गुप्तकालीन सामाजिक स्थिति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

guptakalin bharatiy samaj parnparagat 4 jatiyon -

  1. brahman,
  2. kshatriy,
  3. vaishy evn
  4. shoodr men vibhajit tha.
  • kautily ne arthashastr men tatha varahamihir ne vrihatasnhita men charon varno ke lie alag alag bastiyon ka vidhan kiya hai.
  • nyay snhitaon men yah ullekh milata hai ki brahman ki pariksha tula se, kshatriy ki pariksha agni se, vaishy ki pariksha jal se tatha shoodr ki vishay se ki jani chahie. pahale ki tarah brahmanon ka is samay bhi samaj men sarvochch sthan prapt tha. gupt kal men jati pratha utani jatil nahin rah gee thi jitani paravarti kalon. brahmanon ne any jatiyon ke vyavasayon ko apanana arambh kar diya tha.
  • mrichchhakatikam ke ullekh se yah pramanit hota hai ki charudatt namak brahman vanijy ka kary karata tha. use brahman ka ‘apaddharm‘ kaha gaya hai. isake atirikt kuchh brahman vnsh jaise vakatak evn kadamb ka ullekh milata hai. gupt kal ke poorv brahman keval chhah kary - adhyayan, adhyapan, pooja-path, ygy karana, dan dena aur dan lena, mana jata tha.
  • brahmanon ke atirikt kuchh vaishy shasak jaise har evn saurashtr, avanti, malava ke shoodr shasakon adi ke vishay men bhi janakari prapt hoti hai. skandagupt ke indaur tamrapatr abhilekh men kuchh kshatriyon dvara vaishy ka kary karane ka ullekh milata hai.
  • [hvenasang]] ne kshatriyon ke karmanishtha ki prashnsa ki hai tatha unhen nirdosh, saral, pavitr, sidha aur mitavyayi kaha hai. usake anusar kshatriy raja ki jati thi. kuchh guptakalin grnthon men brahmanon ko nidershit kiya gaya hai ki ve shoodron dvara die ge ann ko grahan n karen, jabaki brihaspati ne snkat ke kshanon men brahmanon dvara shoodron aur dason se ann grahan karane ki agya di. is kal men shoodron dvara sainik vritti apanane hue inhen vyapari, karigar evn krishak hone ki anumati pradan ki.
  • hnenasang ke vivaran evn nrisinh puran ke ullekh se yah snket milata hai ki shoodron ne krishi kary ko apana liya tha. is prakar gupt kal men inhen ramayan, mahabharat, evn puran sunane ka adhikar mil gaya.
  • yagyvalky ne likha hai ki shoodr varg namah shabd ka prayog kar pnch mahaygy kar ekata hai.
  • markandey puran men dan karana aur ygy karana shoodr ka kartavy bataya gaya hai.

mishrit jatiyan

  • gupt kal men anek mishrit jatiyon ka bhi ullekh milata hai jaise - moorddhavashikt, ambashth, parashav, ugr evn karan. inamen mukhy roop se ambashth, ugr, parashav ki snkhya guptakalin samaj men adhik thi.

ambashth

  • brahman purush evn vaishy se utpann sntan ambashth kahi gee.
  • vishnu puran men inhen nadi tat ka nivasi mana gaya hai.
  • manu ne inaka mukhy vyavasay chikitsa bataya hai.

parashav

  • is jati ki utpatti brahman purush evn shoodr stri se huee hai inhen nishad bhi kaha jata hai.
  • puranon men inake vishay men janakari milati hai.

ugr

  • gautam ke anusar vaishy purush evn shoodr stri se utpann jati ugr kahalaee par smritiyon ka manana hai ki is jati ki utpatti kshatriy purush evn shoodr jati ki stri se huee hai.
  • inaka mukhy kary tha bil ke andar se janavaron ko bahar nikal kar jivan-yapan karana.
  • fahyan ne guptakalin samaj men asprishy (achhoot) jati ke hone ki bat kahi hai. smritiyon men inhen 'antyaj' v 'chandal' kaha gaya hai.
  • panini ne isaka ullekh ‘niravasit‘ shoodr ke roop men kiya hai. sambhavat is jati ke utpatti shoodr purush evn brahman stri se huee. yah jati ke bahar nivas karati thi, inaka mukhy kary tha shikar karana evn shamashan ghat ki rakhavali karana.
  • gupt kal men lekhakiy, ganana, ay-vyay ka hisab rakhane adi karyo ko karane vale varg ko kayasth kaha gaya. sambhavatah inaki utpatti bhoomi evn bhoo rajasv ke hastantaran ke karan huee . gupt kal ke prapt abhilekhon men nam ullekh pratham kayasth ya jyeshth kayasth men roop men hua.

das pratha

gupt kal men das pratha ka prachalan tha. narad ne 18 prakar ke dason ka ullekh kiya hai jinamen mukhy the-

  1. prapt kiya hua das (upahar adi se ),
  2. svami dvara pradatt das,
  3. rin ka chukata n karane pane ke karan bana das,
  4. danv par lagakar hara hua das (pas adi khelon),
  5. svayn se dasatv grahan svikar karane vala das,
  6. ek nishchit samay ke lie apane ko das banana,
  7. dasi ke premajal men phns kar banane vala das evn
  8. atm-vikrayi das (svayn ko bechakar).
  • manu ke sat prakar ke dason ka ullekh kiya hai. dasiyon ke bare men bhi janakari milati hai.
  • amarakosh men dasi samagr ka varnan aya hai.

is samay dason ko utpadan karyo se alag rakha gaya tha jabaki mauryo ke samay men das utpadan ke karyo men log sakriy roop se bhag lete the. is prakar yah spasht ho jata hai ki dason ki sthiti gupton ke samay thik nahin thi. amarakosh men 'dasisabhamh' shabd ke ullekh se yah snket milata hai ki guptakal men dasiyon ka bhi astitv tha. dason ko dasatv bhav se mukt karane ka pratham prayas narad ne kiya.

striyon ki sthiti

guptakalin samaj men striyon ki sthiti ke vishay men itihasakar 'romila thapar' ne likha hai ki 'sahity aur kala men to nari ka adarsh roop jhalakata hai par vyavaharik drishti se dekhane par samaj men unaka sthan gaun tha. pitripradhan samaj men patni ko vyaktigat sampatti samajha jata tha. pati ke marane par patni ko sati hone ke lie prerit kiya jata tha. uttar bharat ki kuchh sainik jatiyon ke parivaron men bade paimane par sati hone ki pratha ullekh hai. pratham sati hone ka praman 510 ee. ke bhanugupt ke eran ke abhilekh se milata hai jisamen kisi goparaj (senapati) ki mrityu par usaki patni ke sati hone ka ullekh hai. gupt kal men parda pratha ka prachalan keval uchch varg ki striyon men tha.'

striyon ke adhikaron ki vriddhi

  • fahyan evn hvenasang ke anusar is samay parda pratha prachalan nahin tha.
  • narad evn parashar smriti men 'vidhava vivah' ke prati samarthan jataya gaya hai.
  • guptakalin samaj men veshyaon ke astitv ke bhi praman milate hain, par inaki vritti ki ninda ki gee.
  • gupt kal men veshyavriti karane vali striyon ko ‘ganika‘ kaha jata tha. ‘kuttani‘ un veshyaon ko kaha jata tha jo vriddh ho jati thi.
  • kintu gupt kal men striyon ke dhan snbadhi adhikaron ki vriddhi huee. stri dhan ka dayara badha.
  • katyayan ne stri ko achal sampatti ki svamini mana hai.
  • gupt kal ke smritikaron ke anusar putr ki achal sampatti ki svamini mana hai.
  • gupt kal ke smritikaron ke anusar putr ke abhav men purush ki sampatti par usaki patni ka pratham adhikar hota tha. (yagyvalky smriti)
  • aputr pati ke marane par vidhava patni ko usako uttaradhikari - yagyvalky, brihaspati aur vishnu manate hain.
  • striyon ke stridhan par pratham adhikar usaki putriyon ka hota hai. (vigyaneshvar)
  • striyon ki sampatti ke adhikar par sarvadhik vyakhya yagyvalky ne di hai. guptakal men brahman aur kshatriy ko snyunkt roop se 'dvij' kaha gaya hai.
  • yagyvalky evn brihaspati ne stri ko pati ki sampatti ka uttaradhikarini mana hai.
  • is samay uchch varg ki kuchh striyon ke vidushi aur kalakar hone ka ullekh milata hai.
  • abhigyan shakuntalamh men anusooya ko itihas ka gyata bataya gaya hai.
  • malavi madhav men malati ko chitrakala men nipun bataya gaya hai.
  • amarakosh stri shiksha ke lie 'acharyi', 'apadhyayiy' tatha 'upadhyaya' shabdon ko vyavahar kiya gaya hai.
  • guptakal ke sikkon par striyon jaise - kumaradevi, tatha lakshmi ke chitr uchch varg ke striyon ke sammanasoochak hai.
  • parda pratha ka prachalan tha.
  • bal vivah evn bahuvivah ki pratha vyapak ho gee thi.
  • 'meghadoot' men ujjayini ke mahakal mndir men karyarat devadasiyon ka varnan milata hai.
  • manu ke anusar jis stri ko pati ne chhod diya ho ya jo vidhava ho gee ho, yadi vah apani ichchha se doosara vivah karen to vah 'punarbhoo' tatha usaki sntan 'panaurbhav' kaha jata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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