निरुक्तम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

niruktam ke praneta maharshi yask hain. adhunik siddhanton ke anusar inaka samay ee. poo. 8vin shatabdi hai. ‘nirukt’ ke tikakar durgachary ne apani vritti men 14 nirukton ka snket kiya hai.[1] yask krit nirukt men bhi 14 niruktakaron ke nam ate hain. ye nam hain- agrayan, aupamanyav, audunbarayan, shakapooni, v sthaulashthivi. inamen se shakapooni ka mat ‘brihaddevata’ men bhi uddhrit hai. yask krit nirukt (jo nighantu ki tika hai) men 12 adhyay hain aur antim 2 adhyay parishishtaroop men hain.

adhyay vibhajan

mahabharat ke shantiparv men yask ka nam niruktakar ke roop men aya hai.[2] is drishti se inaka samay aur bhi adhik prachin siddh hota hai. nirukt ke 14 adhyay hain, kintu terahavan v chaudahavan adhyay svarachit n hokar any kisi ke dvara rachit hai. at: in do adhyayon ko parishisht kaha jata hai. nirukt tin kandon men vibhakt hai. pahale kand ko naighantuk, doosare ko naigam aur tisare ko daivat kahate hain. is tarah se nirukt ke tin prakar hote hain. nirukt men pratipadit vishay hain- nam, akhyat, upasarg v nipat ke lakshan, bhavavikar-lakshan, padabhivag-parigyan, devata parigyan, arth prashnsa, vedavedangagavyoohalop, upadhavikar, varnalop, varnaviparyay ka vivechan, snprasary v asnprasary dhatu, nirvachanopadesh, shishy-lakshan, mntr-lakshan ashirvad, shapath, abhishap, abhikhya, parivedana, ninda, prashnsa adi dvara mntrabhivyakti hetu upadesh, devataon ka vargikaran adi. niruktakar ne shabdon ki vyutpatti pradarshit karate he dhatu ke sath vibhinn pratyayon ka bhi nirdesh kiya hai.

vaidik shabd evn vyakaran

yask samast namon ko ‘dhatuj’ manate hain. inamen adhunik bhashashastr ke anek siddhanton ka poorvaroop prapt hota hai. nirukt men vaidik shabdon ki vyakhya ke atirikt, vyakaran, bhasha-vigyan, sahity, samajashastr, itihas adi vishayon ka bhi prasngavash vivechan milata hai. yask ne vaidik devataon ke 3 vibhag kie hain-'prithvisthaniy' (agni) 'antarikshasthaniy' (vayu v indr) aur 'svargasthaniy' (soory). yaskachary ke prabhav ke karan sabhi paravarti niruktakar unase pichhad ge. age ke ved bhashyakaron ko keval yask ne hi prabhavit kiya.

tikakar

sayanachary ne yaskachary ke anukaran par hi apane ved bhashyon ki rachana ki hai. nirukt ki gurjar v maharashtr pratiyan sanprat upalabdh hain. nirukt ka samay-samay par vistar kiya gaya hai aur vah bhi anek vyaktiyon ke dvara. at: mool nirakt ki vyapti nirdharit karana kathin ho gaya hai. nirukt ke vistar ki drishti se durgachary ki prati, gurjar prati aur maharashtr prati aisa anukram lagana padata hai. nirukt ke sabhi tikakaron men shri durgachary ka nam sarvapratham ata hai. unhonne apane granth men poorvavarti tikakaron ka ullekh tatha unake maton ki samiksha bhi ki hai.

sabase prachin tikakar hain skndasvami. unhonne saral shabdon men nirukt ke 12 adhyayon ki tika likhi thi. daauktar lakshman svaroop ke anusar unaka samay 500 ee. hai. devaraj yajva ne ‘nighantu’ ki bhi tika likhi hai. unaka samay 1300 ee. hai. maheshvar ki tika khndash: prapt hoti hai, jise daauktar lakshmanasvaroop ne 3 khndon men prakashit kiya hai. maheshvar ka samay 1500 ee. hai. adhunik yug men ‘nirukt’ ke angrezi v hindi men kee anuvad prapt hote hain.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bharatiy snskriti kosh, bhag-2 |prakashak: yoonivarsiti pablikeshan, nee dilli-110002 |snpadan: profesar devendr mishr |prishth snkhya: 450 |

  1. (durgavritti, 1-13)
  2. (adhyay 342-72-73)
  3. sn.va.ko. (dvi.khn.), prishth 164

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