bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

मौर्यकालीन कला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kala ki drishti se hadappa ki sabhyata aur maury kal ke bich lagabhag 1500 varsh ka antaral hai. is bich ki kala ke bhautik avashesh upalabdh nahin hai. mahakavyon aur bauddh grnthon men hathidant, mitti aur dhatuon ke kam ka ullekh hai. kintu maury kal se poorv vastukala aur moortikala ke moort udaharan kam hi milate hain. maury kal men hi pahale-pahal kalatmak gatividhiyon ka itihas nishchit roop se prarambh hota hai. rajy ki samriddhi aur maury shasakon ki prerana se kalakritiyon ko protsahan mila.

is yug men kala ke do roop milate hain. ek to rajarakshakon ke dvara nirmit kala, jo ki maury prasad aur ashok stnbhon men paee jati hai. doosara vah roop jo parakham ke yaksh didaragnj ki chamar grahini aur vesanagar ki yakshini men dekhane ko milata hai. rajy sabha se sambandhit kala ki prerana ka srot svayn samrat tha. yaksh-yakshiniyon men hamen lokakala ka roop milata hai. lokakala ke roopon ki parampara poorv yugon se kashth aur mitti men chali aee hai. ab use pashan ke madhyam se abhivyakt kiya gaya.

rajakiy kala

rajakiy kala ka sabase pahala udaharan chndragupt ka prasad hai, jisaka vishad varnan eriyan ne kiya hai. usake anusar rajaprasad ki shan-shauqat ka muqabala n to soosa aur n ekabetana hi kar sakate hain. yah prasad sambhavatah vartaman patana ke nikat kumrahar ganv ke samip tha. kumrahar ki khudaee men prasad ke sabha-bhavan ke jo avashesh prapt hue hain usase prasad ki vishalata ka anuman lagaya ja sakata hai. yah sabha-bhavan khambhon vala hal tha. sanh 1914-15 ki khudaee tatha 1951 ki khudaee men kul milakar 40 pashan stnbh mile hain, jo is samay bhann dasha men hain. is sabha-bhavan ka farsh aur chhat lakadi ke the. bhavan ki lambaee 140 phut aur chaudaee 120 phut hai. bhavan ke stnbh balua patthar ke bane hue hain aur unamen chamakadar palish ki gee thi. fahyan ne atyant bhav-pravan shabdon men is prasad ki prashnsa ki hai. usake anusar, "yah prasad manav kriti nahin hai varanh devon dvara nirmit hai. prasad ke stnbh pattharon se bane hue hain aur un par sundar ukeran aur ubhare chitr bane hain." fahyan ke vrittant se pata chalata hai ki ashok ke samay is bhavan ka vistar hua.

megasthaniz ke anusar pataliputr, son aur gnga ke sngam par basa hua tha. nagar ki lambaee 9-1/2 mil aur chaudaee 1-1/2 mil thi. nagar ke charon or lakadi ki divar bani huee thi jisake bich-bich men tir chalane ke lie chhed bane hue the. divar ke charon or ek khaee thi jo 60 phut gahari aur 600 phut chaudi thi. nagar men ane-jane ke lie 64 dvar the. divaron par bahut se burz the jinaki snkhya 570 thi. patana men gat varshon men jo khudaee huee usase kashth nirmit divar ke avashesh prapt hue hain. 1920 men bulndibag ki khudaee men prachir ka ek ansh upalabdh hua hai, jo lambaee men 150 phut hai. lakadi ke khambon ki do pnktiyan paee gee hain. jinake bich 14-1/2 phut ka antar hai. yah antar lakadi ke sliparon se dhaka gaya hai. khambhon ke oopar shahatir jude hue hain. khambhon ki oonchaee zamin ki satah se 12-1/2 phut hai aur ye zamin ke andar 5 phut gahare gade ge the. yoonani lekhakon ne likha hai ki nadi-tat par sthit nagaron men prayah kashthashilp ka upayog hota tha. pataliputr ki bhi yahi sthiti thi. sabha-mndap men shila-stnbhon ka prayog ek nee pratha thi.

maury kal ke sarvotkrisht namoone, ashok ke ekashmak stnbh hain joki usane dhamm prachar ke lie desh ke vibhinn bhagon men sthapit kie the. inaki snkhya lagabhag 20 hai aur ye chunar (banaras ke nikat) ke balua patthar ke bane hue hain. lat ki oonchaee 40 se 50 phut hai. chunar ki khanon se pattharon ko katakar nikalana, shilpakala men in ekashmak khambhon ko kat-tarashakar vartaman roop dena, in stnbhon ko desh ke vibhinn bhagon men pahunchana, shilpakala tatha injiniyari kaushal ka anokha udaharan hai. in stnbhon ke do mukhy bhag ullekhaniy hain-(1) stnbh yashti ya gavadum lat (tapering shaft) aur shirsh bhag. shirsh bhag ke mukhy ansh hain ghnta, joki akhamini stnbhon ke adhar ke ghnton se milate-julate hain. bharatiy vidvanh ise avangamukhi kamal kahate hain. isake oopar gol and ya chauki hai. kuchh chaukiyon par char pashu aur char chhote chakr ankit hain (jaise saranath stnbh shirsh ki chauki par) tatha kuchh par hnsapakti ankit hai. chauki par sinh, ashv, hathi tatha bail asin hain. ramapur men natuva bail lalit mudra men khada hai. saranath ke shirsh stnbh par char sinh pith satae baithe hain. ye char sinh ek chakr dharan kie hue hain. yah chakr buddh dvara dharm-chakr-pravartan ka pratik hai. ashok ke ekashmak stnbhon ka sarvotkrisht namoona saranath ke sihnstnbh ka shirshak hai. maury shilpiyon ke roopavidhan ka isase achchha doosara namoona aur koee nahin hai. oopari sinhon men jaisi shakti ka pradarshan hai, unaki phooli nason men jaisi svabhavikata hai aur unake niche ukeri akritiyon men jo pranavan vastavikata hai, usamen kahin bhi arambhik kala ki chhaya nahin hai. shilpon ne sinhon ke roop ko prakritik sachchaee se prakat kiya hai.

stnbhon ki-visheshatah saranath stnbh ki-chamakili palish, ghntakriti tatha shirsh bhag men pashu akriti ke karan pashchaty vidvanon ne yah mat vyakt kiya hai ki kala ko prerana akhamini eeran se mili hai. chauki par hnson ki ukeri gee akritiyon aur any sajjaon men yoonani prabhav bhi dikhaee deta hai.

bharatiy vidvanon ke anusar ashok ke stnbh ki kala ka srot bharatiy hai. maury stnbh-shirshon ki pashu-moortiyan, saranath ka sinhastnbh, ramapurava ka bail prachin sindhu ghati se pravahaman parampara ke anukool hai. kintu vasudev sharan agraval ne mahabharat aur apastamb sootr se praman prastut kie hain, jinase siddh hota hai ki chamakili palish utpann karane ki kala eeran se kahin pahale bharat men gyat thi. maury kal se poorv aur ek had tak maury kalin sthanon par jo kali palish vale mridabhand pae ge hain unase pratit hota hai ki desh ke itihas men ek yug aisa tha jab opadar chamak men ruchi li jati thi. yah bhi siddh hota hai ki palish ka rahasy keval rajashilpiyon tak simit nahin tha. pinparahava stoop se mili sphatik mnjoosha, pataliputr ke do yaksh aur didaragnj ki yakshi men bhi yah palish paee jati hai. saranath ke dharmachakr ki kalpana nitant bharatiy hai.

eerani stnbhon aur maury stnbhon men spasht bhed hain. svatntr stnbhon ki kalpana bharatiy hai. eerani stnbh nalidar hain jabaki bharatiy stnbh sapat hain. eerani stnbh alag-alag pashan-khndon ke bane hue hain kintu ashok stnbh ek hi patthar ke hain. stnbh ke shirsh bhag ko ghnta kaha gaya hai. kintu bharatiy vidvanon ke anusar yah avangamukh kamal athava poornaghat hai jo bahar ki or laharati huee kamal ki pnkhudiyon se dhaka hua hai. yadi kuchh samay ke lie ise ghnta man bhi liya jae to yah eerani ghnte se bhinn hai. tathakathit maury ghnta ghatapallav ya poornaghat ke abhipray ke sadrish banaya gaya hai. isake alava eerani aur maury stnbh shirshakon ke alnkaranon men bhi antar hai. maury kalin shilpiyon ne chiraparichit parampara ko apanaya aur apani pratibha se use navin akar pradan kiya.

yadi eerani prabhav ko man bhi liya jae, to bhi ashok stnbhon ki sngat rashi moortikala tatha alnkaran ko akhamini, eerani ya yoonan ki moolakritiyon ki naqal matr nahin mana ja sakata. videshi kala-lakshanon ka samyakh adhyayan karake bharatiy kalakaron ne apani pratibha se roopatnran kiya hai aur unhen apane dhng se kalakritiyon men abhivyakt kiya hai.

ashok ne stoop nirman ki parampara ko bhi protsahan diya. bauddh anushruti ke anusar ashok ne 8,400 stoop banavae. sanchi tatha bharahut ke stoopon ka nirman mool roop men ashok ne hi karavaya tha. shungon men sanchi stoop ka vistar hua.

ashok ne vastukala ke itihas men ek nee shaili ka prarambh kiya, arthat chattanon ko katakar kndaraon ka nirman kiya. gaya ke nikat barabar ki pahadiyon men ashok ne apane rajyabhishek ke 12ven varsh men sudama guha ajivak bhikshuon ko dan men di. is gupha men do koshth hain. ek gol vyas hai jisaki chhat-ardhavritt ya kharabooziya akar ki hai. usake bahar ka mukhamndap ayatakar hai kintu chhat golakar hai. donon koshthon ki bhittiyon aur chhaton par shishe jaisi chamakati huee palish hai. isase gyat hota hai ki chaity grih ka maulik vikas ashok ke samay men hi prarambh ho gaya tha aur is shaili ka poorn vikas maharashtr ke bhaja, kanheri aur karle chaityagrihon men parilakshit hota hai. ashok ke putr dasharath ne nagarjuni pahadiyon men ajavikon ko 3 guphaen pradan kin. inamen se ek prasiddh gupha gopi gupha hai. inaka vinyas surng jaisa hai. isake madhy men dholakar chhat aur donon shiron par do gol mndap hain, jinamen se ek ko garbhagrih aur doosare ko mukhamndap samajhana chahie. isamen ashokakalin grihashilp ki poornatah raksha huee hai.

lok kala

maury kal ki lok kala ka gyan un mahakay yaksh-yakshi moortiyon ke dvara hota hai, jo mathura se pataliputr, vidisha, kaling aur pashchim soorparak tak paee jati hai. in yaksh-yakshiyon ki moortiyon ki apani niji shaili hai, jisaka theth roop dekhate hi alag pahachana ja sakata hai. atimanaviy mahakay moortiyan khule akash ke niche sthapit ki jati thin. is sambandh men parakham gram se prapt yaksh moorti, patana se prapt yakshamoorti-jis par opadar chamak hai aur ek lekh bhi hai-patana shahar men didaragnj se prapt chamaragrahini yakshi-jis par bhi maury shaili ki chamak hai-aur besanagar se prapt yakshi vishesh ullekhaniy hai. ye moortiyan mahakay hain aur mansapeshiyon ki balishthata aur dridhata unamen jivnt roop se vyakt huee hai. ve prithakh roop se khadi hai par unake darshan ka prabhav sammukhin hai, manon shilpi ne unhen sammukh darshan ke lie hi banaya ho. unaka vesh hai sir par pagadi, kndhon aur bhujaon par uttariy, niche dhoti jo kati men mekhala se kayabndhan se bndhi hai. kanon men bhari kundal, gale men kntha, chhati par tikona har aur bahuon par angad hai. moortiyon ko thoda ghatodar dikhaya gaya hai, jaise parakham ki moorti men dekhane ko milata hai.

guha vastu

guha vastu bharatiy prachin vastukala ka ek bahut hi sundar namoona hai. ashok ke shasan kal se guhaon ka upayog avas ke roop men hone laga tha. gaya ke nikat barabar pahadi par aisi anek gufaen vidyaman hain, jinhen samrat ashok ne avas yogy banavakar ajivakon ko de diya tha. ashokakalin guhayen sade kamaron ke roop men hoti thin, lekin bad men unhen avas evn upasanagrih ke roop men stambhon evn moortiyon se alnkrit kiya jane laga. yah kary vishesh roop se bauddhon dvara kiya gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

sambndhit lekh

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