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humayoon ka maqabara
Humayun-Tomb-Delhi-23.jpg
vivaran humayoon ka maqabara nee dilli ke dinapanah arthat purane qile ke nikat snt nizamuddin auliya ki daragah ke pas mathura marg ke nikat yamuna nadi ke kinare sthit hai. humayoon ka maqabara mugal sthapaty kala ya mugal vastukala se sambndhit hai.
kendr shasit pradesh rashtriy rajadhani kshetr dilli
nirman kal 1565-1572
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 28°36′36, poorv- 77°13′48
prasiddhi yoonesko ki vishv virasat ki soochi men shamil humayoon ka maqabara bharat ka ek pramukh paryatan sthal hai.
havaee adda indira gandhi antarrashtriy havaee adda
relave steshan purani dilli, nee dilli, hazarat nizamuddin
yatayat saeekil riksha, aauto riksha, taiksi, lokal rel, metro rel, bas
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi grah
es.ti.di. kod 011
savadhani lavaris vastuon ko na chhuen, shit ritu men kohare se aur grishm ritu men loo se bachav karen.
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr, indira gandhi antarrashtriy havaee adda
snbndhit lekh lal qila, indiya get, jama masjid, rashtrapati bhavan .
adyatan‎

humayoon ka maqabara nee dilli ke 'dinapanah' arthat purane qile ke nikat snt nizamuddin auliya ki daragah ke pas mathura marg ke nikat yamuna nadi ke kinare sthit hai. humayoon ka maqabara mugal sthapaty kala ya mugal vastukala se sambndhit hai. humayoon ek mahanh mugal badashah tha jisaki mrityu sher mndal pustakalay ki sidhiyon se gir kar huee thi. humayoon ka maqabara unaki patni haji begam ne humayoon ki yad men humayoon ki mrityu ke ath sal bad banavaya tha. gulam vnsh ke samay men yah bhoomi kilokari qile men sthit thi, jo ki nasirooddin mahamood (shasan 1246-1266 ee.) ke putr sultan kekoobad ki rajadhani thi. yah samooh vishv dharohar ghoshit hai, evn bharat men mugal vastukala ka pratham udaharan hai. is maqabare ki shaili vahi hai, jisane tajamahal ko janm diya.

1562 se 1572 ke bich bana yah maqabara dilli ke pramukh paryatak sthalon men se ek hai. vastukar mirak mirza giyat ki chhap saf dekhi ja sakati hai. yahan bad men mugalon ke shahi parivar ke kee sadasyon ko dafanaya gaya. is jagah par hamida begam (akabar ki man), dara shikoh (shahajahan ka beta) aur bahadur shah zafar dvitiy (antim mugal shasak) ka maqabara bhi hai. yahi maqabara vishv vikhyat tajamahal ke nirman ki prerana bana. is maqabare ka prabhav tajamahal par bhi dekha ja sakata hai. yoonesh‍ko ne ise vishh‍v dharohar ka darja diya hai. is maqabare ki dekharekh bharatiy puratattv vibhag karata hai. yah pahali jagah hai jahan maqabare ke sath-sath park bhi sthit hain. yahan bharatiy parampara evn parasi shaili ki vastukala ka adabhut sngam dekhane ko milata hai.

nirman

is dharohar ka nirman 1565 se 1572 eesavi ke bich farasi vastuvidh mirak mirza giyat ke dijain par hua tha. tajamahal jaisi kalatmak najir pesh karane vala yah maqabara 12,000 varg mitar ke chabootare par bana hai jisaki unchaee 47 mitar hai. hamayoon maqabare ke kendriy kaksh ki antarik sajja badhiya kalinon v galichon se paripoorn hai. maqabare men qabron ke oopar ek shuddh shvet shamiyana laga hota tha aur unake samane hi pavitr grnth rakhe rahate the. inake sath hi humayoon ki pagadi, talavar aur joote bhi rakhe rahate the.

humayoon ka maqabara, dilli
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi

mrity ke uparant

humayoon ko usaki mrityu ke bad dilli men hi dafanaya gaya, aur isake bad men humayoon ko 1558 men khnjarabeg dvara pnjab ke sarahind le jaya gaya. kalantar men 1571 men mugal samrat akabar ne apane pita ki samadhi ke darshan kiye the. 1562 men humayoon ki mrityu ke 9 varsh bad humayoon ke maqabare ka nirman usaki patni hamida bano begam ke adesh ke anusar hua tha. us samay is imarat ki lagat 15 lakh rupaye ayi thi.

maqabare ke nirman ka sthan

humayoon ke maqabare ke nirman ke lie yamuna nadi ke kinare ke sthan ka chunav kiya gaya. is sthan ka chunav maqabare ke nikat sthit hajarat nijamuddin ki daragah se nikatata ke karan kiya gaya tha. dilli ke prasiddh soophi snt hajarat nijamuddin ka tatkalin avas bhi maqabare ke sthan se uttar-poorv disha men nikat hi chilla-nijamuddin auliya men sthit tha.[1]

farasi vastukala se prabhavit

Blockquote-open.gif is dharohar ka nirman 1565 se 1572 eesavi ke bich farasi vastuvidh mirak mirza giyat ke dijain par hua tha. Blockquote-close.gif

yah maqabara farasi vastukala se prabhavit hai, yah 47 mitar ooncha aur 200 phit chauda hai. is imarat par farasi balbuas gumbad bana hai, jo sarvapratham sikandar lodi ke maqabare men dekha gaya tha. gumbad dohari part men bana hai, bahari part ke bahar shvet sngamaramar ka avaran laga hai, aur andarooni part gufa roopi bani hai. gumbad ke shuddh aur nirmal shvet roop se alag shesh imarat lal balua patthar ki bani hai, jis par shvet aur kale sngamaramar tatha pile balua patthar se pachchikari ka kam kiya gaya hai. yah gumbad 42.5 mitar ke oonche gardan roopi belan par bana hai. gumbad ke oopar 6 mitar ooncha pital ka kirit kalash sthapit hai, aur usake oopar chndrama laga hua hai, jo taimoor vnsh ke maqabaron men milata hai. in rngon ka snyojan imarat ko ek khoobasoorati deta hai.[1]

vastukar

abdul qadir badayoonni nam ke ek samakalin itihasakar ke anusar is maqabare ka sthapaty farasi vastukar mirak mirza giyat ne kiya tha, jinhen is imarat ke liye afaganistan ke herat shahar se vishesh roop se bulavaya gaya tha. inhonne bharat ki bhi kee imaraton ki abhikalpana ki thi. ve is maqabare ke poora hone se pahale hi chal base, kintu unake putr ne apane pita ka kary poorn kiya aur humayoon ka maqabara 1571 men banakar poorn hua. yahan sarvapratham lal balua patthar ka itane bade star par prayog hua tha. yunesko dvara 1993 men is imarat samooh ko vishv dharohar sthal ghoshit kiya gaya.

prerana

hamayoon ke maqabare men mugal sthapaty men charabag shaili ke udyan pramukh ang the. isase poorv aise udyan bharat men kabhi bhi nahin dikhe the aur isake bad anek imaraton ka abhinn ang banate gaye. humayoon ka maqabara isake ke pita babar ke qabul sthit maqabare 'bag e babar' se bilkul alag tha. mugal samraton ko bag men bane maqabaron men dafan karane ki parnpara babar ke sath hi arnbh huee thi. taimoor lng ke samaraknd men bane maqabare par adharit yah maqabara bharat men age ane vali mugal sthapaty ke maqabaron ki prerana bana.[1]

maqabare ki snrachana

humayoon ka maqabara

is vishal imarat men pravesh karane ke liye pashchim aur dakshin men do dumnjile praveshadvar 16 mitar oonche bane hue hain. praveshadvaron men donon or kaksh sthit hain aur oopar ke tal par chhote prangan hain. maqabare ki banavat moolaroop se pattharon ko gare-choone se jodakar ki gee hai aur maqabare ko lal balua patthar ke dvara dhaka hua hai. safed sngamaramar ka prayog oopar ki pachchikari, pharsh ki satah, jaliyan, dvar-chaukhaton aur chhajjon ke liye kiya gaya hai. isaka mukhy gumbad bhi shvet sngamaramar se hi dhaka hua hai. hamayoon ka maqabara 8 mitar oonche mool chabootare par khada hai, 12000 varg mitar ki oopari satah ko lal jalidar munder ghere hue hai. is vargakar chabootare ke konon ko chhantakar ashtakoniy abhas diya gaya hai. is chabootare ki ninv men 56 kothariyan bani huee hain, jinamen 100 se adhik qabren banayi huee hain.[1]

maqabare ki antarik snrachana

is imarat ka mukhy kaksh gumbadadar evn duguni oonchaee ka ek mnjila hai aur isamen gumbad ke niche ekadam madhy men ath kinare vale ek jalidar ghere men dvitiy mugal samrat humayoon ki qabr bani hai. humayoon ki qabr is imarat ki mukhy qabr hai. is imarat men mukhy kendriy kaksh sahit nau vargakar kaksh bane hain. inamen bich men bane mukhy kaksh ko ghere hue shesh ath dumnjile kaksh bich men khulate hain. thik niche antarik kaksh men samrat humayoon ki asali samadhi bani hai, jisaka bahar se rasta jata hai. is poori imarat men pitra dyoora namak sngamaramar ki pachchikari ka prayog hai aur is prakar ke qabr ke niyojan jo mugal samrajy ke bad ke maqabaron, jaise tajamahal adi men khoob prayog hue hain, yah bharatiy-islamik sthapatyakala ka mahattvapoorn ang hain,

humayoon ka maqabara

pashchim men makka ki or sngamaramar ki jalidar ghere ke thik oopar imarat ke mukhy kaksh men meharab bhi bana hai. pradhan kaksh ke char konon par char ashtakoniy kamare hain, jo meharabadar dirgha se jude hain. pradhan kaksh ki bhujaon ke bich-bich men char any kaksh bhi bane hain. ye ath kamare mukhy qabr ki parikrama banate hain, jaisi soophivad aur kee any mugal maqabaron men dikhati hai, sath hi islam dharm men jannat ka snket bhi karate hain. yahan amataur par praveshadvaron par khude quran ke soora 24 ke bajay soora- an-noor ki ek rekha bani hai, jisake dvara prakash kibala (makka ki disha) se andar pravesh karata hai. is prakar samrat ka star unake virodhiyon aur pratidvndiyon se ooncha devatv ke nikat ho jata hai. in pratyek kamaron ke sath 8-8 kamare aur bane hain, jo kul milakar 124 kakshiy yojana ka ang hain. mugal navabon aur darabariyon ki qabron ko in chhote kamaron men samay-samay par banaya hua hai. atah imarat ko mugalon ka qabristan sngya mili huee hai. pratham tal ko milakar is mukhy imarat men lagabhag 100 se adhik qabren bani hain, jinamen se adhikansh par pahachan n khudi hone ke karan dafan hue vyakti ka pata nahin hai, kintu ye nishchit hai ki ve mugal samrajy ke raj parivar ya darabariyon men se hi the.[1]

smarak

charabag udyan

humayoon ke maqabare ke kendr se nikalati huee char jal nalikaen charabag ke vargakar khake ki rekha banati hain. maqabare ki poorn shobha isako ghere hue 30 ekad men phaile charabag shaili ke mugal udyanon se nikharati hai. jannat roopi udyan chaharadivari ke bhitar bana hai. ye udyan char bhagon men paidal pathon (khiyaban) aur do vibhajak kendriy jal nalikaon dvara bnta hua hai. is prakar bane char bagon ko phir se patthar ke bane raston dvara char-char chhote bhagon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai. is prakar kul milakar 36 bhag banate hain. jis prakar quran ki ayaton men ’jannat ke bag’ ka varnan kiya gaya hai, thik us prakar kendriy jal nalika mukhy dvar se maqabare tak jati huee usake niche jati hai aur doosari or se phir nikalati huee pratit hoti hai. charabag maqabare ko ghere hue hai, charabag ko tin or oonchi patthar ki chaharadivari ghere hue hai aur kabhi nikat hi yamuna nadi tisari or baha karati thi, jo samay ke sath parisar se door chali gee hai.

naee ka gumbad

humayoon ka maqabara

maqabare parisar men charabag ke andar hi dakshin-poorvi disha men 1590 men bana naee ka gumbad hai. isaki mukhy parisar men upasthiti dafanaye gaye vyakti ki mahatta darshati hai. yah maqabara ek oonche chabootare par bana hai jahan pahunchane ke liye dakshini or se sat sidhiyan bani hain. yah vargakar hai aur isake akele kaksh ke oopar ek dohara gumbad bana hai. andar do qabron par quran ki ayaten khudi huee hain. inamen se ek qabr par 999 ank khude hain, jisaka arth hijari ka varsh 999 hai jo 1590-91 ee. batata hai.[1]

eesa khan niyaji ka maqabara

humayoon ke maqabare ke mukhy pashchimi praveshadvar ke raste men pramukh smarak eesa khan niyaji ka maqabara hai, jo mukhy maqabare se bhi 20 varsh poorv 1547 men bana tha. eesa khan niyaji mugalon ke viruddh ladane vala soor vnsh ke shasak sherashah soori ke darabar ka ek afagan navab tha. yah maqabara eesa khan ke jivanakal men hi bana tha aur usake bad usake poore parivar ke liye hi kam aya. [1]

jali ki maya, humayoon ka maqabara

any smarak

  • is maqabare men ek tin angan chaudi lal balua patthar ki masjid sthit hai.
  • hairoo boo halima ka maqabara aur usake bag chaharadivari ke bahar sthit hain. ye maqabara ab dhvns ho chuka hai aur isake avasheshon se gyat hota hai ki ye kendr men sthit nahin tha. isase abhas hota hai ki snbhavatah ye bad men joda gaya hoga.
  • is parisar men arab saray sthit hai, jise hamida begam ne mukhy maqabare ke nirman men lage karigaron ke liye banavaya tha.
  • is parisar men hi afasaravala maqabara bhi bana hai, jo akabar ke ek navab ke liye bana tha. isake sath hi isaki masjid bhi bani hai.
  • nila burj namak maqabara poore parisar ke bahar sthit hai . is maqabare ka nam isake gumbad ke oopar lagi nili glejd tailon ke karan pada hai.

jirnoddhar

Blockquote-open.gif yah maqabara farasi vastukala se prabhavit hai, yah 47 mitar ooncha aur 200 phit chauda hai. is imarat par farasi balbuas gumbad bana hai, jo sarvapratham sikandar lodi ke maqabare men dekha gaya tha. gumbad dohari part men bana hai, bahari part ke bahar shvet sngamaramar ka avaran laga hai, aur andarooni part gufa roopi bani hai Blockquote-close.gif

humayoon ke maqabare ke charabag 13 hekteyar kshetr men faile hue the. 18vin shatabdi tak yahan sthaniy logon ne charabagon men sabji adi ugana arnbh kar diya tha. 1860 men mugal shaili ke charabag angrezi shaili men badalate gaye. inamen char kendriy sarovar gol chakkaron men badal gaye v kyariyon men ped ugane lage. 20vin shatabdi men laaurd karzan jab bharat ke vaisaray bane, tab unhonne ise vapas sudhara. 1903-1909 ke bich ek vrihat udyan jirnoddhar pariyojana arnbh huee, jisake antargatt naliyon men bhi balua patthar lagaya gaya. 1915 men paudharopan yojana ke tahat kendriy aur vikarniy akshon par vriksharopan hua. isake sath hi any sthanon par phoolon ki kyariyan bhi vapas banayi geen. agast, 1947 men bharat ke vibhajan ke samay men purana qila aur humayoon ka maqabara bharat se navin sthapit pakistan ko liye jane vale sharanarthiyon ke liye sharanarthi kaimp men badal gaye the. bad men inhen bharat sarakar dvara apane niyntran men le liya gaya. ye kaimp lagabhag panch varshon tak rahe aur inase smarakon ko atyadhik kshati pahunchi, khasakar inake bagichon, pani ki sundar naliyon adi ko. isake uparant is dhvns ko rokane ke lie maqabare ke andar ke sthan ko eenton se dhnk diya gaya, jise ane vale varshon men bharatiy puratatvik sarvekshan vibhag ne vapas apane purane roop men sthapit kiya. halanki 1985 tak mool jaliy pranali ko sakriy karane ke liye char bar asaphal prayas kiye ge. march, 2003 men aga khan sanskritik trast dvara isaka jirnoddhar kary sampann hua tha. is jirnoddhar ke bad yahan ke bagon ki jal-naliyon men ek bar phir se jal pravah arnbh hua.


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vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 humayoon ka maqabara (hindi) veb varta. abhigaman tithi: 11 mee, 2011.

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