गुप्तकालीन कला और स्थापत्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gupt kal men kala ki vividh vidhaon jaise vastu, sthapaty, chitrakala, mridabhand, kala adi men abhootapoorn pragati dekhane ko milati hai. guptakalin sthapaty kala ke sarvochch udaharan tatkalin mndir the. mndir nirman kala ka janm yahin se hua. is samay ke mndir ek oonche chabootaren par nirmit kie jate the. chabootare par chadhane ke lie charon or se sidhiyon ka nirman kiya jata tha. devata ki moorti ko garbhagrih (Sanctuary) men sthapit kiya gaya tha aur garbhagrih ke charon or oopar se achchhadit pradakshina marg ka nirman kiya jata tha. guptakalin mndiron par parshvon par gnga, yamuna, shnkh v padm ki akritiyan bani hoti thi. guptakalin mndiron ki chhaten prayah sapat banaee jati thi par shikhar yukt mndiron ke nirman ke bhi avashesh mile hain.

guptakalin mndir chhoti-chhoti eeton evn pattharon se banaye jate the. ‘bhitaraganv ka mndir‘ eeton se hi nirmit hai.

guptakalin mahattvapoorn mndir

mndir sthan
1- vishnumndir tigava (jabalapur madhy pradesh)
2- shiv mndir bhoomara (nagod madhy pradesh)
3- parvati mndir nachana-kuthar (madhy pradesh)
4- dashavatar mndir devagadh (jhansi, uttar pradesh)
5- shivamndir khoh (nagaud, madhy pradesh)
6- bhitaraganv ka mndir lakshman mndir (eeton dvara nirmit) bhitaraganv (kanapur, uttar pradesh)

bauddh dev mndir

ye mndir sanchi tatha bodhagaya men paye jate hain. isake atirikt do bauddh stoopon men ek saranath ka ‘dhamekh stoop‘ eeton dvara nirmit hai jisaki oonchaee 128 phit ke lagabhag hai evn doosara rajagrih ka ‘jarasndh ki baithak‘ kafi mahattv rakhate hain.

guptakalin mndir kala ka sarvattam udaharan 'devagadh ka dashavatar mndir' hai. is mndir men gupt sthapaty kala apane poorn vikasit roop men drishtigochar hoti hai. yah mndir sundar moortiyon se jadit hai, inamen jhankati huee akritiyan, udate hue pakshi v hns, pavitr vriksh, svastik phool pattiyon ki dizain, premi yugal evn baunon ki moortiyan ni:sndeh man ko lubhate hain. is mndir ki visheshata ke roop men isamen lage 12 mitar oonchen shikhar ko shayad hi nazarandaj kiya ja sake. sambhavatah mndir nirman men shikhar ka yah pahala prayog tha. any mndiron ke mandap ki tulana men dashavatar ke is mndir men char mandapon ka prayog hua hai.

moortikala

guptakalin kala ka sarvottam paksh usaki moortikala hai. inaki adhikansh moortiyan hindoo devi-devataon se snbndhit hai. guptakala ki moortiyon men kushanakalin nagnata evn kamukata ka poornatah lop ho gaya tha. guptakalin moortikaron ne sharirik akarshan ko chhipane ke lie moortiyon men vastron ke prayog ko prarambh kiya. guptakalin buddh ki moortiyon ko saranath ki baithe hue buddh ki moorti, mathura men khade hue buddh ki moorti evn sultanagnj ki kanse ki buddh moorti ka ullekhaniy hai. in moortiyon men buddh ki shant-chintan mudra ko dikhane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai. koormavahini yamuna tatha makaravahini gnga ki moortiyon ka nirman is kal men hi hua.

bhagavan shiv ke ‘ekamukhi‘ evn 'chaturmukhi' shivaling ka nirman sarvapratham gupt kal men hi hua tha. shiv ke ‘ardhanarishvar‘ roop ki rachana bhi isi samay ki gayi. vishnu ki prasiddh moorti devagadh ke dashavatar mndir men sthapit hai. vastukala men gupt kal pichhada tha. vastukala ke nam par eent ke kuchh mndir mile hain jinamen kanapur ke bhitaraganv ka, gazipur ke bhitari aur jhansi ke eent ke mandir ullekhaniy hai.

chitrakala

chitr:Ajanta-Caves-Aurangabad-Maharashtra-2.jpg|thumb|karle chaityagrih, ajnta ki gufaen, aurngabad vasudev sharan agraval ke anusar gupt kal men chitrakala uchch shikhar par pahunch chuki thi. vishnu dharmentapuran men moorti, chitr adi kalaon ke vidhan prapt hote hain. vatsayan ke kamasootr men 64 kalaon ke antargat chitrakala ki janakari sambhantak vyakti (nagarik) ke lie avashyak bataee gee hai. guptakalin chitron ke uttam udaharan hamen maharashtr prant ke aurngabad men sthit ajanta ki gufaon tatha gvaliyar ke samip sthit vagh ki gufaon se prapt hote hain.

ajanta men nirmit kul 29 guphaon men vartaman men keval 6 hi (gupha snkhya 1, 2, 9, 10, 17) shesh hai. in 6 guphaon men gupha snkhya 16 evn 17 hi guptakalin hain. ajanta ke chitr takaniki drishti se vishv men pratham sthan rakhate hain. in guphaon men anek prakar ke phool-pattiyon, vrikshon evn pashu akriti se sajavat ka kam tatha buddh evn bodhisatvon ki pratimaon ke chitran ka kam, jatak grnthon se li gee kahaniyon ka varnanatmak drishy ke roop men prayog hua hai. ye chitr adhikatar jatak kathaon ko darshate hain. in chitron men kahin-kahi gair bharatiy mool ke manav charitr bhi darshaye gaye hain. ajanta ki chitrakala ki ek visheshata yah hai ki in chitron men drishyon ko alag alag vinyas men nahin vibhajit kiya gaya hai.

ajanta men phreskon tatha tempera donon hi vidhiyon se chitr banaye gay hain. chitr banane se poorv divar ko bhali bhanti ragadakar saf kiya jata tha tatha phir usake oopar lep chadhaya jata tha. ajanta ki gupha snkhya 16 men utkirn ‘maranasann rajakumari‘ ka chitr prashnsaniy hai. is chitr ki prashnsa karate hue griphith, varges evn phargusan ne kaha,- ‘karuna, bhav evn apani katha ko spasht dhng se kahane ki drishti‘ yah chitrakala ke itihas men anatikramaniy hai. vakatak vnsh ke vasugupt shakha ke shasak harishen (475-500ee.) ke mntri varahamntri ne gupha snkhya 16 ko bauddh sngh ko dan men diya tha.

gupha snkhya 17 ke chitr ko ‘chitrashala‘ kaha gaya hai. isaka nirman harishen namak ek samant ne karaya tha. is chitrashala men buddh ke janm, jivan, mahabhinishkraman evn mahaparinirvan ki ghatanaon se snbndhit chitr ukere ge hain. gupha snkhya 17 men utkirn sabhi chitron men mata aur shishu nam ka chitr sarvotkrisht hai. ajanta ki guphaain bauddh dharm ki ‘mahayan shakha se snbndhit thi.

ajanta men prapt chitr guphaon ki samay sima

gupha snkhya samay
9 v 10 pratham shatabdi (guptakal se poorv)
16 evn 17 500 ee. (uttar gupt kal )
1 evn 2 lagabhag 628 ee. (guptottar kal)

bagh ki chitrakala

gvaliyar ke samip bagh namak sthan par sthit vindhyaparvat ko katakar bagh ki guphaen banaee gee . 1818 ee. men dejaraphild ne in gufaon ko khoja jahan se 9 gufaen mili hai. bagh gufa ke chitron ka vishay manushy ke laukik jivan se sambandhit hai. yahan se prapt sngit evn nrity ke chitr sarvadhik akarshan hai. bagh ki gufaen madhy pradesh men indaur ke pas dhar men sthit hain. bagh ki gufaen prachin bharat ke svarnim yug ki advitiy den hain. bagh ki gufaen indaur se uttar-pashchim men lagabhag 90 mil ki doori par, badhini namak chhoti si nadi ke bayen tat par aur vindhy parvat ke dakshin dhalan par sthit hain. bagh-kukshi marg se thoda hatakar bagh ki gufaen bagh gram se panch mil door hain. yah sthal us vishal prachin marg par sthit hai, jo uttar se ajanta hokar sudoor dakshin tak jata hai. eesapoorv tisari shatabdi aur eesvi sanh ki 7vin shatabdi ke madhy, jab bharat ke pashchimi bhag men bauddh dharm apani khyati ki parakashtha par tha. isi samay chin ke bauddh dharm ke mahanh vidvanh yatri huenasang, fahyan aur suanataee madhy aur pashchimi bharat aye the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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