अजंता की गुफ़ाएं  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ajnta ki gufaen
ajnta ki gufaen, aurngabad
vivaran ajnta ki guphaen bauddh dharm dvara prerit aur unaki karunamay bhavanaon se bhari huee shilh‍pakala aur chitrakala se otaprot hai jo manaviy itihas men kala ke uth‍krishh‍t gyan aur anamol samay ko darshati hain.
rajy maharashtr
zila aurngabad
nirman kal dvitiy shatabdi
sthapana satavahan vnsh dvara sthapit hai.
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 20°33′09″, poorv- 75°42′02″
marg sthiti mejar rajy rajamarg se 102 kimi ki doori par sthit hai.
prasiddhi ajnta ki prasiddh guphaon ke chitron ki chamak hazar se adhik varsh bitane ke bad bhi adhunik samay se vidvanon ke lie ashchary ka vishay hai.
kaise pahunchen havaee jahaz, rel, bas adi se pahuncha ja sakata hai.
havaee adda jalaganv havaee adda
relave steshan jalaganv relave steshan
yatayat aurngabad siti bas, taiksi
kya dekhen karle chaityagrih
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi grah
es.ti.di. kod 2432
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
snbndhit lekh elora ki gufaen, bibi ka maqabara
bhasha marathi, hindi, angrezi aur gujarati
mukhy akarshan anjata ki gufaon ka mukhy akarshan bhitti chitrakari hai. in chitron men bauddh dharmik akhyanon aur devataon ka jitani prachurata aur jivntata ke sath chitran kiya gaya hai, vah bharatiy kala ke kshetr men advitiy hai.
any janakari yoonesko dvara 1983 se vishh‍v virasat sh‍thal ghoshit kie jane ke bad ajnta aur elora ki tash‍viren aur shilh‍pakala bauddh dharmik kala ke uth‍krishh‍t namoone mane ge hain.
adyatan‎

chattanon ko katakar banae ge bauddh gufa mndir v math, ajnta ganv ke samip, uttar-madhy maharashtr, pashchimi bharat men sthit hai, jo apani bhitti chitrakari ke lie vikhyat hai. aurngabad se 107 kilomitar poorvottar men vagurna nadi ghati ke 20 mitar gahare baen chhor par ek chattan ke agney pattharon ki paraton ko khokhala karake ye mndir banae ge hain.

lagabhag tis gufaon ke is samooh ki khudaee pahali shatabdi ee. poo. aur satavin shatabdi ke bich do roopon men ki gee thi- chaity (mndir) aur vihar (math). yadyapi in mndiron ki moortikala, khasakar chaity stnbhon ka alnkaran adbhut to hai, lekin anjata ki gufaon ka mukhy akarshan bhitti chitrakari hai. in chitron men bauddh dharmik akhyanon aur devataon ka jitani prachurata aur jivntata ke sath chitran kiya gaya hai, vah bharatiy kala ke kshetr men advitiy hai.

ajnta ki gufaen, aurngabad
Ajanta Caves, Aurangabad

ajnta ki guphaen bauddh dharm dvara prerit aur unaki karunamay bhavanaon se bhari huee shilh‍pakala aur chitrakala se otaprot hain, jo manaviy itihas men kala ke uth‍krishh‍t gyan aur anamol samay ko darshati hain. bauddh tatha jain samh‍praday dvara banaee gee ye guphaen sajavati roop se tarashi gee hain. phir bhi inamen ek shanti aur adhh‍yath‍m jhalakata hai tatha ye daiviy oorja aur shakti se bharapoor hain. doosari shatabh‍di di. si. men arnbh karate hue aur chhathavin shatabh‍di e. di. men jari rakhate hue maharashtr men aurngabad shahar se lagabhag 107 kilo mitar ki doori par ajnta ki ye guphaen pahad ko kat kar vishal ghode ki nal ke akar men banaee gee hain. ajnta men 29 guphalaon ka ek jhund bauddh vash‍tukala, gupha chitrakala aur shilh‍p chitrakala ke uth‍krishh‍tam udaharanon men se ek hai. in guphaon men chaith‍y kaksh ya math hai, jo bhagavan buddh aur vihar ko samarpit hain, jinaka upayog bauddh bhikshuon dvara dhh‍yan lagane aur bhagavan buddh ki shikshaon ka adhh‍yayan karane ke lie kiya jata tha. guphaon ki divaron tatha chhaton par banaee gee ye tash‍viren bhagavan buddh ke jivan ki vibhinh‍n ghatanaon aur vibhinh‍n bauddh devath‍v ki ghatanaon ka chitran karati hain. isamen se sarvadhik mahath‍vapoorn chitron men jatak kathaen hain, jo bodhisatv ke roop men buddh ke pichhale janh‍m se snbndhit vividh kahaniyon ka chitran karate hain, ye ek snt the jinh‍hen buddh banane ki niyati praph‍t thi. ye shilh‍pakalaon aur tash‍viron ko prabhavashali roop men prash‍tut karati hain jabaki ye samay ke asar se mukh‍t hai. ye sundar chhaviyan aur tash‍viren buddh ko shant aur pavitr mudra men darshati hain.

sahyadri ki pahadi़yon par sthit in 30 guphaon men lagabhag 5 prarthana bhavan aur 25 bauddh math hain. in guphaon ki khoj armi aauphisar jaaun smith v unake dal dvara sanh 1819 men ki gee thi. ve yahan shikar karane ae the, tabhi unhen katarabaddh 29 guphaon ki ek shrinkhala nazar aee aur is tarah ye guphaen prasiddh ho gee. ghode ki nal ke akar men nirmit ye guphaen atyant hi prachin v aitihasik mahattv ki hai. inamen 200 eesa poorv se 650 eesa pashchath tak ke bauddh dharm ka chitran kiya gaya hai. ajnta ki guphaon men divaron par khoobasoorat apsaraon v rajakumariyon ke vibhinn mudraon vale sundar chitr bhi ukere ge hai, jo yahan ki utkrisht chitrakari v moortikala ke behad hi sundar namoone hai. ajnta ki guphaon ko do bhagon men banta ja sakata hai. ek bhag men bauddh dharm ke hinayan aur doosare bhag men mahayan snpraday ki jhalak dekhane ko milati hai. hinayan vale bhag men 2 chaity[1] aur 4 vihar[2] hai tatha mahayan vale bhag men 3 chaity aur 11 vihar hai. ye 19vin shatabdi ki guphaen hai, jisamen bauddh bhikshuon ki moortiyan v chitr hai. hathaude aur chhaini ki sahayata se tarashi gee ye moortiyan apane ap men apratim sundarata ko samete hai. [3]

ajnta ki gufaen, aurngabad
Ajanta Caves, Aurangabad

ajanta men nirmit kul 29 guphaon men vartaman men keval 6 hi, gupha snkhya 1, 2, 9, 10, 16, 17 shesh hai. in 6 guphaon men gupha snkhya 16 evn 17 hi guptakalin hain. ajanta ke chitr takaniki drishti se vishv men pratham sthan rakhate hain. in guphaon men anek prakar ke phool-pattiyon, vrikshon evn pashu akriti se sajavat ka kam tatha buddh evn bodhisatvon ki pratimaon ke chitran ka kam, jatak grnthon se li gee kahaniyon ka varnanatmak drishy ke roop men prayog hua hai. ye chitr adhikatar jatak kathaon ko darshate hain. in chitron men kahin-kahi gair bharatiy mool ke manav charitr bhi darshaye gaye hain. ajanta ki chitrakala ki ek visheshata yah hai ki in chitron men drishyon ko alag alag vinyas men nahin vibhajit kiya gaya hai.

ajanta men 'fresko' tatha 'tempera' donon hi vidhiyon se chitr banaye ge hain. chitr banane se poorv divar ko bhali bhanti ragadakar saf kiya jata tha tatha phir usake oopar lep chadhaya jata tha. ajanta ki gupha snkhya 16 men utkirn ‘maranasann rajakumari‘ ka chitr prashnsaniy hai. is chitr ki prashnsa karate hue griphith, varges evn phargusan ne kaha,- ‘karuna, bhav evn apani katha ko spasht dhng se kahane ki drishti‘ yah chitrakala ke itihas men anatikramaniy[4] hai. vakatak vnsh ke vasugupt shakha ke shasak harishen (475-500ee.) ke mntri varahamntri ne gupha snkhya 16 ko bauddh sngh ko dan men diya tha.

gupha snkhya 17 ke chitr ko ‘chitrashala‘ kaha gaya hai. isaka nirman harishen namak ek samant ne karaya tha. is chitrashala men buddh ke janm, jivan, mahabhinishkraman evn mahaparinirvan ki ghatanaon se snbndhit chitr ukere ge hain. gupha snkhya 17 men utkirn sabhi chitron men mata aur shishu nam ka chitr sarvotkrisht hai. ajanta ki guphaain bauddh dharm ki ‘mahayan shakha se snbndhit thi.

ajnta ki prasiddh guphaon ke chitron ki chamak hazar se adhik varsh bitane ke bad bhi adhunik samay se vidvanon ke lie ashchary ka vishay hai. bhagavan buddh se snbndhit ghatanaon ko in chitron men abhivyakt kiya gaya hai. chaval ke mand, gond aur any kuchh pattiyon tatha vastuon ka sammishraman kar avishkrit kie ge rngon se ye chitr banae ge. lagabhag hazar sal tak bhoomi men dabe rahe aur 1819 men pun: utkhanan kar inhen prakash men laya gaya. hazar varsh bitane par bhi inaka rng halka nahin hua, kharab nahin hua, chamak yathavat bani rahi. kahin kuchh sudharane ya adhunik rng lagane ka prayatn hua to vah asaphal hi hua. rngon aur rekhaon ki yah takanik aj bhi gauravashali atit ka yad dilati hai.

british snshodhak mi. griphith kahate hain ‘ajnta men jin chiteron ne chitrakari ki hai, ve srijan ke shikhar purush the. ajnta men divaron par jo lnbaroop (khadi) lainen koochi se sahaj hi khinchi gayi hain ve achnbhit karati hain. vastav men yah ashcharyajanak krititv hai. parantu jab chhat ki satah par snvari kshitij ke samanantar lakiren, unamen sngat ghumav, meharab ki shakl men ekaroopata ke darshan hote hain aur isake srijan ki hazaron jatilataon par dhyan jata hai, tab lagata hai vastav men yah vismayakari ashchary aur koee chamatkar hai.‘[5]

ajanta men prapt chitr guphaon ki samay sima
gupha snkhya samay
9 v 10 pratham shatabdi (guptakal se poorv)
16 evn 17 500 ee. (uttar gupt kal )
1 evn 2 lagabhag 628 ee. (guptottar kal)

yoonesh‍ko dvara 1983 se vishh‍v virasat sh‍thal ghoshit kie jane ke bad ajnta aur elora ki tash‍viren aur shilh‍pakala bauddh dharmik kala ke uth‍krishh‍t namoone mane ge hain aur inaka bharat men kala ke vikas par gahara prabhav hai. rngon ka rachanath‍mak upayog aur abhivh‍yakti ki sh‍vatntrata ke upayog se in guphaon ki tash‍viron men ajnta ke andar jo manav aur jntu roop chitrit kie ge hain, unh‍hen kalath‍mak rachanath‍makata ka ek uchh‍ch sh‍tar mana ja sakata hai. ye shatabdiyon se bauddh, hinh‍doo aur jain dharm ke prati samarpit hai. ye sahanashilata ki bhavana ko pradarshit karate hain, jo prachin bharat ki visheshata rahi hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: elora ki gufaen, udayagiri gufaen evn karle chaityagrih


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. prarthana bhavan
  2. bauddh bhikshuon ke rahane ke sthan
  3. sharma, gayatri. ajnta ki guphaen (ech.ti.em.el) webdunia. abhigaman tithi: 14aktoobar, .
  4. jisaka atikraman ya ullnghan n ho sakata ho ya jisaka atikraman karana uchit n ho
  5. soni, suresh. bharat ka vaigyanik chintan (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) vaigyanik-bharat. abhigaman tithi: 15aktoobar, 2010.

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