केसर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kesar
Saffron crocus morphology.jpg
jagat padap
adhikul krokoediyei
kul irideshiyeee
jati krokas
prajati si. saitivas
dvipad nam krokas saitivas

kesar ka vanaspatik nam krokas saitaivas (Crocus sativus) hai. angrezi men ise saipharan (saffron) nam se jana jata hai. yah iridesi (Iridaceae) kul ka kshudr vanaspati hai jisaka mool sthan dakshin yoorop hai. 'airis' parivar ka yah sadasy lagabhag 80 prajatiyon men vishv ke vibhinn bhoo-bhagon men paya jata hai. vishv men kesar ugane vale pramukh desh hain - phrans, spen, bharat, eeran, itali, gris, jarmani, japan, roos, astriya, turkistan, chin, pakistan ke kveta evn svitazaralaind. aj sabase adhik kesar ugane ka shrey spen ko jata hai, isake bad eeran ko. kul utpadan ka 80% in donon deshon men ugaya ja raha hai, jo lagabhag 300 tan prativarsh hai.

bharat men kesar

kesar vishv ka sabase kimati paudha hai. kesar ki kheti bharat men jammoo ke kishtavad tatha jannat-e-kashmir ke pamapur (pnpor) ke simit kshetron men adhik ki jati hai. kesar yahan ke logon ke lie varadan hai. kyonki kesar ke phoolon se nikala jata sone jaisa kimati kesar jisaki kimat bazar men tin se sadhe tin lakh rupaye kilo hai. parntu kuchh rajanitik karanon se aj usaki kheti buri tarah prabhavit hai. yahan ki kesar halki, patali, lal rng vali, kamal ki tarah sundar gndhayukt hoti hai. asali kesar bahut mahngi hoti hai. kashmiri mongara sarvottam mani gee hai. ek samay tha jab kashmir ka kesar vishv bazar men shreshthatam mana jata tha. uttar pradesh ke chaubatiya zile men bhi kesar ugane ke prayas chal rahe hain. videshon men bhi isaki paidavar bahut hoti hai aur bharat men isaki ayat hoti hai.

jammoo-kashmir ki rajadhani shrinagar se sirph 20 kilomitar ki doori par ek chhote shahar pnpor ke kheton men sharad ritu ke ate hi khushaboodar aur kimati jadi-booti ‘kesar’ ki bahar a jati hai. varsh ke adhikatar samay ye khet bnjar rahate hain kyonki ‘kesar’ ke knd sookhi zamin ke bhitar panap rahe hote hain, lekin barf se dhaki chotiyon se ghire bhoori mitti ke maidanon men sharad ritu ke alasaye soory ki roshani men sharad ritu ke ant tak ye khet baingani rng ke phoolon se saj jate hain. aur is rng ki khushaboo sare vatavaran men basi rahati hai. in kesar ke baingani rng ke phoolon ko haule-haule chunate hue kashmiri log inhen savadhani se tod kar apane thailon men ikttha karate hain. kesar ki sirph 450 gram matra banane ke lie qarib 75 hazar phool lagate hain.

kesar ka paudha

  • 'kesar' ko ugane ke lie samudratal se lagabhag 2000 mitar ooncha pahadi kshetr evn shitoshn sookhi jalavayu ki avashyakata hoti hai. paudhe ke lie domat mitti upayukt rahata hai. yah paudha kali nikalane se pahale varsha evn himapat donon bardasht kar leta hai, lekin kaliyon ke nikalane ke bad aisa hone par poori phasal chaupat ho jati hai. madhy evn pashchimi eshiya ke sthaniy paudhe kesar ko knd (balb) dvara ugaya jata hai.
  • kesar ka paudha sugndh denevala bahuvarshiy hota hai aur kshup 15 se 25 semi (adha gaj) ooncha, parntu kandahin hota hai. isamen ghas ki tarah lnbe, patale v nokadar patte nikalate hain. jo moolobhdav (radical), snkari, lnbi aur nalidar hoti hain. inake bich se pushpadnd (scapre) nikalata hai, jis par nilalohit varn ke ekaki athava ekadhik pushp hote hain. aprajayi hone ki vajah se isamen bij nahin pae jate hain. pyaj tuly kesar ke knd / gutikaen (bulb) prati varsh agast-sitnbar mah men boe jate hain, jo do-tin mahine bad arthath navnbar-disnbar tak isake patr tatha pushp sath nikalate hain. isake pushp ki shushk kukshiyon (stigma) ko kesar, kunkum, japharan athava saiphran (saffron) kahate hain. isamen akele ya 2 se 3 ki snkhya men phool nikalate hain. isake phoolon ka rng baingani, nila evn saphed hota hai. ye phool kipanuma akar ke hote hain. inake bhitar lal ya narngi rng ke tin mada bhag pae jate hain. is mada bhag ko vartika (tantu) evn vartikagr kahate hain. yahi kesar kahalata hai. pratyek phool men keval tin kesar hi pae jate hain. lal-narngi rng ke ag ki tarah damakate hue kesar ko snskrit men 'agnishakha' nam se bhi jana jata hai.
kesar
kesar ki kheti
kesar ki kheti
kesar ka paudha
kesar ka paudha
kesar ka phool
kesar ka phool
kesar
kesar
  • in phoolon men pnkhudi़yan tin-tin ke do chakron men aur tin pile rng ke punkeshar hote hain. kukshivrint (style) narng raktavarn ke, akhnd athava khndit aur gadakar hote hain. inake oopar tin kukshiyan, lagabhag ek inch lnbi, gahare, lal athava lalimayukt halke bhoore rng ki hoti hain, jinake kinare dntur ya lomash hote hain.
  • in phoolon ki itani tez khushaboo hoti hai ki asapas ka kshetr mahak uthata hai. kesar ki gndh tikshn, parntu lakshanik, aur svad kinchith katu, parntu ruchikar, hota hai. isake bij ayatakar, tin konon vale hote hain jinamen se golakar mingi nikalati hai.
  • 'kesar ko nikalane ke lie pahale phoolon ko chunakar kisi chhayadar sthan men bichha dete hain. sookh jane par phoolon se mada ang yani kesar ko alag kar lete hain. rng evn akar ke anusar inhen - magara, lachchhi, guchchhi adi shreniyon men vargikat karate hain. 150000 phoolon se lagabhag 1 kilo sookha kesar prapt hota hai.

vaigyanikon ke anusar

  • 'kesar' khane men kadava hota hai, lekin khushaboo ke karan vibhinn vynjanon evn pakavanon men dala jata hai. isaka upayog makkhan adi khady dravyon men varn evn svad lane ke liye kiya jata hain. garm pani men dalane par yah gahara pila rng deta hai. yah rng kairetinaauyad varnak ki vajah se hota hai. yah ghulanashil hota hai, sath hi atynt pila bhi. pramukh varnako men kairotin, laikopin, jiyajainthin, krosin, pikekrosin adi pae jate hain. isamen eestar kiton evn vashpashil sugndh tel bhi kuchh matra men milate hain. any rasayanik yaugikon men tarapin eldihaid evn tarapin elkohal bhi pae jate hain. in rasayanik evn karbanik yaugikon ki upasthiti kesar ko anamol aushadhi banati hai.
  • kesar ki rasayanik banavat ka vishleshan karane par pata chala hain ki isamen tel 1.37 pratishat, ardrata 12 pratishat, pikrosin namak tikt dravy, sharkara, mom, pratin, bhasm aur tin rng dravy paen jate hain. anek khady padartho men kesar ka upayog rnjan padarth ke roop men kiya jata hai.

asali kesar ki pahachan

  • asali kesar pani men poori tarah ghul jati hai. kesar ko pani men bhigokar kapade par ragadane se yadi pila kesariya rng nikale to use asali kesar samajhana chahie aur yadi pahale lal rng nikale v bad men pila pade to nakali kesar samajhana chahie.

ayurved ke anusar

  • kesar ka upayog ayurvedik nuskhon men, khady vynjanon men aur dev pooja adi men to kesar ka upayog hota hi tha par ab pan masalon aur gutakon men bhi isaka upayog hone laga hai. kesar bahut hi upayogi gunon se yukt hoti hai. yah kaph nashak, man ko prasann karane vali, mastishk ko bal dene vali, hriday aur rakt ke lie hitakari, tatha khady padarth aur pey (jaise doodh) ko rngin aur sugandhit karane vali hoti hai.
  • chikitsa men yah ushnaviry, artavajanak, vat-kaph-nashak aur vedanasthapak mana gaya hai. at: piditartav, sardi jukam tatha shir:shooladi men prayukt hota hai. yah uttejak, vajikarak, yaunashakti banae rakhane vali, kamottejak, tridosh nashak, akshepahar, vatashool shamak, dipak, pachak, ruchikar, masik dharm saf lane vali, garbhashay v yoni snkochan, tvacha ka rng ujjval karane vali, raktashodhak, dhatu paushtik, pradar aur nimn raktachap ko thik karane vali, kaph nashak, man ko prasann karane vali, vatanadiyon ke lie shamak, baly, vrishy, mootral, stan (doodh) varddhak, mastishk ko bal dene vali, hriday aur rakt ke lie hitakari, tatha khady padarth aur pey (jaise doodh) ko rngin aur sugandhit karane vali hoti hai.
  • ayurvedon ke anusar kesar uttejak hoti hai aur kamashakti ko badhati hai. yah mootrashay, tilli, yakrit (livar), mastishk v netron ki takaliphon men bhi labhakari hoti hai. pradah ko door karane ka gun bhi isamen paya jata hai.
kesar
  • kesar bukhar ki prarimbhak avastha, dane, chechak, chikan poks v antrajvar ko bahar nikalata hai lekin dane nikal ane par visheshat: bukhar adi pitt ke lakshanon men kesar ka upayog savadhani se karana chahie.
  • isaka upayog yoonani aur ayurvedik davaeeyon men isaka bahutayat men istemal kiya jata hai. mahilaon ke kashtartav ko door karane ke lie, 2-2 ratti kesar doodh men gholakar din men tin bar dena gunakari hota hai.
  • kesar ki pesari garbhashay ki takaliph door karane men bhi prayukt ki jati hai. lyookoriya evn histiriya ki sthiti men grahan karane se pidit mahila ko fayada pahunchata hai.
  • kisi bhi navajat shishu ke janm se poorv usaki mata ko anivary roop se pratidin doodh men kesar gholakar pine ko diya jata hai. aisi manyata hai ki kesar ka doodh pine se shishu ka rng gora hota hai parntu isake kee ayurvedik gunon ki vajah se yah parnpara prachin kal se hi chali a rahi hai. garbhavati stri aur usake bachche ko in sabhi bimariyon ke prabhav se bachane ke lie unhen kesar ka sevan karaya jata hai. sath hi kesar samany mahilaon ke lie bhi bahupayogi hai. isase striyon men hone vali aniyamit masik srav evn is dauran hone vale dard men labh milata hai. yadi kisi stri ke garbhashay ki soojan hai to usake lie kesar ka sevan fayademnd rahata hai.
  • purushon men viry shakti badhane hetu shahad, badam aur kesar lene se fayada hota hai.
  • udar snbndhit anek pareshaniyon, jaise apach, pet men dard, vayu vikar adi men kesar upayogi hai.
  • chot lagane par ya tvacha ke jhulas jane par kesar ka lep lagane se aram milata hai.
  • tvacha rog hone par kharonch aur jakhmon par kesar lagane se jakhm jaldi bharate hain.
  • chandan ko kesar ke sath ghisakar isaka lep mathe par lagane se, sir, netr aur mastishk ko shitalata, shanti aur oorja milati hai, nak se rakt girana band ho jata hai aur sir dard door hota hai.
  • agar sardi lag gee ho to ratri men ek gilas doodh men ek chutaki kesar aur ek chammach shahad dalakar yadi mariz ko pilaya jaye to use achchhi nind ati hai.
  • kesar bachchon ke shit rogon ki ramaban aushadhi hai. bachchon ko sardi, jukam, bukhar hone par kesar ki ek pnkhudi pani men ghontakar isaka lep chhati pith aur gale par karane se aram hota hai.
  • shishu ko sardi ho to kesar ki 1-2 pnkhudi 2-4 boond doodh ke sath achchhi tarah ghonten, taki kesar doodh men ghul-mil jae. ise ek chammach doodh men milakar subah-sham pilaen.
  • balyakal men shishuon ko agar sardi jakad le aur nak bnd ho jaye to man ke doodh men kesar milakar usake mathe aur nak par mala jaye to sardi ka prakop kam hota hai aur use aram milata hai.
  • mathe, nak, chhati v pith par lagane ke lie kesar jayaphal v laung ka lep (pani men) banaen aur rat ko sote samay lep karen.
  • gnje logon ke liye to yah snjivani booti ki tarah karagar hai. jinake bal bich se ud jate hain, unhen thodi si mulahathi ko doodh men pis lena chahie. tatpashchath usamen chutaki bhar kesar dal kar usaka pest banakar sote samay sir men lagane se gnjepan ki samasya door hoti hai.
  • roosi ki samasya ho ya phir bal jhad rahe hon, aisi sthiti men bhi uparokt pharmoola apanana chahie.
  • yah sabhi 'kesar' ke ghareloo upachar evn upayog hain, lekin kisi vaidy ke paramarsh dvara isaka vishesh labh uthaya ja sakata hai. itane sare manavopayogi gunon ko snjoe 'kesar' sach men ek anamol vanaspati evn adbhut aushadhi hai.
  • savadhani choonki yah ushnatavardhak hai, at: kam se kam sevan karana chahiye. garbhavati mahilaen adhik matra men kesar ka sevan n kare, anyatha garbhapat ho jane ki ashnka rahati hai.
vibhinn bhashaon men kesar ke nam
bhasha nam
hindi keshar, kesar
angrezi saiphram
snskrit kunkubh, ghusrin, rakt kashmir
marathi keshar
gujarati keshar
bngali kukam
tailagi kukum puvu
pharasi karakimas
arabi japharan
laitin krokas setaivas


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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