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ajnta
ajnta ki gufaen, aurngabad
vivaran ajnta jalaganv steshan se 37 mil aur aurngabad se 55 mil door pharadapur gram ke nikat hai jahan par snsar-prasiddh gufaen sthit hain.
rajy maharashtr
zila aurngabad
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
snbndhit lekh ajnta ki gufaen, elora ki gufaen, aurngabad
any janakari ajnta jis ramanik aur ekant giriprantar men sthit hai usaka rahasyatmak prabhav bhi darshak par pade bina nahin rahata.

ajnta jalaganv steshan se 37 mil aur aurngabad se 55 mil door pharadapur gram ke nikat hai jahan par snsar-prasiddh gufaen sthit hain, jo apane bhittichitron tatha moortikari ke lie bejod samajhi jati hain. isi ke nam par ye gufaen bhi ajnta ki gufaen kahalati hain.

ajnta ki gufaen

baghaura nadi ki upatyaka men avasthit oonchi shailamala ke bich, ek vistrit pahadi ke parshv men, 29 gufaen katakar banaee gee hain. inaka samay pahali shati ee. poo. se 7vin shati ee. tak hai. ye gufaen shilpi bauddh bhikshuon ne banaee thin. inamen se kuchh to chaity hain arthath pooja ke nimitt inamen chaity ki akriti ke chhote-chhote stoop bane hue hain aur kuchh vihar hain. ye donon prakar ki gufaen aur inamen ka sara moorti-shilp ek hi shail men kata hua hai kintu kya majal ki kahin par ek chhaini bhi adhik lagi ho. gufa sn. 1 jo 120 phut tak pahadi ke andar kati huee hai, vastukala kaushal ka adbhut namoona hai. prachinakal men pray: sabhi gufaon men bhitti chitrakari thi kintu kalapravah men ab mukhyat: keval sn. 1,2,16,17 men hi chitron ke avashesh rah ge hain. kintu inhin ke adhar par yahan ki kala ki utkrishtata ki rooparekha bhali bhanti jani ja sakati hai.

visheshataen

yadyapi ajnta ki chitrakari moolat: dharmik hai aur sabhi chitron ke vishay kisi n kisi roop men gautamabuddh ya bodhisatvon ki jivan-kathaon se snbndhit hain phir bhi in kathaon ki abhivynjana men chitrakaron ne jivan aur samaj ke sabhi angon ka is bariki, sahridayata aur sahanubhooti se chitran kiya hai ki ye chitr bharatiy sabhyata aur snskriti ke utkarsh kal ki ek anokhi parnpara hamare samane prastut karate hain. keval yahi nahin, vistrit drishtikon se parakhane par in chitron ke pichhe kalakaron ke hriday men charachar jagath ke prati jo sauhardr ki bhavana chhipi huee hai usaka bhi darshan sahaj roop men hi ho jata hai. yahan ajnta ke keval kuchh hi chitron ka nidarshan kiya ja sakata hai. gufa sn. 1 men dalan ki lnbi bhitti par maravijay ka pray: 12 phut lnba aur 8 phut chauda chitr hai. isamen kamadev ke sainikon ke roop men mano manav-hriday ki durbalataon ke hi moort chitr upasthit kie ge hain. inamen vikat-roop purush tatha madavihvala kaminiyon ke jivnt chitron ke samaksh atmanirat buddh ki saumy mukhakriti utkrisht roop se ujjval evn prabhavashali ban padi hai.

chitrakala

bhitti chitrakari, ajnta ki gufaen
  • gufa sn. 16 men buddh ke grihatyag ka marmik chitr hai. mohini-nidra men yashodhara, shishu rahul aur paricharikaen soee huee hain. un par antim drishti dalate hue gautam ke mukh par dridh tyag aur sath hi saumyata se bharapoor jo chhap hai usane is chitr ko amar bana diya hai. isi gufa men ek any sthan par ek mriyaman rajakumari ka drishy hai jo shayad gautam ke bhrata parivrajitannd ki nav-vivahita patni sundari ki dasha ka chitran hai. chitrakala ke anek marmgyon ne is chitr ki ganana snsar ke utkrishtatam chitron men ki hai.
  • gufa sn. 17 men bhikshuk buddh ke manavakar chitr ke age apane ekamatr putr ko tathagat ke charanon men bhiksha ke roop men dalati huee kisi ramani- shayad yashodhara hi- ka chitr hai. is chitr men nihit bhavana ka moortasvaroop itani marmikata se darshakon ke samane prasphutit hota hai ki vah do sahastr varshon ke vyavadhan ko kshanamatr men chir kar is chitr ke kalakar ki mahanh atma se mano sakshatkar kar leta hai aur usaki kala ke sath apane pranon ki ekarasata ka anubhav karane lagata hai. is gufa ki any ullekhaniy kalakritiyon men bessntarajatak aur chhadntajatak ki kathaon par bane hue jivnt chitr hain. ajnta men tatkalin[1] bharat ke nivasiyon, stri v purushon ke rahan-sahan, ghar-makan, vesh-bhoosha, alnkaran, manovinod, tatha dainik jivan ke sadharan krityon ki manoram evn sachchi tasviren hain. vastr, abhooshan, kesh-prasadhan, grihalnkaran adi ke itane prakar chitrit hain ki unhen dekhakar us kal ke bhare-poore bharatiy jivan ki jhanki ankhon ke samane phir jati hai. guptakalin ajnta-chitron aur mahakavi kalidas ke anek kavyavarnanon men jo taratamy aur bhavaiky hai vah donon ke adhyayan se turnt hi pratibhasit ho jata hai.

moortikala ke utkrisht udaharan

ajnta men moortikala ke bhi utkrisht udaharan milate hain. shail-kritt hone ke karan gufaon men jo adbhut prakar ki injiniyari aur vastukala vidyaman hai vah bhi kisi se chhipi nahin hai. ajnta jis ramanik aur ekant giriprantar men sthit hai usaka rahasyatmak prabhav bhi darshak par pade bina nahin rahata. kaha jata hai ki chitrakaron ne jin rngon ka apane chitron men prayog kiya hai ve unhonne sthaniy dravyon se hi taiyar kie the- jaise lal rng unhonne yahin pahadi par milane vale lal rng ke patthar aur narngi rng is ghati men bahutayat se hone vale parijat ke pushp-vrinto se banaya tha. rngon ke bharane men tatha akritiyon ki bhav-bhngima pradarshit karane men jis sookshm pravidhik kushalata ka prayog kiya gaya hai vah sachamuch hi anirvachaniy hai. bhaunhon ki sidhi, vakr, oonchi-nichi rekhaen, mukh ki vividh bhngimaen aur hath ki anguliyon ki anaginat mudraen, ajnta ki chitrakari ki ek vishisht aur sajiv shaili ki abhivyakti ke aparihary sadhan hain. aur sarvopari, ajnta ke chitron men bharatiy nari ka jo saumy, lalit evn pushpadal ke saman komal tatha sath hi prem aur tyag evn sanskritik jivan ki bhavanaon aur adarshon se anupranit roop milata hai vah hamari prachin kala-parnpara ki akshay nidhi hai.

ajnta ki gufaon ka hamare prachin sahity men nirdesh nahin milata. shayad chini yatri yuvanachvang ne apani bharat-yatra ke dauran (615-630 ee0) in guhamndiron ko dekha tha. tab se pray: 1200 varshon tak ye gufaen agyat roop se pahadiyon aur ghane jngalon men chhipi rahin. 1819 ee0 men madras sena ke kuchh yooropiy sainikon ne inaki akasmath hi khoj ki thi. 1824 ee0 men janaral sar jems alagjendar ne raauyal eshiyatik sosaiti ki patrika men pahali bar inaka vivaran chhapava kar inhen sabhy snsar ke samane prakat kiya tha.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

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  • aitihasik sthanavali| vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar, prishth snkhya - 12, 13, 14

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