मुग़ल काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugal aur afagan (1525-1556)

pandrahavin shatabdi men madhy aur pashchim eshiya men mahattvapoorn parivartan hue. chaudahavin shatabdi men mngol samrajy ke vighatan ke pashchath taimoor ne eeran aur tooran ko phir se ek shasan ke antargat sngathit kiya. taimoor ka samrajy volga nadi ke nichale hisse se sindhu nadi tak phaila hua tha aur usamen eshiya ka mainar (adhunik turki), eeran, trans-aksiyana, afaganistan aur pnjab ka ek bhag tha. 1404 men taimoor ki mrityu ho gee. lekin usake pote shaharookh mirza ne samrajy ka adhikansh bhag sngathit rakha. usake samay men samarakand aur hirat pashchim eshiya ke sanskritik kendr ban ge. pratyek samarakand ke shasak ka islami duniya men kafi samman tha.

taimoor

pndrahavin shatabdi ke uttarardh men deshon ka samman tezi se kam hua. isaka karan taimoor ke samrajy ko vibhajit karane ki parampara thi. anek taimoor riyasaten, jo is prakriya men bani, apas men ladati-jhagadati rahin. isase naye tatvon ko age badhane ka mauqa mila. uttar se ek mngol jati uzabek ne trans-aksiyana men apane qadam badhaye. uzabekon ne islam apana liya tha. lekin taimoori unhen asnskrit barbar hi samajhate the. aur pashchim ki or eeran men safavin vnsh ka uday hua. safavi santon ki parampara men panape the. jo svayn ko paigambar ke vnshaj manate the. ve musalamanon ke shiya mat ka samarthan karate the aur unhen pareshan karate the jo shiya siddhanton ko asvikar karate the. doosari or uzabek sunni the. isalie un donon tatvon ke bich sngharsh sampradayik matabhed ke karan aur bhi badh gaya. eeran ke bhi pashchim men atoman turkon ki shakti ubhar rahi thi. jo poorvi yoorop tatha eerak aur eeran par adhipaty zamana chahate the. is prakar solahavin shatabdi men eshiya men tin badi samrajy shaktiyon ke bich sngharsh ki bhoomika taiyar ho gee.

babar

1494 men trans-aksiyana ki ek chhoti si riyasat faragana ka babar uttaradhikari bana. uzabek khatare se bekhabar hokar taimoor rajakumar apas men lad rahe the. babar ne bhi apane chacha se samarakand chhinana chaha. usane do bar us shahar ko fatah kiya, lekin donon hi bar use jaldi hi chhodana pada. doosari bar uzabek shasak shaibani khan ko samarakand se babar ko khadedane ke lie amntrit kiya gaya tha. usane babar ko harakar samarakandar par apana jhnda phahara diya. usake bad jaldi hi usane us kshetr men taimoor samrajy ke bhagon ko bhi jit liya. isase babar ko qabul ki or badhana pada aur usane 1504 men us par adhikar kar liya. usake bad chaudah varsh tak vah is avasar ki talash men raha ki phir uzabekon ko harakar apani matribhoomi par punah adhikar kar sake. usane apane chacha, hirat ke shasak ko apani or milana chaha, lekin is kary men vah saphal nahin hua. shaibani khan ne antatah hirat par bhi adhikar kar liya. isase safaviyon se usaka sidha sngharsh utpann ho gaya. kyonki ve bhi hirat aur usake as-pas ke kshetr ko apana kahate the. is pradesh ko tatkalin lekhakon ne khurasan kaha hai. 1510 ki prasiddh ladaee men eeran ke shah ismail ne shaibani ko harakar mar dala. isi samay babar ne samarakand jitane ka ek prayatn aur kiya. is bar usane eerani sena ki sahayata li. vah samarakand pahunch gaya. lekin jaldi hi eerani senapatiyon ke vyavahar ke karan rosh se bhar gaya. ve use eerani samrajy ka ek gavarnar hi manate the. svatntr shasak nahin. isi bich uzabek bhi apani har se ubhar gaye. babar ko ek bar phir samarakand se khaded diya gaya aur use qabul lautana pada. svayn shah eeran ismail ko bhi atohan-samrajy ke sath huee prasiddh ladaee men har ka samana karana pada. is prakar uzabek trans-aksiyana ke nirvirodh svami ho ge. in ghatanaaun ke karan hi antatah babar ne bharat ki or rookh kiya.

dilli vijay

babar ne likha hai ki qabul jitane (1504) se lekar panipat ki ladaee tak usane hindustan jitane ka vichar kabhi nahin tyaga. lekin use bharat vijay ke lie kabhi sahi avasar nahin mila tha. "kabhi apane begon ke bhay ke karan, kabhi mere aur bhaiyon ke bich matabhed ke karan." madhy eshiya ke kee any akramanakariyon ki bhanti babar bhi bharat ki apar dhan-rashi ke karan isaki or akarshit hua tha. bharat sone ki qan tha. babar ka poorvaj taimoor yahan se apar dhan-daulat aur badi snkhya men kushal shilpi hi nahin le gaya tha, jinhonne bad men usake eshiya samrajy ko sudridh karane aur usaki rajadhani ko sundar banane men yogadan diya, balki pnjab ke ek bhag ko apane kabje men kar liya tha. ye bhag anek pidhiyon tak taimoor ke vnshajon ke adhin rahe the. jab babar ne afaganistan par vijay prapt ki to use laga ki in donon par bhi usaka qanooni adhikar hai.

qabul ki simit ay bhi pnjab paragana ko vijit karane ka ek karan thi. "usaka (babar) rajy badakhashan, kndhar aur qabul par tha. jinase sena ki anivaryataen poori karane ke lie bhi ay nahin hoti thi. vastav men kuchh sima pranton par sena banae rakhane men aur prashasan ke kam men vyay amadani se zyada tha."
simit ay sadhanon ke karan babar apane begon aur parivar valon ke lie adhik chizen upalabdh nahin kar sakata tha. use qabul par uzabek akraman ka bhi bhay tha. vah bharat ko badhiya sharan-sthal samajhata tha. usaki drishti men uzabekon ke viruddh abhiyanon ke lie bhi yah achchha sthal tha.

lodi

uttar-pashchim bharat ki rajanitik sthiti ne babar ko bharat ane ka avasar pradan kiya. 1517 men sikandar lodi ki mrityu ho gee thi aur ibrahim lodi gaddi par baitha tha. ek kendrabhimukhi bada samrajy sthapit karane ke ibrahim ke prayatnon ne afaganon aur rajapooton donon ko savadhan kar diya tha. afagan saradaron men sarvadhik shaktishali saradar daulat khan lodi tha. jo pnjab ka gavarnar tha. par vastav men lagabhag svatntr tha. daulat khan ne apane bete ko ibrahim lodi ke darabar men upahar dekhakar use manane ka prayatn kiya. sath hi sath vah bhira ka simant pradesh jitakar apani sthiti ko bhi mazaboot banana chahata tha. 1518-19 men babar ne bhira ke shaktishali qile ko jit liya. phir usane daulat khan aur ibrahim lodi ko patr aur maukhik sndesh bhejakar yah mang ki ki jo pradesh turkon ke hain, ve use lauta die jaen. lekin daulat khan ne babar ke doot ko lahaur men ataka liya. vah n svayn usase mila aur n use ibrahim lodi ke pas jane diya. jab babar qabul laut gaya, to daulat khan ne bhira se usake pratinidhiyon ko nikal bahar kiya.

kandhar men vidroh

1520-21 men babar ne ek bar phir sindhu nadi par ki aur asani se bhira aur siyalakot par qabza kar liya. ye bharat ke lie mugal dvar the. lahaur bhi padakrant ho gaya. vah sambhavatah aur age badhata, lekin tabhi use kandhar men vidroh ka samachar mila. vah ulte panv laut gaya aur dedh sal ke ghere ke bad kandhar ko jit liya. udhar se nishchint hokar babar ki nigahen phir bharat ki or uthin. isi samay ke lagabhag babar ke pas daulat khan lodi ke putr dilavar khan ke netritv men doot pahunche. unhonne babar ko bharat ane ka nimntran diya aur kaha ki choonki ibrahim lodi atyachari hai aur usake saradaron ka samarthan ab use prapt nahin hai, isalie use apadasth karake babar raja bane. is bat ki sambhavana hai ki rana sanga ka doot bhi isi samay usake pas pahuncha. in dooton ke pahunchane par babar ko laga ki yadi hindustan ko nahin, to sare pnjab ko jitane ka samay a gaya hai. 1525 men jab babar peshavar men tha, use khabar mili ki daulatakhan lodi ne phir se apana pala badal liya hai. usane 30,000-40,000 sipahiyon ko ikattha kar liya tha aur babar ki senaon ko syalakot se khadedane ke bad lahaur ki or badh raha tha. babar se samana hone par daulat khan lodi ki sena bikhar gee. daulat khan ne atmasamarpan kar diya aur babar ne use mafi de di. is prakar sindhu nadi par karane ke tin saptah ke bhitar hi pnjab par babar ka qabza ho gaya.

panipat ki ladaee

21 aprail, 1526

dilli ke sultan ibrahim lodi ke sath sngharsh avashyambhavi tha. babar isake lie taiyar tha aur usane dilli ki or badhana shriroo kiya. ibrahim lodi ne panipat men ek lakh sainikon ko aur ek hazar hathiyon ko lekar babar ka samana kiya. kyonki hindustani senaon men ek badi snkhya sevakon ki hoti thi, ibrahim ki sena men ladane vale sipahi kahin kam rahe honge. babar ne sindhu ko jab par kiya tha to usake sath 12000 sainik the, parantu usake sath ve saradar aur sainik bhi the jo pnjab men usake sath mil gaye the. is prakar usake sipahiyon ki snkhya bahut adhik ho gee thi. phir bhi babar ki sena snkhya ki drishti se kam thi. babar ne apani sena ke ek ansh ko shahar men tika diya jahan kafi makan the, phir doosare ansh ki suraksha usane khaee khod kar us par pedon ki daliyan dal di. samane usane gadiyon ki katar khadi karake surakshatmak divar bana li. is prakar usane apani sthiti kafi mazaboot kar li. do gadiyon ke bich usane ऎsi snrachana banavayi, jis par sipahi apani topen rakhakar gole chala sakat the. babar is vidhi ko atoman (roomi) vidhi kahata tha. kyonki isaka prayog atomanon ne eeran ke shah ismaeel ke viruddh huee prasiddh ladaee men kiya tha. babar ne do achchhe nishanebaz topachiyon ustad ali aur mustafa ki sevaen bhi prapt kar li thin. bharat men barood ka prayog dhire-dhire hona shuroo hua. babar kahata hai ki isaka prayog sabase pahale usane bhira ke qile par akraman ke samay kiya tha. ऎsa anuman hai ki barood se bharatiyon ka parichay to tha, lekin prayog babar ke akraman ke sath hi arambh hua.

ibrahim lodi ki kamazori

babar ki sudridh raksha-pnkti ka ibrahim lodi ko koee abhas nahin tha. usane socha ki any madhy eshiyayi ladakon ki tarah babar bhi daud-bhag kar yuddh ladega aur avashyakatanusar tezi se age badhega ya pichhe hatega. sat ya ath din tak chhut-put jhadapon ke bad ibrahim lodi ki sena antim yuddh ke lie maidan men a gee. babar ki shakti dekhakar lodi ke sainik hichake ibrahim lodi abhi apani sena ko phir se sngathit kar hi raha tha ki babar ki sena ke age vale donon angon ne chakkar laga kar usaki sena par pichhe aur age se akraman kar diya. samane ki or babar ke topachiyon ne achchhi nishanebazi ki lekin babar apani vijay ka adhikansh shrey apane tir andazon ko deta hai. yah ashchary ki bat hai ki vah ibrahim ke hathiyon ka ullekh nahin ke barabar karata hai. yah spasht hai ki ibrahim ko unake istemal ka samay hi nahin mila.

lodiyon ki har

prarambhik dhakkon ke bavajood ibrahim ki sena virata se ladi. do ya tin ghnton tak yuddh hota raha. ibrahim 5000-6000 hazar sainikon ke sath ant tak ladata raha. anuman hai ki ibrahim ke atirikt usake 15000 se adhik sainik is ladaee men mare gaye.{sndarbh ?} panipat ki ladaee bharatiy itihas men ek nirnayak ladaee mani jati hai. isamen lodiyon ki kamar toot gee aur dilli aur agara ka sara pradesh babar ke adhin ho gaya. ibrahim lodi dvara agara men ekatr khazane se babar ki arthik kathinaiyan door ho gee. jaunapur tak ka samriddh kshetr bhi babar ke samane khula tha. lekin isase pahale ki babar is par apana adhikar sudridh kar sake use do kadi ladaiyan ladani padi, ek mevad ke viruddh doosari poorvi afaganon ke viruddh. is drishtikon se dekha jae to panipat ki ladaee rajanitik kshetr men itani nirnayak nahin thi jitani ki samajhi jati hai. isaka vastavik mahattv is bat men hai ki isane uttar bharat par adhipaty ke lie sngharsh ka ek naya yug prarambh kiya.

panipat ki ladaee men vijay ke bad babar ke samane bahut si kathinaiyan aeen. usake bahut se beg bharat men lambe abhiyan ke liye taiyar nahin the. garmi ka mausam ate hi unake sndeh badh gaye. ve apane gharon se door tak anajane aur shatru desh men the. babar kahata hai ki bharat ke logon ne 'achchhi shatruta' nibhaee, unhonne mugal senaon ke ane par ganv khali kar die. niahsandeh taimoor dvara nagaron aur ganvon ki lootapat aur qatleam unaki yad men taza the.

babar yah bat janata tha ki bharatiy sadhan hi use ek dridh samrajy banane men madad de sakate hain aur usake begon ko bhi sntusht kar sakate hain. "qabul ki garibi hamare lie phir nahin" vah apani dayari men likhata hai. isalie usane dridhata se kam liya, aur bharat men rahane ki apani ichchha zahir kar di aur un begon ko chhutti de di jo qabul lautana chahate the. isase usaka rasta saf ho gaya. lekin isase rana sanga se bhi usaki shatruta ho gayi, jisane usase do-do hath karane ke lie taiyariyan shuroo kar din.

khanava ki ladaee

babaranama (hindi anuvad)

poorvi rajasthan aur malava par adhipaty ke lie rana sanga aur ibrahim lodi ke bich badhate sngharsh ka snket pahale hi kiya ja chuka hai. malava ke mahamood khilji ko harane ke bad rana sanga prabhav agara ke nikat ek chhoti-si nadi piliya khar tak dhire-dhire badh gaya tha. sindhu-gnga ghati men babar dvara samrajy ki sthapana se rana sanga ko khatara badh gaya. sanga ne babar ko bharat se khadedane, kam-se-kam use pnjab tak simit rakhane ke lie taiyariyan shuroo kar din.

rana sanga aur babar

babar ne rana sanga par sndhi todane ka dosh lagaya. vah kahata hai ki rana sanga ne mujhe hindustan ane ka nyota diya aur ibrahim lodi ke khilaf mera sath dene ka vayada kiya, lekin jab main dilli aur agara fatah kar raha tha, to usane panv bhi nahin hilaye. is bat ki koee janakari nahin hai ki rana sanga ne babar ke sath kya samajhauta kiya tha. ho sakata hai ki usane ek lambi ladaee aur kalpana ki ho aur socha ho ki tab tak vah svayn un pradeshon par adhikar kar sakega jin par usaki nigah thi ya, shayad usane yah socha ho ki dilli ko raund kar lodiyon ki shakti ko kshin karake babar bhi taimoor ki bhanti laut jayega. babar ke bharat men hi rukane ke nirnay ne paristhiti ko poori tarah se badal diya.
ibrahim lodi ke chhote bhaee mahamood lodi sahit anek afaganon ne yah soch kar rana sanga ka sath diya ki agar vah jit gaya, to shayad unhen dilli ki gaddi vapas mil jayegi. mevat ke shasak hasan khan mevati ne bhi rana sanga ka paksh liya. lagabhag sabhi badi rajapoot riyasaton ne rana ki seva men apani-apani senaen bhejin.

jihad ka nara

rana sanga ki prasiddhi aur bayana jaisi bahari mugal chhavaniyon par usaki prarambhik saphalataon se babar ke sipahiyon ka manobal gir gaya. unamen phir se sahas bharane ke lie babar ne rana sanga ke khilaf 'jihad' ka nara diya. ladaee se pahale ki sham usane apane ap ko sachcha musalaman siddh karane ke lie sharab ke ghade ulat die aur surahiyan phod di. usane apane rajy men sharab ki kharidafarokht par rok laga di aur musalamanon par se sima kar hata diya.
babar ne bahut dhyan se ranasthali ka chunav kiya aur vah agara se chalis kilomitar door khanava pahunch gaya. panipat ki tarah hi usane bahari pnkti men gadiyan lagava kar aur usake sath khaee khod kar duhari suraksha ki paddhati apanaee. in tin pahiyon vali gadiyon ki pnkti men bich-bich men bandooqachiyon ke age badhane aur goliyan chalane ke lie sthan chhod diya gaya.

rana sanga ki parajay

gvaliyar ka qila

khanava ki ladaee (1527) men zabardast sngharsh hua. babar ke anusar sanga ki sena men 200,000 se bhi adhik sainik the. inamen 10,000 afagan ghudasavar aur itani snkhya men hasan khan mevati ke sipahi the. yah snkhya bhi, aur sthanon ki bhanti badha-badha kar kahi gee ho sakati hai, lekin babar ki sena niahsandeh chhoti thi. sanga ne babar ki dahini sena par zabardast akraman kiya aur use lagabhag bhed diya. lekin babar ke topakhane ne kafi sainik mar giraye aur sanga ko khaded diya gaya. isi avasar par babar ne kendr-sthit sainikon se, jo gadiyon ke pichhe chhipe hue the, akraman karane ke lie kaha. zajiron se gadiyon se bndhe topakhane ko bhi age badhaya gaya. is prakar sanga ki sena bich men ghir gee aur bahut se sainik mare gaye. sanga ki parajay huee. rana sanga bach kar bhag nikala taki babar ke sath phir sngharsh kar sake parantu usake samanton ne hi use zahar de diya jo is marg ko khataranak aur atmahatya ke saman samajhate the. is prakar rajasthan ka sabase bada yoddha ant ko prapt hua. sanga ki mrityu ke sath hi agara tak vistrit snyukt rajasthan ke svapn ko bahut dhakka pahuncha.

khanava ki ladaee se dilli-agara men babar ki sthiti sudridh ho gee. agara ke poorv men gvaliyar aur dhaulapur jaise qilon ki shrinkhala jit kar babar ne apani sthiti aur bhi mazaboot kar li. usane hasan khan mevati se alavar ka bahut bada bhag bhi chhin liya. phir usane malava-sthit chanderi ke medini ray ke viruddh abhiyan chheda. rajapoot sainikon dvara rakt ki antim boond tak ladakar jauhar karane ke bad chanderi par babar ka rajy ho gaya. babar ko is kshetr men apane abhiyan ko simit karana pada kyonki use poorvi uttar pradesh men afaganon ki halachal ki khabar mili.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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