkan, malava, gujarat, bngal, jaunapur, kashmir, sindh evn multan ki sthiti ka abhas karate hain.

insha

abul fazal ki rachana ‘insha’ (akabar dvara videshi shasakon ko bheje gaye shahi patron ka snkalan) aitihasik evn sahityik donon drishtiyon se mahattvapoorn hai.

muntakhab-ut-tavarikh

1590 ee. men prarambh abdul kadir badayoonni dvara rachit yah pustak hindustan ke am itihas ke roop men jani jati hai, jo tin bhagon men vibhajit hai. pratham bhag jise ‘tabakate-akabari’ ka snkshipt roop bhi kaha jata hai, subuktagin se humayoon ki mrityu tak ki sthiti ka ullekh karata hai tatha tisara bhag soofiyon, shayaron evn vidvanon ki jivaniyon par prakash dalata hai. pustak ka rachayita badayoonni, akabar ki udar dharmik nitiyon ka kattar virodhi hone ke karan akabar dvara lagoo ki gee usaki har niti ko islam dharm ke viruddh sazish samajhata tha.

tujuk-e-jahangari

jahangir ne is pustak ko apane shasan kal ke 16ven varsh tak likha. usake bad ke 19 varshon ka itihas 'mautamid khan ne apane nam se likha. antim roop se is pustak ko poorn karane ka shrey 'muhammad hadi' ko hai. yah pustak jahangir ke shasan kalin utar-chadhav tatha shasan sambandhi qanoonon ka ullekh karati hai.

iqabalanama-e-jahangiri

jahangir ke shasan kal ke 19ven varsh ke bad ki janakari dene vali yah pustak 'mautamad khan bakhshi' dvara rachit hai.

padashahanama

'padashahanama' nam se kee pustakon ki rachana huee hai, jin rachanakaron ne in pustakon ki rachana ki hai, ve nimnalikhit hain-

  • shahajahan ke shasan kal men prarambhik 10 varshon ka ullekh karane vali 'padashahanama' namak pustak ko shahajahan ke samay ke pratham itihasakar 'mohammad amin kajavini' ne shahajahan ke shasan kal ke 8ven varsh prarambh kar 20ven varsh men likhakar poorn ki.
  • 'abdul hamid lahauri' dvara rachit 'padashahanama' kriti men shahajahan ke shasan ke 20 varshon ke itihas ka ullekh milata hai, sath hi yah kriti shahajahan ke shasan kal ki samajik, arthik evn rajanitik sthiti par bhi prakash dalati hai.
  • 'mohammad varis' ne apani 'padashahanama' pustak ko shahajahan ke shasan ke 21 ven varsh men arambh kar 30ven varsh men khatm kiya.

amal-e-saleh

'mohammad saleh' dvara rachit is kriti men shahajahan ke antim 2 varshon ka itihas milata hai.

tarikh-e-shahajahanni

shahajahan kalin shasan ke halaton evn afasaron ke sambandh men janakari dene vali yah pusatak 'sadik khan' dvara rachit hai.

chaharachaman

'chandrabhan' dvara rachit yah kriti shahajahan ki shasan pranali aur kary pranali ka zikr karati hai.

shahajahannama, alamagiranama

ye donon hi kritiyan aurngazeb ke shasan kal ke pratham 10 varshon ke itihas ko batane vali ekamatr kriti mani jati hai. ‘shahajahannama’ ke rachayita 'inayat khan evn ‘alamagiranama’ ke rachayita 'kajim shiraji' hain. in kritiyon men qimate badhane, kheti ki halat bigadane adi ka bhi ullekh hai. kajim shiraji, aurngazeb ka sarakari itihasakar tha.

vakayat-e-alamagiri

'akil khan' dvara rachit yah kriti aurngazeb ke rajyarohan ke samay huee ladaeeyon ka vistar se ullekh karati hai.

khulasat-ut-tavarikh

aurngazeb kalin arthik sthiti, rajyon ki bhaugolik simaon evn vyaparik margon par prakash dalane vali yah pustak 'sujan ray bhndari' dvara rachit hai.

muntakhab-ul-lubab

'khaphi khan' dvara rachit yah kriti aurngazeb ke shasan kal ka alochanatmak vivaran prastut karati hai.

phatuhat-e-alamagiri

aurngazeb ke 34 varshon ke shasan kal par prakash dalane vali yah kriti 'eeshvaradas nagar' dvara rachit hai.

nuskha-e-dilakusha

aurngazeb ki shasan kalin samajik, arthik evn rajanitik sthiti ka ullekh karane vali yah pustak 'bhimasen kayasth' dvara rachit hai.

masir-e-alamagiri

'saki mustaid khan' dvara rachit yah kriti aurngazeb ke shasan kal ke 11 ven varsh se lekar 20ven varsh tak ki sthiti par prakash dalati hai. 'jadunath sarakar' ne is kriti ko ‘mugal rajy ka gajetiyar’ kaha hai.

phatava-e-alamagiri

muslim qanoonon ka atyant pramanik evn vistrit sar sngrah 'phatava-e-alamagiri' ke nam se jana jata hai, jise aurngazeb ke adesh se dharmacharyon ke ek samooh ne taiyar kiya tha.

majama-e-baharin

(do mahasagaron ka milan)- dara shikoh dvara rachit is pustak men hindoo dharm aur islam dharm ko ek hi lakshy ke do marg bataya gaya hai.

snskrit sahity

mugal kal men snskrit ka vikas badhit raha. akabar ke samay men likhe gaye mahattvapoorn snskrit grnth the- mahesh thakur dvara rachit 'akabarakalin itihas', padm sundar dvara rachit ‘akabarashahi shrringar-darpan’, jain achary siddh chandr upadhyay dvara rachit ‘bhanuchandr charitr’, dev vimal ka ‘hira subhagyam’, ‘kripa kosh’ adi. akabar ke samay men hi ‘parasi prakash’ namak pratham snskrit-farasi shabd kosh ki rachana ki gee. shahajahan ke samay men kavindr achary sarasvati evn jagannath pndit ko darabar men ashray mila hua tha. pndit jagannath ne ‘ras-gngadhar’ evn ‘gngalahari’ ki rachana ki. pndit jagannath shahajahan ke darabari kavi the.

jahangir ne ‘chitr mimansa khndan’ (alnkar shastr par grnth) evn ‘asaf vijay’ (noorajahan ke bhaee asaf khan ki stuti) ke rachayita jagannath ko ‘pnditaraj’ ki upadhi se sammanit kiya tha. vnshidhar mishr aur harinarayan mishr vale snskrit grnth hain- raghunath rachit ‘muhoortamala’, jo ki muhoort snbndhi grnth hai aur chaturbhuj ka ‘rasakalpadram’ jo aurngazeb ke chacha shaista khan ko samarpit hai.

hindi sahity

babar, humayoon aur sherashah ke samay men hindi ko rajakiy snrakshan prapt nahin hua, kintu vyaktigat prayason se ‘padmavat’ jaise shreshth granth ki rachana huee. mugal samrat akabar ne hindi sahity ko snrakshan pradan kiya. mugal darabar se sambandhit hindi ke prasiddh kavi raja birabal, manasinh, bhagavanadas, narahari, harinath adi the. vyaktgit prayason se hindi sahity ko mazabooti pradan karane vale kaviyon men mahattvapoorn the- nandadas, vitthaladas, paramanand das, kumbhan das adi. tulasidas evn sooradas mugal kal ke do aise vidvanh the, jo apani kritiyon se hindi sahity ke itihas men amar ho gaye. arbdurahaman khanakhana aur rasakhan ko bhi inaki hindi ki rachanaon ke karan yad kiya jata hai. in sabake mahattvapoorn yogadan se hi ‘akabar ke kal ko hindi sahity ka svarn kal’ kaha gaya hai. akabar ne birabal ko ‘kavipriy’ evn narahari ko ‘mahapatr’ ki upadhi pradan ki. jahangir ka bhaee daniyal hindi men kavita karata tha.

shahajahan ke samay men sundar kaviray ne ‘sundar shrringar’, ‘senapati ne ‘kavitt ratnakar’, kavindr achary ne ‘kavindr kalpataru’ ki rachana ki. is samay ke kuchh any mahanh kaviyon ka sambandh kshetriy rajaon se tha, jaise- bihari maharaja jayasinh se, keshavadas orachha se sambandhit the. keshavadas ne ‘kavipriya’, ‘rasikapriya’ evn ‘alnkar mnjari’ jaisi mahattvapoorn rachanayen ki. akabar ke darabar men prasiddh grnthakarta kashmir ke muhammad husain ko ‘jari kalam’ ki upadhi di gee. bngal ke prasiddh kavi mukundaray chakravarti ko profesar kaauvel ne ‘bngal ka kraib’ kaha hai.

urdoo sahity

urdoo ka janm dilli saltanat kal men hua. is bhasha ne uttar mugalakalin badashahon ke samay men bhasha ke roop men mahatv prapt kiya. prarambh men urdoo ko ‘jaban-e-hindavi’ kaha gaya. amir khusaro pratham vidvanh kavi tha, jisane urdoo bhasha ko apani kavita ka madhyam banaya. mugal badashahon men muhammad shah (1719-1748 ee.) pratham badashah tha, jisane urdoo bhasha ke vikas ke lie dakshin ke kavi shamsuddin vali ko apane darabar men bulakar sammanit kiya. vali dakani ko urdoo pady sahitay ka janmadata kaha jata hai. kalantar men urdoo ko ‘rekhta’ bhi kaha gaya. rekhta men gesoodaraj dvara likhit pustak ‘miratul asharin’ sarvadhik prachin hai.

dara shikoh ki rachanayen

  1. dara shikoh ne svayn apani dekharekh men snskrit granth shrimadbhagavadagita aur 'yog vashishth' ka farasi bhasha men anuvad karaya.
  2. dara ka sabase mahattvapoorn krity vedon ko snkalan hai.
  3. dara shikoh ne maulik pustak 'majm-ul-baharin' (do samudro ka sngam) ki rachana ki, jisamen hindoo aur islam dharm ko ek hi eeshvar ki prapti ke do marg bataya gaya hai.
  4. dara ne svayn tatha kashi ke kuchh snskrit pnditon ki sahayata se 'bavan upanishadon' ka ‘sir-e-akabar’ nam se farasi men anuvad karaya.

soofimat se sambandhit granth

dara shikoh ke soofimat se sambandhit grnth nimnalikhit hain-

  1. saphinat-ul-auliya - vibhinn paramparaon ke soofiyon ke jivan vritt.
  2. sakinat-ul-auliya - bharat men kadiri parampara ke soofiyon ka jivan vrittant.
  3. hasanat-ul-araphin - vibhinn maton ke snton ki vani ka snkalan.
  4. tarikan-ul-haqiqat - adhyatmik marg ke vibhinn charan.
  5. risala-e-hamanuma - soofi prathaon ka varnan.

mugal kal ko guptakal ke bad ka ‘dvitiy klasiki yug’ kaha jata hai.

mahattvapoorn pustakon ka anuvad

mugal samrat akabar ne ‘anuvad vibhag’ ki sthapana ki thi. is vibhag men snskrit arabi bhasha, turki evn grik bhashaon ki anek kritiyon ka anuvad farasi bhasha men kiya gaya. farasi mugalon ki rajakiy bhasha thi.

  1. mahabharat’ ka farasi bhasha men ‘rajmanama’ nam se anuvad abdul kadir badayooni, nakib khan evn abdul kadir ne kiya.
  2. ramayan ka anuvad 1589 ee. men farasi men abdul kadir badayooni ne kiya.
  3. jyotish ke prasiddh grnth ‘tajak’ ya ‘tujuk’ ka farasi men anuvad ‘jahan-e-japhar’ nam se muhammad khan gujarati ne kiya.
  4. atharvaved’ ka anuvad farasi men haji ibrahim sarahindi ne kiya.
  5. ‘pnchatantr’ ka farasi anuvad abul fazal ne ‘anavar-e-suhaili’ nam se tatha maulana husain faiz ne ‘yar-e-danish’ nam se kiya.
  6. ‘kaliya daman’ ka anuvad farasi men abul fazal ne ‘ayagar danish’ nam se kiya.
  7. rajatarngini’ ka farasi men anuvad maulana sheri ne kiya.
  8. ganit ki pustak ‘lilavati’ ka anuvad todaramal ne kiya.
  9. bhagavat puran’ ka anuvad farasi men todaramal ne kiya.
  10. ‘naladamayanti’ ka anuvad farasi men faizi ne kiya.
  11. ‘sinhasan battisi’ ka anuvad farasi men abdul kadir badayoonni ne kiya.
  12. ‘tujuk-e-babari’ ka anuvad abdurrahim khanakhana ne farasi men kiya.
  13. arabi bhasha men likhi gayi bhoogol ki pustak ‘majm-ul-buladan’ ka farasi men anuvad mulla ahamad tatthavi, kasim beg evn munavvar ne kiya.
  14. arabi kriti ‘hayat-ul-hayavan’ ka farasi men anuvad abul fazal evn shekh mubarak ne kiya. ‘yogavashishth’ ka anuvad farasi men faizi ne kiya.
  15. islam dharm ke prati hindoo janata men bhaeechare evn samman ki bhavana jagane ke lie akabar ne ‘allopashid’ grnth ki rachana faizi se karavayi.
  16. ‘farasi snskrit kosh’ ki rachana krishnadas ne ki.
  17. dara shikoh ne 'shrimadbhagavadagita' ‘yog vashishth’ tatha pachas any upanishadon ka farasi bhasha men anuvad karavaya.

mugal kal men farasi kavita ke kshetr men bhi kafi kam hua tha. badashah babar ne farasi kavita ke kshetr men ‘mubiyan’ shaili ko janm diya. akabar bhi farasi evn hindi kavitaon ki rachana karata tha. pro. ithe ke anusar, ‘akabar ka kal farasi kavita ka bharatiy grishmakal tha.’ akabar ke samay men faizi, gajali aur urphi farasi ke mahattvapoorn kavi hue. jahangir, noorajahan, aurngazeb ki putri jebunnisa, aurngazeb ki bahan jahannara adi shahi parivar ke log gazal, rubaiyan evn kavitayen likhate the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


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