पर्दा प्रथा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parda pratha
parda pratha ke antargat buraka pahane ek muslim yuvati
vivaran 'parda pratha' sare vishv men kafi purane samay se prachalit hai. 'parda' ek islami shabd hai, jo arabi bhasha men farasi bhasha se aya tha.
desh sabhi muslim deshon tatha bharat ki kuchh hindoo jatiyon men bhi yah pratha prachalit hai.
bharat men shuruat is pratha ki shuruat bharat men12vin sadi se mani jati hai.
vishesh is pratha ne mugal shasakon ke dauran apani jade kafi mazaboot kar li thin. isaka jyadatar vistar rajasthan ki rajapoot jatiyon men hua.
any janakari 15vin, 16vin shatabdi ke ate-ate yah parda uttar bharat ki striyon ki samany jivan shaili ban gee. yahan tak ki kheti mazadoori karane vale varg ki mahilaen bhi parda karane lagi thin.

parda pratha bharat hi nahin, apitu vishv ke kee muslim deshon men kafi purane samay se prachalit hai. 'parda' ek islami shabd hai, jo arabi bhasha men farasi bhasha se aya. isaka arth hota hai- "dhakana" ya "alag karana".

itihas

parda pratha ka ek pahaloo hai burqa ka chalan. burka ek tarah ka ghoonghat hai, jo muslim samuday ki mahilaen aur ladakiyan kuchh khas jagahon par khud ko purushon ki nigah se alag ya door rakhane ke liye istemal karati hain. bharat men hinduon men parda pratha islam ki den hai. islam ke prabhav se tatha islami akraman ke samay akramanakariyon se bachav ke liye hindoo striyan bhi parda karane lagi thin. is pratha ne mugal shasakon ke dauran apani jaden kafi mazaboot ki. vaise is pratha ki shuruat bharat men12vin sadi se mani jati hai. isaka jyadatar vistar rajasthan ki rajapoot jati men tha. 20vin sadi ke utararddh men is pratha ke virodh ke phalasvaroop isamen kami aee.

bharat ke bahar ke jagath par drishti dalen to dikhata hai ki eesa ke janm se 500 varsh poorv yoonani striyan kisi snrakshak ke bina ghar se bahar akele ja nahin sakati thin. pati ke dvara bulae atithiyon se milane ki anumati unhen nahin hoti thi. miniendar ne apane natakon men ek patr ke dvara yah kahalavaya hai ki "svatntrata poorvak ghoomane vali stri ke lie gali ka dvar bnd kar dena chahie." sparta men striyan sarvajanik karyakramon men bhag nahin le sakati thin. eesa se 300 varsh poorv kulin-abhijat varg ki asiriyan mahilaon men parda pratha thi. sadharan mahilaon aur veshyaon ko parde ki anumati nahin thi. siriya men vivahit striyan apane chehare ko ek vishesh prakar ke avaran se dhake rahati thin.[1]

bharatiy sndarbh

bharat ke sndarbh men eesa se 500 varsh poorv rachit 'nirukt' men is tarah ki pratha ka varnan kahin nahin milata. nirukton men snpatti snbndhi mamale nipatane ke lie nyayalayon men striyon ke ane jane ka ullekh milata hai. nyayalayon men unaki upasthiti ke lie kisi parda vyavastha ka vivaran eesa se 200 varsh poorv tak nahin milata. is kal ke poorv ke prachin vedon tatha snhitaon men parda pratha ka vivaran nahin milata. rigved[2] ne logon ko vivah ke samay kanya ki or dekhane ko kaha hai-

"yah kanya mngalamay hai, ekatr ho aur ise dekho, ise ashish dekar hi tum log apane ghar ja sakate ho."

'ashvalayanagrihyasootr'[3] ke anusar dulhan ko apane ghar le ate samay doolhe ko chahie ki vah pratyek nivesh sthan (rukane ke sthan) par darshakon ko rigved[4] ke uparyukt mntr ke sath dikhae.

isase spasht hai ki un dinon vadhuon dvara avagunthan[5] nahin dharan kiya jata tha, pratyut ve sabake samane niravagunthan ati thi.[6] parda pratha ka ullekh sabase pahalee mahakavyon men hua hai par us samay yah keval kuchh rajaparivaron tak hi simit tha.[7]

parda kiye pani lati ek stri

kuchh vidvanon ke matanusar 'ramayan' aur 'mahabharat' kalin striyan kisi bhi sthan par parda athava ghoonghat ka prayog nahin karati thin. jatak kathaon, bhas ke natakon tatha bhavabhooti ki rachanaon men kahin-kahin striyon ke parde men rahane ka ullekh milata hai. ajnta aur sanchi ki kalakritiyon men bhi striyon ko bina ghoonghat dikhaya gaya hai. manu aur yagyvalky ne striyon ki jivan shaili ke snbndh men kee niyam banae hue hain, parntu kahin bhi yah nahin kaha hai ki striyon ko parde men rahana chahie. jyadatar snskrit natakon men bhi parde ka ullekh nahin hai. yahan tak ki 10vin shatabdi ke prarnbh men tak bharatiy raj parivaron ki striyan bina parde ke sabha men tatha ghar se bahar bhraman karati thin, jaisa ki ek arab yatri aboo jaid ne varnan kiya hai. spasht hai ki us samay tak parda pratha prachalit nahin thi, jaisi ki abhi nazar ati hai.

madhy kal men stri ki sthiti

madhy kal par nazar dalen to 16vin shatabdi ke roos men pita evn bhaee apani putri aur bahin ka mukh dekh nahin sakate the. 17vin shatabdi tak inglaind men bhi striyan n to akele yatra kar sakati thin, n hi apane kisi purush sathi karmachari ko ghar amntrit kar sakati thin. agar koee stri sarvajanik sabha men koee vaktavy de deti to vah usake lie atynt apamanajanak mana jata tha.

itihasakaron ke anusar bharat men muslim samrajy ke vistar ke sath-sath parda pratha ne bhi samajik vyavastha men apane pair jama lie. 'dharmashastr ka itihas’ ke anusar 'uchch kul ki nariyan bina avagunthan ke bahar nahin ati thin, kintu sadharan striyon ke sath aisi bat nahin thi. uttari bharat evn poorvi bharat men parda ki pratha jo sarvasadharan men paee jati hai, usaka arnbh musalamanon ke agaman se hua.’[8] isake tin karan the-

  1. hindoo striyon ko suraksha pradan karane ki drishti se
  2. vijeta shasakon ki shaili ka chahe-anachahe tarike se anusaran
  3. viparit paristhitiyon ke karan striyon men badhati ashiksha aur muslim shasakon ke raj men girata star
ghoonghat kie ek stri, jodhapur

sarvapratham hindoo saradaron aur uchch varg ne shasakon ka anusaran kar apane ant:puron men is pratha ko lagoo kiya phir unaka anusaran kar samaj ke any vargon ne bhi use apana liya.

stri shiksha samapt hone, kam ayu men vivah hone ke karan anubhavahin striyon ka parivar men sammanajanak sthan nahin raha. 15vin, 16vin shatabdi ke ate-ate parda uttar bharat ki striyon ki samany jivan shaili ban gee, samman aur kulinata ka hissa ban gaya. yahan tak ki kheti mazadoori karane vale varg ki mahilaen tak parda karane lagin. isase purushon ka varchasv badhata chala gaya. striyon ka samajik v rajanaitik gatividhiyon men yogadan samapt hota chala gaya. yah kaisi vidnbana hai ki jo parda striyon ki kulinata, samman ka pratik tha, vahi striyon ke lie durbhagyashali ban gaya. striyan din hin jivan bitane ko badhy ho geen. is drishti se madhy kal striyon ke jivan ka kala panna sabit hua.

aj bhi abhishap

bharat ke svatntrata andolan ke dauran kee mahilaon ne parde ka tyag kar andolan men badh chadhakar hissa liya tha aur isaka anukaraniy prabhav bhi pada tha. yah shiksha ka parinam tha, parntu, ashchary is bat ka hai ki madhy kal ki paristhitiyon men paida hua, muslim evn british kal men pala-badha parda aj bhi adhunik bharat men panv jamae hue hai. adhunik bharat ki stri is sadi-gali, amanaviy, mahilaon ki pragati men badhak is kupratha ko abhishap ki bhanti aj bhi kyon jhel rahi hai? jo ek prakar se bharatiy stri ko doyam darja pradan kar rahi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kya bharat men parda pratha sada se rahi hai (hindi) udayindiya. abhigaman tithi: 17 march, 2015.
  2. 10/85/33
  3. 1/8/7|(1/8/7
  4. 10/85/33
  5. parda ya ghunghat
  6. dharmashastr ka itihas pri.336
  7. dekhen ukt pri. 336,7
  8. dharmashastr ka itihas, pri. 337

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