मुग़लकालीन स्थापत्य एवं वास्तुकला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugalakalin sthapaty evn vastukala
mugalakalin vastukala men nirmit prasiddh imarat
vivaran mugalakalin vastukala men faras, turki, madhy eshiya, gujarat, bngal, jaunapur adi sthanon ki shailiyon ka anokha mishran hua tha.
sthapaty visheshata mugal kal men vastukala ke kshetr men pahali bar ‘akar’ evn dijain ki vividhata ka prayog tatha nirman ki samragi ke roop men patthar ke alava palastar evn gachakari ka prayog kiya gaya. sajavat ke kshetr men sngamaramar par javaharat se ki gayi jadavat ka prayog bhi is kal ki ek visheshata thi. sajavat ke lie pattharon ko kat kar phool patte, belaboote ko safed sngamaramar men jada jata tha. is kal men banane vale gumbadon evn burjon ko ‘kalash’ se sajaya jata tha.
sthapaty kal 1525 ee. –1857 ee. lagabhag
pramukh shasak babar, humayoon, sherashah soori, akabar, jahangir, shahajahan
pramukh imarat tajamahal, humayoon ka maqabara, sikndara, bulnd daravaza, bibi ka maqabara, lal qila, pnchamahal, jahangiri mahal, etamaduddaula ka maqabara, jama masjid dilli adi
any janakari parsi braun ne ‘mugal kal’ ko bharatiy vastukala ka grishm kal mana hai, jo prakash aur urvara ka pratik mana jata hai. smith ne mugalakalin vastukala ko kala ki rani kaha hai.

dilli saltanat kal men prachalit vastukala ki ‘bharatiy islami shaili’ ka vikas mugal kal men hua. mugalakalin vastukala men faras, turki, madhy eshiya, gujarat, bngal, jaunapur adi sthanon ki shailiyon ka anokha mishran hua tha. parsi braun ne ‘mugal kal’ ko bharatiy vastukala ka grishm kal mana hai, jo prakash aur urvara ka pratik mana jata hai. smith ne mugalakalin vastukala ko kala ki rani kaha hai. mugalon ne bhavy mahalon, qilon, dvaron, masjidon, bavaliyon adi ka nirman kiya. unhonne bahate pani tatha favvaron se susajjit kee bag lagavaye. vastav men mahalon tatha any vilas-bhavanon men bahate pani ka upayog mugalon ki visheshata thi.

sthapaty kala

mugalakalin sthapaty kala ke vikas aur pragati ki arambhik kramabaddh parinati ‘fatehapur sikari’ adi nagaron ke nirman men aur charam parinati shahajahan ke ‘shahajahannabad’ nagar ke nirman men dikhaee padati hai. mugal kal men vastukala ke kshetr men pahali bar ‘akar’ evn dijain ki vividhata ka prayog tatha nirman ki samragi ke roop men patthar ke alava palastar evn gachakari ka prayog kiya gaya. sajavat ke kshetr men sngamaramar par javaharat se ki gayi jadavat ka prayog bhi is kal ki ek visheshata thi. sajavat ke lie pattharon ko kat kar phool patte, belaboote ko safed sngamaramar men jada jata tha. is kal men banane vale gumbadon evn burjon ko ‘kalash’ se sajaya jata tha.

babar

maqabare
shasak maqabara maqabare ka chitr
babar qabul bag-e-babar
humayoon dilli humayoon ka maqabara, dilli
akabar sikndara agara sikndara agara
jahangir shahadara (lahaur) jahangir ka maqabara, lahaur, pakistan
shahajahan agara tajamahal, agara
aurngazeb aurngabad (daulatabad) aurngazeb ka maqabara

babar ne bharat men apane alpakali shasan men vastukala men vishesh ruchi dikhaee. tatkalin bharat men hue nirman kary hindoo shaili men nirmit gvaliyar ke manasinh evn vikramajit sinh ke mahalon se sarvadhik prabhavit hain. ‘babaranama’ namak snsmaran men kahi gayi babar ki baton se lagata hai ki, tatkalin sthaniy vastukala men sntulan ya sudaulapan ka abhav tha. atah babar ne apane nirman kary men is bat ka vishesh dhyan rakha hai ki, usaka nirman samnjasyapoorn aur poornatah jyamitiy ho. babar svayn bagon ka bahut shaukin tha aur usane agara tatha lahaur ke nazadik kee bag bhi lagavae. jaise kashmir ka nishat bag, lahaur ka shalimar bag tatha pnjab ki taraee men pinjor bag, aj bhi dekhe ja sakate hain. bharatiy yuddhon se phurasat milane par babar ne apane aram ke lie agara men jyamitiy adhar par 'aram bag' ka nirman karavaya. usake jyamitiy karyon men any hain, ‘panipat ke 'kabuli bag' men nirmit ek smarak masjid (1524 ee.), ruhelakhand ke sambhal namak sthan par nirmit ‘jami masjid’ (1529 ee.), agara ke purane lodi ke qile ke bhitar ki masjid adi. panipat ke masjid ki visheshata usaka eeton dvara kiya gaya nirman kary tha.

humayoon

rajanitik paristhitiyon ki pratikoolata ke karan humayoon vastukala ke kshetr men kuchh khas nahin kar saka. usane 1533 ee. men ‘dinapanah’ (dharm ka sharanasthal) namak nagar ki ninv dali. is nagar jise ‘purana qila’ ke nam se jana jata hai, ki divaren rodi se nirmit thin. isake atirikt humayoon ki do masjiden, jo fatehabad men 1540 ee. men banaee gee thin, farasi shaili men nirmit hain.

sherashah soori

sherashah ka laghu samay ka shasan madhyakalin bharat ki vastukala ke kshetr men ‘snkraman kal’ mana jata hai. sherashah ne vastukala ko nayi disha di. usane dilli par qabza kar ‘sheragadh’ ya ‘dilli sherashahi’ ki ninv dali. sasaram (bihar) men usaka prasiddh maqabara tatha purana qilla, dilli men usaki masjid vastukala ke ashcharyajanak namoone hain. ye mugal-poorvakal ke vastukala ke charmontkarsh tatha nee shaili ke pararnmbhik namoone hain. aj is nagar ke avasheshon men ‘lal daravaza’ evn ‘khooni daravaza’ hi dekhane ko milate hain. sherashah ne 'din panah' ko tudavakar usake malave par ‘purane qile’ ka nirman karavaya. 1542 ee. men sherashah ne is qile ke andar ‘qila-e-kuhana’ nam ki masjid ka nirman karavaya. samay ke thapedon ko sahate hue is samay is qile ka ek bhag hi shesh hai. bihar ke rohatas namak sthan par sherashah ne ek qile ka nirman karavaya.

sherashah ka maqabara jhil ke andar ek oonche tile par nirmit hindoo-muslim vastukala ka shreshth namoona hai. maqabara bahar se muslim prabhav evn andar se hindoo prabhav men nirmit hai. parsi braun ne ise sampoorn uttar bharat ki sarvottam kriti kaha hai. ‘qila-e-kuhana’ masjid ke parisar men ek ‘sheramandal’ nam ka ashtabhuji tin mnjila mandap nirmit hai. ‘qila-e-kuhana’ masjid ko uttar bharat ke bhavanon men mahattvapoorn sthan prapt hai. sherashah ne rohatasagadh ke durg evn kannauj ke sthan par ‘sherasoor’ namak nagar basaya. 1541 ee. men usane pataliputr ko ‘patana’ ke nam se punah sthapit kiya. sherashah ne dilli men ‘lngar’ ki sthapana ki, jahan par sambhavatah 500 tola sona har din vyay kiya jata tha.

akabar

akabar ke shasan kal ke nirman karyon men hindoo-muslim shailiyon ka vyapak samanvay dikhata hai. abul fazal ne akabar ke vishay men kaha hai ki, ‘samrat sundar imaraton ki yojana banata hai aur apane mastishk evn hriday ke vichar se patthar evn gare ka roop de deta hai. akabar pahala mugal samrat tha, jisake pas bade paiman par nirman karavane ke lie samay aur sadhan the. usane kee qilon ka nirman kiya, jisamen sabase prasiddh agare ka qila hai. lal patthar se bane is qile men kee bhavy dvar hain. qila nirman ka charmontkarsh shahajahan dvara nirmit dilli ka lal qila hai.

1572 men akabar ne agara se 36 kilomitar door fatehapur sikari men qilenuma mahal ka nirman arambh kiya. yah ath varshan men poora hua. pahadi par base is mahal men ek badi kritrim jhil bhi thi. isake alava isamen gujarat tatha bngal shaili men bane kee bhavan the. inamen gahari guphaen, jharokhe tatha chhatariyan thi. havakhori ke lie banae ge pnchamahal ki sapat chhat ko sahara dene ke lie vibhinn stambhon, jo vibhinn prakar ke mandiron ke nirman men prayog kie jate the, ka istemal kiya gaya tha. rajapooti patni ya patniyon ke lie bane mahal sabase adhik gujarat shaili men hain. is tarah ke bhavanon ka nirman agara ke qile men bhi hua tha. yadyapi inamen se kuchh hi bache hain. akabar agara aur phatehapur sikari donon jagahon ke kam men vyaktigat ruchi leta tha. divaron tatha chhaton ki shobha badhane ke lie istemal kie ge chamakile nile pattharon men eerani ya madhy eshiya ka prabhav dekha ja sakata hai. fatehapur sikari ka sabase prabhavashali vahan ki masjid tatha buland daravaza hai, jo akabar ne apani gujarat vijay ke smarak ke roop me banavaya tha. daravaza adhe gumbad ki shaili men bana hua hai. gumbad ka adha hissa daravaze ke bahar vale hisse ke oopar hai tatha usake pichhe chhote-chhote daravaze hain. yah shaili eeran se li gee thi aur bad ke mugal bhavanon men am roop se prayog ki jane lagi.

jahangir tatha shahajahan

mugal samrajy ke vistar ke sath mugal vastukala bhi apane shikhar par pahunch gee. jahangir ke shasanakal ke ant tak aise bhavanon ka nirman arambh ho gaya tha, jo poori tarah sngamaramar ke bane the aur jinaki divaron par qimati pattharon ki naqqashi ki gee thi. yah shaili shahajahan ke samay aur bhi lokapriy ho gayi. shahajahan ne ise tajamahal, jo nirman kala ka ratn mana jata hai, men bade paimane par prayog kiya. tajamahal men mugalon dvara vikasit vastukala ki sabhi shailiyon ka sundar samanvay hai. akabar ke shasanakal ke prarambh men dilli men nirmit humayoon ka maqabara, jisamen sngamaramar ka vishal gumbad hai, taj ka poorvagami mana ja sakata hai. is bhavan ki ek doosari visheshata do gumbadon ka prayog hai. isamen ek bade gumbad ke andar ek chhota gumbad bhi bana hua hai. taj ki pramukh visheshata usaka vishal gumbad tatha mukhy bhavan ke chabootare ke kinaron par khadi char minaren hain. isamen sajavat ka kam bahut kam hai lekin sngamaramar ke sundar jharokhon, jade hue qimati pattharon tatha chhatariyon se isaki sundarata bahut badh gayi hai. isake alava isake charon taraf lagae ge, susajjit bag se yah aur prabhavashali dikhata hai. shahajahan ke shasanakal men masjid nirman kala bhi apane shikhar par thi. do sabase sundar masjiden hain, agara ke qile ki moti masjid, jo taj ki tarah poori sngamaramar ki bani hai tatha dilli ki jama masjid, jo lal patthar ki hai. jama masjid ki visheshataen usaka vishal dvar, oonchi minaren tatha gumbad hain. inhen bhi dekhen: jahangir evn shahajahan

aurngazeb

yadyapi mitavyayi aurngazeb ne bahut bhavanon ka nirman nahin kiya, tathapi hindoo, turk tatha eerani shailiyon ke samanvay par adharit mugal vastukala ki parampara athaharavin tatha unnasavin shatabdi ke arambh tak bina rok jari rahi. mugal parampara ne kee prantiy sthaniy rajaon ke qilon tatha mahalon ki vastukala ko prabhavit kiya. amritasar men sikkhon ka svarn mnndir, jo is kal men kee bar, vah bhi gumbad tatha meharab ke siddhant par nirmit hua tha, aur isase mugal vastukala ki parampara ki kee visheshataen prayog men laee geen. inhen bhi dekhen: babar, humayoon, akabar, jahangir, shahajahan evn aurngazeb

humayoon ka maqabara

yah ek aisa nirman hai, jisane sthapaty kala ko ek navin disha pradan ki. yah maqabara apani parampara ka bana pahala bhavan hai. isaka nirman kary akabar ki sauteli man haji begam ki dekh-rekh men 1564 ee. men hua. is maqabare ka khaka eeran ke mukhy vastukar ‘mirak mirza giyas’ ne taiyar kiya tha. isi ke netritv men maqabare ka nirman kary poora hua. yahi karan hai ki, maqabare men eerani ya farasi prabhav dikhaee deta hai. maqabara charon taraf se jyamitiy chaturbhuj akara ke udyan se ghira hai. eerani prabhav ke sath-sath is maqabare men hindoo shaili ki ‘pncharath’ se bhi prerana li gee hai. pradhan maqabara 22 phut oonche patthar ke chabootaren par nirmit hai. pashchim disha men maqabare ka mukhy daravaza hai. safed sngamaramar se nirmit maqabare ki gumbad hi isaki mukhy visheshata hai. ubhari huee dohari gumbad vala yah maqabara bharat men bana pahala udaharan hai. maqabara tarashe gaye lal rng ke pattharon dvar nirmit hai. udyanon men nirmit maqabaron ka ayojan pratikatmak roop men karate hue maqabaron men daphanaye gaye vyaktiyon ke daivi svaroop ki or snket kiya gaya hai. is prakar ke bhavanon ki parampara men pahala bhavan humayoon ka maqabara hai. is parampara ki parinati tajamahal men huee. humayoon ke maqabare ko ‘tajamahal ka poorvagami’ bhi kahate hai. ise ek 'vafadar bibi ki mahaboobana peshakash' kaha jata hai.

akabar ne nirman kary par adhik dhan apavyay n kar aisi imaraton ka nirman karavaya, jo apani sadagi se hi sundar lagati thi. akabar ne ‘meharabi’ evn ‘shahatiri’ shaili ka saman anupat men prayog kiya. akabar ne apane nirman karyon men lal patthar ka prayog kiya. akabar ke grahanashil svabhav ke karan usake nirman kary men farasi shaili men hindoo evn bauddh parnparaon ka adhik sammishran hua.

agara ka qila

agara men tajamahal se thodi door par bana mahath‍vapoorn mugal sh‍marak hai, jo agara ka lal qila nam se vikhyat hai. yah shaktishali qila lal saind sh‍ton se bana hua haih. yah 2.5 kilomitar lamh‍bi divar se ghira hua hai. yah mugal shasakon ka shahi shahar kaha jata hai. is qile ki bahari mazaboot divaren apane andar ek sh‍varg ko chhupae hain. is qile men anek vishishh‍t bhavan hain. 1566 ee. men akabar ke mukhy vastukar kasim khan ke netritv men is qile ka nirman kary prarambh hua. lagabhag 15 varshon tak lagatar nirman kary evn 35 lakh rupaye kharch ke bad yah qila banakar taiyar hua. yamuna nadi ke kinare yah qila lagabhag 1-1/2 mil men phaila hua hai. qile ki meharabon par akabar ne quran ki ayaton ke sthan par pashu-pakshi, phool-patton ki akritiyon ko khudavaya hai, jo sambhavatah is qile ki ek visheshata hai. 70 phut oonchi tarashe gaye lal patthar se nirmit qile ki divaron men kahin bhi ek bal ke bhi ghusane ki jagah shesh nahin hai. qile ke pashchim men sthit ‘dilli daravaze’ ka nirman 1566 ee. men kiya gaya. parsi braun ne daravaze ke bare men kaha hai ki, “niahsandeh hi vah bharat ke sabase adhik prabhavashali daravazon men se hai.” qile ka doosara daravaza amar sinh daravaza ke nam se jana jata hai. qile ke andar akabar ne lagabhag aise 500 nirman karavaye hain, jinamen lal patthar ka prayog hua hai, sath hi bngal evn gujarat ki nirman shaili ka bhi prayog hua hai.

jahangiri mahal

gvaliyar ke raja manasinh ke mahal ki nakal kar agara ke qile men bana ‘jahangiri mahal’ akabar ka sarvotkrisht nirman kary hai. yah mahal 249 phut lamba evn 260 phut chauda hai. mahal ke charon kone men 4 badi chhatariyan hain. mahal men pravesh hetu banaya gaya daravaza nonkadar meharab ka hai. mahal ke madhy men 17 phut ka ayatakar angan bana hai. poornatah hindoo shaili men bane is mahal men sngamaramar ka alp prayog kiya gaya hai. kadiyan tatha tode ka prayog isaki visheshata hai. jahangiri mahal ke samane laaun men pyale ke akar ka ek hauz nirmit hai, jis par farasi bhasha ayaten khudi hain. jahangiri mahal ke dahini or akabari mahal ka nirman hua tha, jisake khandaharon se nirman ki yojana ka ahasas hota hai. jahangiri mahal ki sundarata ka akabari mahal men abhav dikhata hai.

fatehapur sikari

pragaitihasik kal se hi fatehapur sikari manav basti ke nam se jani jati hai. vikram snvat 1010-1067 eesavi ke ek shilalekh men is jagah ka nam "sekriky" milata hai. sanh 1527 men babar khanava ke yuddh men fateh ke bad yahan aya aur apane snsmaran men is jagah ko sikari kaha hai. usake dvara yahan ek jalamahal aur bavali ke nirman ka bhi ullekh hai. akabar ki kee raniyan aur begam thin, kintu unamen se kisi se bhi putr nahin hua tha. akabar piron evn fakiron se putr prapti ke lie duaen mangata phirata tha. shekh salim chishti ne akabar ko dua di. fakir ne akabar se kaha, "bachcha too hamara intazam kar de, teri murad poori hogi."

akabar ne salim (jahangir) ke janm ke bad 1571 ee. men shekh salim chishti ke prati adar prakat karane ke udeshy se fatehapur sikari ke nirman ka adesh diya. 1570 men akabar ne gujarat ko jitakar is sthan ka nam ‘fatehapur sikari’ (vijayi nagari) rakha. 1571 ee. men ise mugal samrajy ki rajadhani banaya gaya. yah nagar 7 mil lambe pahadi kshetr me phaila hua hai. isamen bane 9 pravesh dvaron men agara, dilli, ajamer, gvaliyar evn dhaulapur pramukh hain. fatehapur sikari nagar akabar ki us rajaniti ka paradarshak vastukalatmak pratibinb hai, jisake dvara vah apane vishal samrajy ke vividh tatvon ke madhy ekata sthapit karana chahata tha. fargyusan ne kaha hai ki, ‘fatehapur sikari patthar men prem tatha ek mahanh vyakti ke mastishk ki abhivyakti hai.’ fatehapur sikari nagar ke nirman ka shrey vastukala visheshgy bahauddin ko milata hai. sachamuch fatehapur sikari ek mahanh samriddhashali tatha shaktishali shasak ke vyaktitv ka pratik hai. smith ke anusar- 'fatehapur sikari jaisi vastukala ki kriti n to atit men huee hai aur n bhavishy men hogi'.

divan-e-am

oonche adhar par laukik prayog hetu nirmit 'divan-e-am' men khambon par nikali huee baramadon ki chhat thi. yah ek ayatakar kaksh hai. 'divan-e-am' men manasabadaron evn unake naukaron ke lie meharabi baramade bane hain. 'divan-e-am' men akabar ke lie ek sinhasan bana hai. isake baramade men lal patthar se bana akabar ka ‘daphtarakhana’ hai. 'divan-e-am' men akabar apane mntriyon se salah-mashavira karata tha.

divan-e-khas

bauddh evn hindoo kala shaili ke prabhav vala ‘divan-e-khas’ 47 phut ka ek vargakar bhavan hain. bhavan ke madhy men bane oonche chabootare par baithakar badashah akabar apane karmachariyon ki bahas ko sunata tha. 'divan-e-khas' hi akabar ka prasiddh ibadatakhana hai, jahan pratyek brihaspativar ki sndhya ko akabar vibhinn dharmon ke dharmacharyon se charchaen karata tha. 'divan-e-khas' ke kaksh ke madhy men sthit stambh par apas men jude hue phool ki pnkhudiyon ki tarah ke 36 laharadar breket hain, jinake oopar gol patthar ka mnch jaisa nirman hua hai. ‘havel’ isaki tulana vishnu stambh v vishv vriksh se karate hain. 'divan-e-khas' ke uttar men ‘koshagar’ ke nirman evn pashchim men ek vargakar chndoba sa ‘jyotishi ki baithak’ ka nirman kiya gaya hai. parsi braun ke anusar- 'akabar ne jyotishi ki baithak men apane pagalapan ya sanakipan ka pradarshan kiya hai'.

pnchamahal

piramid akar men bani is panch mnzil ki imarat ko ‘hava mahal’ bhi kaha jata hai. yah bhavan nalanda men nirmit bauddh viharon se prerit lagate hain. niche se oopar ki or jane par mnjilen kramashah chhoti hoti gee hain. mahal ke khambon par phool-pattiyan, rudraksh ke danon se sundar sajavat ki gee hai. pahali mnzil ke bade hal men 48 khambhe nirmit hain, jin par shesh mnjilon ka bhar hai. akabar ke is nirman kary men bauddh viharon evn hindoo dharm ka prabhav spashtatah dikhaee padata hai.

turki sultan ki kothi

yah ek mnzil ki atyadhik akarshak evn chhoti imarat hai. is imarat ka nirman sambhavat: 'rukkaiya begam' ya phir 'salima begam' ke lie kiya gaya tha. imarat ke andar ki divaron par ped-paudhon, pashu-pakshiyon ki chitrakari ki gayi hai. imarat ke alnkaran men kashthakala ka prabhav dikhata hai. parsi braun ne ise ‘kalatmak ratn‘ tatha ‘sthapaty kala ka moti‘ kaha hai.

khas mahal

lal patthar evn safed sngamaramar ke snyog se bani is do mnjili imarat ko akabar ke vyaktigat avasagrih ke roop men prayog kiya jata tha. mahal ke charon konon par 4 chhatariyon ka nirman kiya gaya tha. divaron men jaliyan lagi thin. mahal ke dakshin men shayanagar tha. jisamen 4 daravaze lage the. mahal ke oopari hisse men ‘jharokha darshan' ki vyavastha ki gee thi.

jodhabaee ka mahal

fatehapur sikari men bane sabhi bhavanon ke akar men yah mahal sabase bada hai. yah mahal 320 phut lamba, 215 phut ooncha hai. is mahal men ki gayi sajavat dakshin ke mndiron se prabhavit hai. isamen gujarat ke karigaron ka prabhav dikhaee padata hai. mahal ke uttar men grishm vilas evn dakshin men sharad vilas ka nirman hua hai. is mahal men lage khambhon ke shahatir evn unaki ghantiyon ki sankaron jaisi umadi dijainen poornatah hindoo madiron jaisi hai. jodhabaee ke mahal ke samip sthit ‘mariyam ki kothi' ek chhoti imarat hain. sultan ke mahal ki prerana pnjab ke kashth nirman se li gayi hai.

birabal ka mahal

mariyam ke mahal ki shaili par nirmit is mahal men do mnzil par sundar chapate akar ke gumbad evn barasatiyon par piramid ke akar ki chhaten hain. mahal ke chhajje koshthakon par adharit hain. chhajjon men koshthakon ka prayog is imarat ki visheshata hai. fatehapur sikari ke any nimarn kary the- 'shahi astabal', 'saray', 'hiran minar', abul fazal bhavan adi.

jama masjid

makka ki prasiddh masjid se prerana grahan kar banaee gee is masjid ka ayatakar kshetr 542 phut lamba evn 438 phut chauda hai. masjid ke dakshin men buland daravaza, madhy men shekh salim chishti ka maqabara, uttar men islam khan ka maqabara nirmit hai. akabar ne 1582 ee़., men ‘din-e-ilahi' dharm ki ghoshana yahin se ki thi. masjid ke oopar bane tin gumbadon men bich ka gumbad sarvadhik bada hai. parsi braun ne is sambandh men kaha hai ki, ‘fatehapur sikari ki prabhavashali kritiyon men niahsandeh jama masjid sarvotkrisht upalabdhi hai'. fargyusan ne isako ‘patthar men roomani katha' kaha hai.

bulnd daravaza

is daravaze ka nirman samrat akabar ne gujarat vijay ke upalakshy men jama masjid ke dakshini dvar par karavaya tha. yah daravaza 134 phut ooncha hai. isake nirman men lal rng ke balua patthar ka prayog kiya gaya hai. zamin ki satah se is daravaze ki oonchaee 176 phut hai. daravaze ki mahattvapoorn visheshata isaka meharabi marg hai. ise akabar ki dakshini vijay ki smriti men banaya gaya bhi mana jata hai. daravaze par likhe lekh dvara akabar manav samaj ko vishvas, bhav evn bhakti ka sandesh deta hai.

shekh salim chishti ka maqabara

jama masjid ke ahate men bane is maqabare ka nirman kary 1571 ee. men prarambh hua. yah vargakar maqabara charon or se 25 phut ooncha hai. lal evn balua patthar se is maqabare ko banaya gaya hai. kalantar men jahangir ne balua patthar ke sthan par sngamaramar lagavaya. maqabare ke sarvadhik akarshak bhag isaki dyodhi (chaukhat) evn stambh hain. maqabare ki pharsh rng-birngi hai. parsi braun ne maqabare ke bare men kaha ki, ‘isaki shaili islamin shaili ki bauddhikata tatha gambhiry ki svatantr kalpana ka parichay pradan karati hai.‘

islam khan ka maqabara

shekh salim ke maqabare ke dakshin men sthit evn lal patthar se nirmit islam khan ke maqabare ki visheshata thi ki, isamen pahali bar 'varnakar meharab' ka prayog kiya gaya tha.

akabar ke any nirman kary

in imaraton ke atirikt bhi fatehapur sikari men anek nirman kary akabar dvara karavaye gaye the. fargyusan ne fatehapur sikari mahal ke bare men likha hai ki, 'sab milakar fatehapur sikari ka mahal pashan ka ek aisa romans hai, jaisa ki kahin bahut kam milega aur yah us mahanh vyakti ke jisane ki ise banavaya tha, mastishk ki aisi pratichchhaya hai, jaisi ki kisi any srot se saralata se upalabdh nahin ho saki. 1570 se 1585 ee tak fatehapur sikari mugal samrajy ki rajadhani rahi, isake bad ujabek akraman ka samana karane ke lie akabar ko lahaur jana pada, jahan par usane ‘ lahaur ka qila banavaya. yah qila agara men nirmit jahangiri mahal se prerit lagata hai, antar matr itana hai ki, qile ke koshthakon par hathi evn sihon ki akriti ukeri gee hai. navambar, 1583 ee. men akabar dvara banavaya gaya 'ilahabad ka qila' apane 40 stambhon ke karan vishalata ka ahasas karata hai. qile ke nirman men lal balua patthar ka prayog hua hai. akabar ne 1581 ee. men 'atak ka qila' banavaya tha. khandahar ke roop men bacha yah qila samarik drishtikon se mahattvapoorn hai. saransh men kaha ja sakata hai ki, akabar kalin vastukala ka vikas hindoo shaili ke akaron ,dharmik snketon aur visheshataon se prabhavit hua. lekin isaka tatpary yah nahin ki, vah islami chapakar shaili ki apeksha hinduon ki shahatiri shaili ko adhik pasand karata tha. akabar ki vastukala men mugal kal ke poorv ki shahi shaili tatha gujarat, malava aur chnderi ki anchalik shailiyon ka snyojan hai.

jahangir ka yogadan

vastukala ke kshetr men jahangir ne bahut adhik ruchi nahin dikhaee. usane bag-bagichon evn chitrakari ko adhik mahatv diya. isalie kuchh itihasakaron ne jahangir ke kal ko sthapaty kala ka vishram kal kaha hai. jahangir ke samay ke kuchh mahattvapoorn nirman kary nimnalikhit hain-

akabar ka maqabara

sikndara agara men is maqabare ki yojana svayn akabar ne banaee thi, parantu 1612 ee. men antim roop se isaka nirman kary jahangir ne poora karavaya. piramid ke akar men bane is pnchamnjila maqabare ki sabase oopari mnzil ka nirman sngamaramar dvara jahangir ne karavaya tha. maqabare ka pravesh dvar balua patthar se nirmit hai. maqabare ke charon konon par ashtabhujiy sundar panch mnzil ki 100 phut oonchi minar hain. maqabare ki chhat ke bich men sngamaramar ka ek sundar mndap hai. maqabare men jadaoo sngamaramar, rngin tails evn anek prakar ke rngon ka prayog hua hai.

etamaduddaula ka maqabara

parsi braun ke anusar, ‘agara men yamuna nadi ke tat par sthit etamaduddaula ka maqabara akabar evn shahajahan ki shailiyon ke madhy ek kadi hai. is maqabare ka nirman 1626 ee. men noorajahan ne karavaya. mugalakalin vastukala ke antargat nirmit yah pratham aisi imarat hai, jo poorn roop se bedag safed sngamaramar se nirmit hai. sarvapratham isi imarat men ‘pitradura’ nam ka jadaoo kam kiya gaya. maqabare ke andar sone evn any qimati ratnon se jadavat ka kary kiya gaya hai. jadavat ke kary ka ek pahale ka namoona udayapur ke 'golamandal mandir' men paya jata hai. maqabare ke andar nirmit etamaduddaula evn usaki patni ki qabren pile rng ke qimati patthar se nirmit hai. maqabare ki divaron men sngamaramar ki sundar jaliyon ka prayog kiya gaya hai. vastukala ke visheshgy ise tajamahal ke atirikt any mugalakalin imaraton men shreshth manate hain.

mariyam uj-jamani ka maqabara

yah maqabara sikandara men akabar ke maqabare se 2 phalang ki doori par sthit hai. maqabare men nirmit gumbad prarambhik mugal shaili ka pratik hai. is maqabare ka nirman lal patthar evn eeton se hua hai. 45 phut ke vargakar kshetr men sthit is maqabare ki oonchaee lagabhag 39 phut hai. maqabare ka madhy bhag safed sngamaramar se nirmit hai. isake atirikt jahangir ke samay men abdurrahim khanakhana ke maqabare ka nirman eerani shaili men hua hai.

shahajahan ka yogadan

shahajahan ka kal safed sngamaramar ke prayog ka charamotkarsh kal mana jata hai. is samay sngamaramar jodhapur ke ‘makarana’ namak sthan se milata tha, jo vrittakar kataee ke lie adhik upayukt tha. naqqashi yukt ya parnil meharaben, bngali shaili ke mude hue kngoore, jngale ke khambhe adi shahajahan ke kal ki visheshataen hain. akabar ki imaraton ki tulana men shahajahan ki imaraten chamak-damak evn maulikata men ghatiya hain, parantu ativyayapoorn pradarshan evn samriddh aur kaushalapoorn sajavat men ve badhi huee hain, jisase shahajahan kal ki vastukala ek adhik bade paimane par ratnon ke sajane ki kala ban jati hai. shahajahan ke samay nirmit kuchh pramukh imaraten nimnalikhit hain-

divan-e-am

agara ke qile men shahajahan dvara 1627 ee. men banavaya gaya 'divan-e-am' shahajahan ke samay ka sngamaramar ka pratham nirman kary tha. isamen samrat ke baithane ke lie 'mayoor sinhasan' ki vyavastha thi.

divan-e-khas

1637 ee. men shahajahan dvara agara ke qile men banavaya gaya 'divan-e-khas' safed sngamaramar ki ayatakar imarat hai. 'divan-e-khas' men mahattvapoorn amir evn uchchadhikari hi a sakate the. sngamaramar nirmit pharsh vali is imarat men meharab svarn evn rngon se saje hain. is imarat men andar ki chhat qimati chandi ki thi tatha usamen sngamaramar, sone aur bahumooly pattharon ki mili-juli sajavat thi, jo us par khude abhilekh- 'agar firadaus bararooyen zami ast, hamin ast, u hamin ast, u hamin ast. (yadi bhoomi par kahi paramasukh ka svarg hai, to yahin hai, yahin hai, doosara koee nahin) ko charitarth karati thi.

moti masjid

1564 ee. men shahajahan dvara agara men banaee gee 'moti masjid' agara ke qile ki sarvotkrisht imarat hai. masjid men nirmit gumbad mukhy roop se ullekhaniy hai. safed sngamaramar se bani is masjid ki lambaee 237 phut evn chaudaee 187 phut hai. parsi braun ke anusar, ‘mugal vastukala ki yah sarvashreshth kriti hai.’

musamman burj

chhah mnjila is imarat ka nirman shahajahan ne agara qile men nirmit 'khas mahal' ke uttar men karavaya tha. is burj men baithakar shahi parivar ki striyan pashuon ka yuddh dekha karati thin. sngamaramar dvara nirmit musamman burj men shahajahan ne hathi par savar rana pratap evn usake putr karan sinh ki moortiyon ka nirman karavaya tha. kalantar men aurngazeb ne in moortiyon ko dhvast karava diya.

khas mahal

isaka nirman safed sngamaramar se shahajahan ne haram ki striyon ke lie karavaya tha. isake atirikt agara qile ke andar ke kuchh any nirman kary the- 'shish mahal', 'nagina masjid', 'jharokha darshan', 'angoori bag', 'machchhi bhavan', 'nahar-e-bahisht' (jisake dvara qile men pani ki vyavastha ki jati thi).

jama masjid

agara qile men sthit is masjid ka nirman shahajahan ki putri 'jahanara begam' ne 1648 ee. men karavaya tha. masjid 130 phut lambi evn 100 phut chaudi hai. is masjid men lakadi evn eent ka bhi prayog kiya gaya hai. agara ki jama masjid ko 'masjide-jahannama' bhi kaha jata hai. inhen bhi dekhen: divan-e-am (agara), divan-e-khas (agara), musamman burj evn jama masjid agara

tajamahal

agara men yamuna nadi ke tat par sthit maqabara ‘tajamahal’ ka nirman shahajahan ki dekh-rekh men 'ustad eesa khan' ne sampann karavaya tha, jabaki maqabare ki yojana 'ustad ahamad lahauri' ne taiyar ki thi. shahajahan ne lahauri ko 'nadir-ul-asar' ki upadhi pradan ki thi.
tajamahal, agara
lahauri ne tajamahal ke nirman men sahayata ke lie bagadad tatha shiraj se hastakala visheshgy, kustunatuniya se gumbad nirman kala visheshgy, bukhara se phool-patte ki khudaee visheshgy, samaraknd se shikhar nirman evn bag-bagicha nirman men kushal logon ko bulavaya tha. is maqabare men madhy eshiya, eeran evn bharat ki bhavan nirman shailiyon ka samnjasyapoorn snyojan hai. snbhavatah yah maqabara dilli men nirmit humayoon ke maqabare evn abdurrahim khanakhana ke maqabare se prerit hai. is imarat ki lambaee 1900 phut evn chaudaee 1000 phut hai. tajamahal ke madhy men sthit maqabara 22 phut oonche chabootare par nirmit hai. maqabare ki mukhy imarat 108 phut oonchi gumbad hai. tajamahal ke andar ke bhag men pitradura shaili men sundar sajavat ka kam kiya gaya hai. is maqabare ka nirman kary 1631 ee. men prarambh hua aur 1653 ee. men poora hua. shahajahan ne is maqabare ko apani priy begam ‘mumataz mahal’ (arjoomand banoo begam) ki yad men banavaya tha. kala itihasakar ben begale ki drishti men yah maqabara samrat ki patni ki yadagar n hokar eeshvariy sinhasan aur bahisht ki pratikriti hai. haivel ne tajamahal ko ‘bharatiy naritv ki sakar pratima’ kaha hai. ise prem ka kavy bhi kaha jata hai.

shahajahannabad

1638 ee. men shahajahan ne apani rajadhani ko agara se dilli lane ke lie yamuna nadi ke dahine tat par ‘shahajahannabad’ (vartaman purani dilli) namak nagar ki ninv rakhi. shahajahan ne is nagar men chaturbhuj akar ka ‘lal qila’ namak ek qile ka nirman karavaya, jisaka nirman kary 1648 ee. men poorn hua. lagabhag ek karod rupaye ki lagat se banane vala yah qila hamid evn ahamad namak vastukaron ke nirikshan men bana. qile ke pashchimi daravaze ka nam ‘lahauri daravaza’ evn dakshini daravaze ka nam ‘dilli daravaza’ hai. yah qila 3100 phit lamba evn 1650 phit chaida hai. dilli ka lal qila hamid ahamad namak shilpakar ki dekharekh men bana tatha is par 1 karod ki lagat ayi thi.

divan-e-am

dilli ke qile ke 'divan-e-am' ki visheshata hai- usake pichhe ki divaron men bana ek koshth jahan vishv prasiddh ‘takht-e-taoos’ rakha jata tha. 'takht-e-taoos' ya 'mayoor sinhasan' ka nirman bebadal khan ne kiya tha. koshth ke chitron men yooropiy prabhav dikhalaee padata hai. 'divan-e-khas' men lage hue rngamahal ka nirman shahi parivar ke logon ke lie kiya gaya tha. yahan par nirmit ‘nyay ki tarajoo’ par bhi yooropiy shaili ka prabhav dikhaee padata hai.

divan-e-khas

dilli ke qile ke 'divan-e-khas' ki andar ki chhat men chandi, sone evn anek bahumooly patthar tatha sngamaramar ki mili-juli sajavat ki gee hai.

jama masjid

dilli ki prasiddh jama masjid ka nirman shahajahan ne 1648 ee. men karavaya tha. isamen shahajahanni shaili men phooladar alnkaran ki meharaben bani hain. yah masjid ek oonche chabootaren par bani hai. masjid men 3.25 phit kshetr men phaila ek angan hai. jama masjid ko banane men 6 varsh ka samay aur 10 lakh rupe lage the. jama masjid bahua patthar aur safed sngamaramar se nirmit hai. is masjid men uttar aur dakshin dvaron se pravesh kiya ja sakata hai. jama masjid ka poorvi dvar keval shukravar ko hi khulata hai. is dvar ke bare men kaha jata hai ki sultan isi dvar ka prayog karate the. jama masjid ka prarthana grih bahut hi sundar hai. isamen gyarah meharab hain jisamen bich vala meharab any se kuchh bada hai.

dilli ke lal qile ke bhitar safed sngamaramar ki bani any imarate thin- 'moti mahal', 'hira mahal', 'nahar-e-bahisht', 'shish mahal'. shahajahan dvara lahaur ke qile men karaye gaye nirman kary the- 'divan-e-am', 'shahaburj', 'shish mahal', 'naulakha mahal', 'khvabagah' adi. shahajahan ke samay men bane shahadara men asaf khan ke maqabare men ‘farasi shaili’ ki pachchikari ki gayi. shahajahan ke samay men farasi shaili men bane pramukh udyan kashmir ke nishant bag evn shalimar bag, jo sidhi ke akar men banaye gaye the, prashnsaniy hain. shahajahan ke shasan kal ko sthapaty kala ka ‘svarn kal’ kaha jata hai.

aurngazeb ka yogadan

aurngazeb ne kisi bhi shreshth imarat ka nirman nahin karavaya. usane 1659 ee. men dilli ki moti masjid ke adhoore kary kary ko poora kiya tha. 1674 ee. men usane lahaur men ‘badashah masjid’ ka nirman karavaya. 1678 ee. men aurngazeb ne apani 'begam rabiya dorani' ki smriti men 'aurngajabad' men ek maqabare ka nirman karavaya. yah ‘bibi ka maqabara’ ke nam se prasidv hai, jo tajamahal ki phoohad nakal hai. is maqabare ke madhyam se mugal sthapaty men patan ko spasht roop se anubhav kiya ja sakata hai.

bibi ka maqabara akabar evn shahajahan ke kal ke shahi nirman se antim mugalon ke sadharan vastukala ke parivartan ko darshata hai. yah maqabara dakshin bharatiy taj ke roop men jana jata hai. isake pravesh dvar se bhitar jane ke bad age bilkul tajamahal jaisa lagata hain. samane ek chhota tal hain, jisame tajamahal jaisi chhavi jhilamilati hain. age galiyara jaisa hain, jisake donon aur haritima hain. maqabare men age jakar ek bada haaul hai, jisamen bichobich reling lagi huee hai. jisase niche maqabara dikhaee deta hai. haaul ki divaron aur chhat par bahut sundar naqqashi hai. is bade haaul ke charon or khula bhag aur charon or stambh bane hue hain. maqabare ke bahar charon or bade bhoo-bhag men hariyali hain. bibi ka maqabara bahut sundar jagah sthit hain.

safadarajng ka maqabara

aurngazeb ke bad ka ullekhaniy mugalakalin bhavan dilli ka 'safadarajng ka maqabara' (1753 ee.) hai, jo avadh ke doosare navab ka maqabara hai. yah maqabara atyadhik akarshak nahin hai. mugalakalin vastukala ki akhiri jhalak is maqabare men dikhaee deti hai. yah maqabara lodi marg, nee dilli men sthit hai. yah maqabara dakshin dilli men aurobindo marg par lodi marg ke pashchimi chhor ke thik samane sthit hai. 1753-54 ee. men banavaya gaya yah maqabara navab sirajuddaula ne apane pita mirza mukim abul mnsoor khan, jo ki sapharadajng ke roop men jane jate the, unaki yad men banavaya tha. safadarajng mugal kal men san 1719-1748 ee. men mugal badashah muhammadashah ki avadhi men pradhanamntri niyukt hue the. safadarajng ki upadhi badashah muhammadashah ne hi unhen di thi.


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