मुग़ल साम्राज्य का पतन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aurngazeb ki mrityu ke bad mugal samrajy ka teji se patan hone laga tha. mugal darabar saradaron ke bich apasi jhagadon aur shadayntron ka adda ban gaya aur shighr hi mahatvakankshi tatha prantiy shasak svadhin roop men kary karane lage. marathon ke hamale dakkan se phailakar samrajy ke mukhy bhag, gnga ki ghati tak pahunch ge. samrajy ki kamazori us samay vishv ke samane spasht ho gee, jab 1739 men nadirashah ne mugal samrat ko bndi bana liya tatha dilli ko khule am loota.

itihasakar matabhed

saval yah hai ki mugal samrajy ke patan ke lie aurngazeb ki mrityu ke bad ki ghatanaen kis had tak zimmedar thin aur kis had tak aurngazeb ki galat nitiyan? is bat ko lekar itihasakaron men kafi matabhed raha hai. halanki aurngazeb ko isake lie zimmedar hone se poornataya mukt nahin kiya jata, adhikatar adhunik itihasakar aurngazeb ke shasanakal ko desh ki tatkalik arthik, samajik, prashasanik tatha bauddhik sthiti aur usake shasanakal ke pahale aur usake dauran ki antarrashtriy gatividhiyon ke pariprekshy men dekhate hain.

madhyakalin arthik tatha samajik sthiti

madhyakalin bharat ki arthik tatha samajik sthiti ka poora moolyankan karane par pata chalata hai ki satrahavin shatabdi ke dauran bharat men vanijy tatha vyapar ka bahut vikas hua tatha hastakala ke madhyam se nirmit vastuon ki mang bhi badhati gee. is mang ko tabhi poora kiya ja sakata tha, jab kapas tatha nil jaise kachche mal ka bhi utpadan sath-sath badhata rahe. is kal men mugal sarakari ankadon ke anusar un kshetron ka jahan 'zabti' arthat 'bhoomi ki napaee' ke adhar par banaee gee vyavastha ka vistar hua. is bat ke bhi kuchh suboot milate hain ki krishi yogy bhoomi ka bhi vistar hua. yah arthik paristhitiyon ke alava mugalon ki prashasanik nitiyon ke karan hi sambhav hua. har saradar tatha aise dharmik neta jise bhoomi anudan men milati thi, se asha ki jati thi ki vah krishi ke vistar aur vikas men vyaktigat ruchi lega. krishi sambandhit dastavezon ko savadhani se rakha jata tha. itihasakaron ko in vistrit byoron ko dekhakar ashchary hota hai. inamen har ganv ke n keval halon, bailon tatha kunon ki snkhya di gee thi, balki kisanon ki snkhya bhi darj ki gee thi.

isake bavajood aisa vishvas karane ke karan bhi hain ki vanijy tatha vyapar aur krishi utpadan utani tezi se nahin badh raha tha, jitani ki sthiti aur avashyakata ke anusar badhana chahie tha. isake kee karan the. mitti ki ghatati huee upajaoo shakti ko poora karane ke lie krishi ke naye upayon ke bare men logon ko koee janakari nahin thi. lagan ki dar bahut oonchi thi. badashah akabar ke samay se, yadi zamindaron tatha any sthaniy adhikariyon ke hisse ko shamil karen, tab yah kul utpadan ka qarib-qarib adha hissa hoti thi. akabar ke shasanakal men amataur par lagan ausat utpadan ka ek tihaee hissa tha. lekin isamen zamindaron tatha any sthaniy adhikariyon ka hissa sammilit nahin tha. satrahavin shatabdi ke madhy ke bad rajy ka hissa badhakar kul utpadan ka adha bhag ho gaya, lekin isamen zamindaron tatha any sthaniy adhikariyon, jinamen ganv ke mukhiya ityadi shamil the, ka hissa bhi shamil tha.

krishi ka vikas n hona

yadyapi rajy ka hissa alag-alag kshetron ke anusar alag-alag tha. arthat rajasthan tatha sindh jaise kam upajaoo rajyon men kam tatha kashmir men kesar utpadan karane vale upajaoo kshetron men adhik tha, amataur par lagan itana adhik nahin tha ki isake karan kisan kheti chhod den. vastav men poorvi rajasthan ke ankadon se pata chalata hai ki satrahavin shatabdi ke uttarardh tatha atharahavin shatabdi ke arambh men naye ganv barabar basate gaye. aisa lagata hai ki samajik tatha kuchh had tak prashasanik karanon se krishi ka utana adhik vikas nahin ho paya.

varg vishesh ki bhavana

anuman lagaya jata hai ki is kal men desh ki abadi sadhe barah karod thi. isaka arth yah hua ki krishi bhoomi bahut badi matra men upalabdh thi. lekin isake bavajood kee ganvon men aise kisanon ke bare men sunane ko milata hai, jinake pas koee zaminn nahin thi. inamen se adhikatar log achhoot varg men jate the. kheti karane vala varg tatha zamidar, jo adhikatar uchch jatiyon ke the n to chahate the ki achhut naye ganv basayen aur is prakar zaminn ki milkiyat hasil karen aur n hi is bat ko protsahan dete the. unaka hit isi men tha ki ye log ganv men atirikt shramik ke taur par hi rahen aur unake lie mrit janavaron ki khal utarane tatha chamade ki rassiyan banane jaise chhote kam karate rahen. bhoomihin athava garib, jinake pas bahut kam zamin thi, logon ke pas n to aisa sngathan tha aur n hi itani poonji thi ki ve apane bal par nee zamin par kheti kar saken athava naye ganv basa saken. kabhi-kabhi nayi zamin par kheti karane ke kary men rajy pahal karata tha. lekin achhut isaka poora labh nahin utha sakate the. kyonki rajy ko is kam men sthaniy zamindaron tatha ganv ke mukhiyon ka sahayog lena hi padata tha aur ye log doosari jatiyon ke hote the aur apane hi varg ke hiton ke prati jagaruk the.

manasabadaron ki vriddhi

is prakar utpadan to dhire-dhire badha parantu shasak varg ki ashaen tatha unaki mangen tezi se badhati geen. is prakar manasabadaron ki snkhya 1605 men jahangir ke samrat banane ke samay men 2,069 se badhakar shahajahan ke shasanakal 1637 men 8,000 tatha aurngazeb ke shasanakal men 11,456 ho gee. saradaron ki snkhya is prakar panch guni ho gee, lekin samrajy ki ay is anupat men nahin badhi. isake bavajood shahajahan ke shasanakal men ek bhavy kal ki shurooat huee. mugal saradaron ke vetan vishv men sabase oonche the hi. is kal men unaki amiri aur vilasita aur bhi adhik badh gee. yadyapi kee saradar vanijy tatha vyapar men paroksh roop se athava aise vyapariyon ke madhyam se jo unake lie kary karate the, hissa lete the phir bhi vanijy tatha vyapar se hone vali ay zamin se hone vali ay ka poorak matr thi. is karan ve kisanon tatha zamindaron ko choosakar zamin se hone vali ay ko hi badhane men dilachaspi rakhate the.

shaktishali zamindar

zamindaron ki snkhya tatha unake rahan-sahan ke star ke bare men adhik janakari prapt nahin hai. zamindaron ke prati mugal nitiyan alag-alag thin. ek or to yah mana jata tha ki rajy ki antarik sthirata ke lie sabase bada khatara zamindar hi hain. doosari or sthaniy prashasan ko chalane ke lie bade paimane par inaki niyukti hoti thi. inamen se kiyon- rajapooton, marathon tatha any ko manasab pradan kiye jate the aur samrajy ke adhar par vistar ke lie rajanitik padon par inaki niyukti ki jati thi. is prakriya men zamindaron ka varg bahut shaktishali ho gaya tha aur vah ab saradaron ki gair-qanooni mangon ko manane ke lie bilkul taiyar nahin tha. n hi kisanon par lagan ka bojh badhana asan tha. visheshakar jabaki upajaoo bhoomi badi matra men upalabdh thi. zamindaron tatha ganv ke mukhiyon men adhik khetiharon ko apane yahan kam karane ke lie lane ki hod lagi rahati thi. aise kisan jo rozagar ki khoj men ek ganv se doosare ganv jate rahate the, unhen 'pahi' athava 'oopari' kaha jata tha. madhyayugin gramin samaj ke ye ek pramukh ang the. lekin inake bhavishy par adhik dhyan nahin diya gaya.

kisanon tatha saradaron ka asntosh

is prakar zamindar zamin se adhik se adhik kamana chahate the aur kee bar aise tariqe apanate the, jo rajy ke dvara svikrit nahin the. is karan madhyayugin gramin samaj ke sabhi antarik sngharsh ubharakar samane a gaye. kuchh kshetron men kisanon ke bich gambhir asntosh phaila tatha any kshetron men zamindaron ke netritv men vidroh tak ho gaye. kee avasaron par in zamindaron ne svatntr kshetriy rajy sthapit karane ke prayas bhi kie. prashasanik star par bhi saradaron ke bich vyapak asntosh tatha bhedabhav phaila aur isase zagiradari vyavastha men gnmbhir snkat paida ho gaya. adhikatar saradaron ka yah prayas rahata tha ki ve adhik amadani vali zagir hathiya len aur is karan mugal prashasan vyavastha men bhrashtachar badhata gaya. aurngazeb ne 'khalisa' arthat rajakiy vyay ke lie surakshit bhoomi, ki sima ko badhakar is snkat ki aur gnmbhir kar diya. usane dinon tak badhaten prashasanik kharche tatha yuddhon ke kharche, jo usake shasanakal men barabar hote rahe, ke lie khalisa ko badhaya tha.

saradaron ki vyavastha

mugalon dvara vikasit saradaron ki vyavastha mugal kal ki sabase pramukh visheshata thi. jatibhed ke adhar par mugal yogy se yogy vyaktiyon ko apani seva men akarshit karane men saphal rahe the. inamen se desh ke vibhinn kshetron ke log the aur kuchh videshi bhi the. vyaktigat adhar par bane mugalon ke prashasanik dhanche ke antargat saradaron ne badi saphalata se kam kiya aur desh ko kafi had tak suraksha tatha shanti pradan ki. saradaron ki yah bhoomika samrat ke prati matr seva bhav thi aur ye adhikatar apane hi hiton ka dhyan rakhate the. kuchh itihasakaron ka yah tark galat hai ki saradaron ka sngathan aurngazeb ki mrityu ke bad isalie kamazor pad gaya, kyonki madhy eshiya se kushal logon ka ana ruk gaya. vastav men aurngazeb ke sinhasanaroodh hone tak adhikatar mugal saradar aise vyakti the, jinaka janm bharat men hua tha. aisa vishvas karane ka koee karan nahin hai ki inaki yogyata ka hras bharatiy jalavayu ke karan hua. yah tark angrez itihasakaron ne jatibhed ke adhar par isalie diya hai, jisase ve thnde deshon ke logon dvara bharat ke adhipaty ko uchit thahara saken. lekin ye tark ab nahin svikar kie ja sakate.

prashasanik vyavastha ka kamazor hona

yah bhi kaha gaya hai ki kyonki saradaron ka varg aise logon ka bana tha, jisamen kee jatiyon ke log sammilit the, isalie unamen koee rashtriy chetana nahin thi aur unhonne rashtravirodhi kary bhi kie. lekin rashtriyata ki bhavana ka us arth men jise ham aj samajhate hain, madhyayug men koee astitv nahin tha. isake bavajood namak halali ki bhavana itani prabhavashali thi ki isi ke karan saradar mugal vnsh ke prati vafadar bane rahe aur unamen ek prakar se deshabhakti jivit rahi. videshon se ane vale saradaron ka apane svadesh se koee vishesh sampark nahin rahata tha aur unaka sanskritik drishtikon mugal bharatiy hi ho jata tha. mugalon ne prashasanik vyavastha ke har star par savadhani se aise tariqe lagoo kie, jinase vibhinn jati athava dharm ke logon ke bich aisa sntulan bana rahe, taki mahatvakankshi saradaron athava unake dalon par prabhavashali niyntran rakha ja sake. saradar svadhinata ki kalpana tabhi karane lage, jab aurngazeb ke uttaradhikariyon ne zagiradari vyavastha men utpann snkat ke karan prashasanik vyavastha ko dhire-dhire kamazor hone diya. is prakar mugalon ka shighrata se vighatan mugal prashasanik vyavastha ki kamazori ka karan nahin balki parinam tha. yah avashy kaha ja sakata hai ki mugal prashasan bahut had tak kendrit tha aur isaki saphalata atatah samrat ki yogyata par nirbhar karati thi. yogy samraton ke abhav men vaziron ne unaka sthan lene ki koshish ki, par ve asaphal rahe. is prakar is vyavastha ke patan tatha vyaktigat asaphalata ki ek doosare par pratikriya huee.

aurngazeb ki galatiyan

rajanitik kshetr men aurngazeb ne kee gnmbhir galatiyan ki. kis prakar vah marathon ke andolan ke sahi svaroop ko nahin samajh saka aur shivaji ko mitr banane ki jayasinh ki salah anadekhi kar di. shambhaji ki hatya usaki ek aur badi galati thi. isake bad marathon ka aisa koee prabhavashali neta nahin bacha, jisase aurngazeb batachit ya samajhauta kar sakata. use vishvas tha ki bijapur aur golakunda ko apane qabze men karane ke bad marathe usase daya ki bhikh mangenge aur usaki sharton ko svikar karane ke alava unake pas aur koee chara nahin rah jayega. aurngazeb marathon ke 'svarajy' ko chhota karana aur unase nishtha ka vachan chahata tha. jab aurngazeb ne apani galati mahasoos ki aur marathon se batachit shuroo ki tab 'chauth' tatha 'saradeshamukhi' ki mang ade a gee. bahut had tak is badha ko bhi door kiya gaya. 1703 men marathon aur aurngazeb ke bich samajhauta qarib-qarib ho hi gaya tha, lekin aurngazeb, shahoo tatha maratha saradaron ke prati ant tak avishvasi bana raha.

marathon ke prati avishvas ki bhavana

is tarah aurngazeb marathon ki samasya ka samadhan dhoondhane men asaphal raha aur ant tak isaka shikar bana raha. usane kee maratha saradaron ko manasab pradan kie. yahan tak ki uchchatam star par rajapoot saradaron ki apeksha maratha saradaron ke pas adhik manasab the. lekin isake bavajood maratha saradaron par poori tarah vishvas nahin kiya gaya. rajapooton ki tarah unhen zimmedari athava vishvas ka koee pad nahin saunpa gaya. is prakar marathe mugal rajanitik vyavastha ke abhinn ang kabhi nahin ban sake. yadi aurngazeb shivaji, shnbhaji ya shahoo se bhi koee rajanitik samajhauta kar leta to bahut bada farq padata.

dakkani rajyon ka asngathan

marathon ke khilaf dakkani rajyon ko sngathit karane ki asaphalata ke lie aurngazeb ki alochana ki jati hai. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki unhen jitakar aurngazeb ne apane samrajy ko itana bada kar liya tha ki yah apane hi bhar ke karan dhah gaya. shahajahan ke hi kal men 1636 ki sndhi bhng hone ke bad aurngazeb tatha dakkani rajyon ke bich gadhi ekata asnmbhav thi. samrat banane ke bad aurngazeb dakkan men poorn vijay ki niti apanane se hichakicha raha tha. usane dakkani rajyon ki vijay ka nirnay jab tak snmbhav tha, tala. marathon ki badhati shakti, golakunda ke madanna tatha akhanna dvara shivaji ko die ge samarthan aur is bhay se ki bijapur par shivaji tatha golakunda, jis par marathon ka prabhav tha, ka prabhutv qayam ho jaega, aurngazeb dakkan men abhiyan chalane par vivash ho gaya tha. bad men rajakumar akabar ko panah dekar shambhaji ne aurngazeb ko ek prakar se badi chunauti di thi. aurngazeb ne shighr hi mahasoos kiya ki bijapur tatha golakunda ko qabze men kiye bina marathon se takkar lena asan nahin hai.

prashasanik sevaon ka tootana

golakunda, bijapur tatha karnatak men mugal prashasan ke vistar se mugal prashasanik seva tootane lagi thi. mugalon ke sampark sadhan bhi marathon ke hamalon ke lie khule the. yahan tak ki is kshetr ke mugal saradaron ke lie apani zagiron se nirdharit lagan ugahana bhi asnmbhav ho gaya aur kee bar unhen marathon ke sath gupt sndhiyan karani padi. isake parinamasvaroop marathon ki shakti aur pratishtha badhi aur udhar samrajy ki pratishtha ko dhakka pahuncha. snmbhatah aurngazeb yadi apane sabase bade ladake shahalam ki yah bat man leta ki bijapur tatha golakunda ke sath samajhauta kiya jana chahie aur unake kuchh kshetron ko hi samrajy men milaya jana chahie to aurngazeb ke lie bahut labhadayak hota. shahalam is paksh men bhi tha ki bahut door hone ke karan karnatak par prabhavashali niyntran rakhana ansambhav hai isalie use vahin ke adhikariyon ke hathon men chhod diya jana chahie.

galat nitiyan

mugal samrajy ke patan ke dakkani tatha any yuddhon aur uttar bharat se bahut kam samay ke lie aurngazeb ka gairahazir hona bhi bahut mahattvapoorn karan the. aurngazeb ne kee galat nitiyan apanaee thin aur usamen kee vyaktigat kamazoriyan bhi thin jaise- vah atyadhik sndehi tatha snkirn vicharon ka tha. lekin isake bavajood mugal samrajy bahut shaktishali tha tatha usaki sainik aur prashasanik vyavastha thos thi. mugal sena dakkan ke pahadi kshetron men maratha chhapamaron ke hamalon ka samana karane men bhale hi asaphal rahi ho aur marathon ke qilon par mushkil se qabza kar saki ho aur qabza kar lene ke bad unhen adhik kal tak apane adhin rakhane men asaphal bhi rahi ho, lekin isamen koee sndeh nahin ki uttari bharat ke maidanon tatha karnatak ke vistrit pathar men mugal topakhana abhi bhi sabase adhik prabhavashali tha. aurngazeb ki mrityu ke chalis sal bad bhi jab mugal topakhane ki shakti aur kshamata ghat gee, marathe khule maidan men usaka muqabala nahin kar sakate the. lambe samay tak arajakata, yuddh tatha marathon ke hamalon se dakkan ki abadi bhale hi kam huee ho aur vahan ka vyapar, udyog tatha krishi jadabhoot ho gaya ho, parantu isamen sndeh nahin ki samrajy ke mukhy bhag uttari bharat men, jo arthik aur rajanitik drishti se adhik mahattvapoorn tha, mugal prashasan atyant prabhavashali bana hua tha. yahan tak ki zilon ke star par mugal prashasan itana karagar siddh hua ki isake kee tatv british prashasan men sammilit kie ge. sainik parajayon aur aurngazeb ki galatiyo ke bavajood rajanitik taur par logon ke dilon-dimag par mugal vnsh ka prabhav chhaya raha.

maravad ka vibhajan

jahan tak rajapooton ka saval hai, maravad se mugalon ka sngharsh isalie arambh nahin hua tha ki aurngazeb ne is bat ka prayas kiya ki hinduon ka koee prabhavashali neta n rahe. balki isalie ki nasamajhi ke karan usane do mukhy pratidvandviyon ke bich maravad ke rajy ko vibhajit kar donon ki dushmani mol le li. isake alava is qadam se mevad ka shasak bhi usase kshubdh ho gaya, kyonki vah mugal hastakshep ko bahut bada khatara samajhata tha. isake bad maravad tatha mevad ke sath jo lamba sngharsh chala, usase mugal samrajy ki pratishtha ko gahara dhakka pahuncha. yah bat aur hai ki 1681 ke bad is sngharsh ka koee vishesh samarik mahatv nahin raha. is bat men sndeh hai ki 1681 tatha 1706 ke bich yadi dakkan men adhik snkhya men rathaur rajapoot niyukt kiye jate to marathon se hone vale sngharsh men koee vishesh antar padata. jo bhi ho, pahale ki tarah rajapoot adhik manasab aur apane kshetron ki vapasi ki mang karate rahe. in mangon ko aurngazeb ki mrityu ke chhah sal ke andar-andar svikar kar liya gaya aur isake sath hi mugal samrajy ke lie rajapooton ki samasya samapt ho gee. isake bad samrajy ke vighatan men unhonne n to koee bhoomika nibhaee aur n hi ve usake patan ki prakriya ko rok sake.

dharmik niti

aurngazeb ki dharmik niti bhi tatkalik samajik, arthik tatha rajanitik pariprekshy men dekhi jani chahie. aurngazeb svabhav se bada kattar tha aur islam ke qanoon ke antargat hi kam karana chahata tha. lekin is qanoon ka vikas bharat ke bahar bilkul vibhinn paristhitiyon men hua tha aur yah asha nahin ki ja sakati thi ki yah bharat men bhi karagar siddh hoga. aurngazeb ne kee avasaron par apani gair musalaman praja ki bhavanaon ko samajhane se inkar kar diya. mndiron ke prati apanaee gee usaki niti aur islam ke qanoon ke adhar par jaziya ko dubara lagoo karake n to vah musalamanon ko apane paksh men kar saka aur n hi islam ke qanoon par adharit rajy ke prati unaki nishtha prapt kar saka. doosari or is niti ke karan hindoo bhi usake khilaf ho gaye aur aise vargon ke hath mazaboot ho gaye jo rajanitik tatha any karanon se mugal samrajy ke khilaf the. vastav men is sari prakriya men apane ap men saval dharm ka nahin tha. aurngazeb ki mrityu ke chhah varshon ke andar jaziya ko samapt kar diya gaya tatha naye mndiron ke nirman par lagi pabndi ko utha liya gaya lekin isase bhi samrajy ke patan aur vighatan ki prakriya par koee asar nahin pada.

nishkarsh

ant men nishkarsh yahi nikalata hai ki mugal samrajy ka patan aur vighatan arthik, samajik, rajanitik tatha sngathanatmak karanon se hua. akabar ki nitiyon se vighatan ke tatvon par kuchh samay tak prabhavashali niyntran rakha ja saka, lekin samaj vyavastha men koee moolabhoot parivartan karana usake bhi bas ke bahar ki bat thi. jab tak aurngazeb ne sinhasan snmbhala, vighatan ki samajik aur arthik shaktiyan ubhar kar aur shaktishali ho geen thin. is vyavastha men moolabhoot parivartan karane ke lie n to aurngazeb men rajanitik yogyata aur n hi dooradarshita thi. vah aisi nitiyon ke palan men bhi asamarth raha, jinase paraspar virodhi tatvon par kuchh samay ke lie rok lagaee ja sakati. is prakar aurngazeb n keval paristhitiyon ka shikar tha, balki usane svayn aisi paristhitiyan paida karane men yog diya jinaka vah svayn shikar bana.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


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