मेवाड़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mevad vishay soochi
mevad
kunbhalagadh durg
vivaran mevad rajasthan ke dakshin madhy men sthit ek prasiddh riyasat thi. isamen adhunik bharat ke udayapur, bhilavada, rajasamnd tatha chittaudagadh zile sammilit the.
rajy rajasthan
zila udayapur zila
snbndhit lekh banas nadi, kunbhalagadh, chittaud, haldighati, rana sanga, maharana pratap, chetak, bhamashah
bhaugolik sthiti uttari akshansh 25° 58' se 49° 12' tak tatha poorvi deshantar 45° 51' 30' se 73° 7' tak
any janakari saikadon salon tak yahan rajapooton ka shasan raha. gahalaut tatha sisodiya vnsh ke rajaon ne 1200 sal tak mevad par raj kiya tha.

mevad rajasthan ke dakshin madhy men sthit ek prasiddh riyasat thi. ise udayapur rajy ke nam se bhi jana jata tha. isamen adhunik bharat ke udayapur, bhilavada, rajasamnd tatha chittaudagadh zile sammilit the. saikadon salon tak yahan rajapooton ka shasan raha. gahalaut tatha sisodiya vnsh ke rajaon ne 1200 sal tak mevad par raj kiya tha.

itihas

rajasthan ka mevad rajy parakrami gahalauton ki bhoomi raha hai, jinaka apana ek itihas hai. inake riti-rivaj tatha itihas ka yah svarnim khazana apani matribhoomi, dharm tatha snskriti v raksha ke lie kiye gaye gahalauton ke parakram ki yad dilata hai. svabhavik roop se yah is dharati ki khas visheshataon, logon ki jivan paddhati tatha unake arthik tatha samajik dasha se pratyaksh v apratyaksh roop se prabhavit hota raha hai. shakti v samriddhi ke prarnbhik dinon men mevad simaen uttar-poorv ke taraf bayana, dakshin men revaknth tatha maniknth, pashchim men palanapur tatha dakshin-pashchim men malava ko chhooti thi. khilaji vnsh ke alauddin khilaji ne 1303 ee. men mevad ke gahalaut shasak ratan sinh ko parajit karake ise dilli saltanat men mila liya tha.
rana ka mahal, mevad (udayapur)
gahalaut vnsh ki ek any shakha 'sisodiya vnsh' ke hammiradev ne muhammad tugalak ke samay men chittaud ko jit kar poore mevad ko svatntr kara liya. 1378 ee. men hammiradev ki mrityu ke bad usaka putr kshetrasinh (1378-1405 ee.) mevad ki gaddi par baitha. kshetrasinh ke bad usaka putr lakkhasinh 1405 ee. men sinhasan par baitha. lakkhasinh ki mrityu ke bad 1418 ee. men isaka putr mokal raja hua. mokal ne kaviraj bani vilas aur yogeshvar namak vidvanon ko ashray apane rajy men ashray pradan kiya tha. usake shasan kal men mana, phanna aur vishal namak prasiddh shilpakar ashray paye huye the. mokal ne anek mndiron ka jirnoddhar karaya tatha ekaling mndir ke charon taraf parakote ka bhi nirman karaya. gujarat shasak ke viruddh kiye gaye ek abhiyan ke samay usaki hatya kar di gayi. 1431 ee. men mokal ki mrityu ke bad rana kumbha mevad ke raj sinhasan par baitha. rana kumbha tatha rana sanga ke samay rajy ki shakti utkarsh par thi, lekin lagatar hote rahe bahari akramanon ke karan rajy vistar men kshetr ki sima badalati rahi. ambaji nam ke ek maratha saradar ne akele hi mevad se qarib do karod rupaye vasoole the.

bhaugolik prishthabhoomi

mevad, rajapootana ke dakshin bhag men sthit hai. yah uttari akshansh 25° 58' se 49° 12' tak tatha poorvi deshantar 45° 51' 30' se 73° 7' tak phaila hua hai. lnbaee men yah uttar se dakshin tak 147.6 mil tatha chaudaee men poorv se pashchim tak 163.04 mil tha. is prakar mevad ka kul vistar 12,691 varg mil tha. isake uttar men ajamer-mevad pradesh tatha shahapura rajy the, pashchim men sirohi, dakshin-pashchim men idar, dakshin men dungarapur, bansavada ka kuchh hissa tatha pratapagadh ke rajy the. poorv men nimach v ninbaheda ke zile tatha boondi aur kota rajy sthit the. mevad rajy akar men ayatakar hai. qarib-qarib adhikansh kshetr aravali parvat shrinkhalaon se achchhadit hai, jisake parvat prishth tivr tatha pathar uthale hain. bairat, dudheshvar, kamalighat adi is kshetr ki pramukh shrinkhalaen hain tatha jagara, ranakapur, gogunda, bomat, girava tatha magara adi patharon ke udaharan hain. mevad ki sima rekha ka kary khadi nadi karati rahi, jisaka pradurbhav pashchimi parvat shrinkhalaon se hua hai. mevad ajamer-maravad ke bich ek prakritik sima rekha ka kary karata hai. vibhinn bandh tatha pokhariyan apani prakritik banavat ke karan ise suraksha pradan karati hain. mevad ke deshabhakt v samarpit yoddha apani dharati ke lie ladane tatha apana adhikar prapt karane ke satath prayas ke lie ek adarsh udaharan ke roop men sadiyon tak yad kiye jate rahenge.

nadiyan

mevad ki sarvadhik mahattvapoorn tatha pramukh banas nadi hai, jisaka udgam sthal aravali parvatamala men kunbhalagadh ke nikat hai. banas nadi yahan se pravahit hoti huee maidani bhag men pahunchati hai aur ant men mandalagadh, jo udayapur ke uttar-poorv men lagabhag 100 mil (lagabhag 160 ki.mi.) ki doori par sthit hai, ke nikat isamen bedach nadi akar mil jati hai. is sthan ko 'triveni tirth' mana jata tha. ant men yah ajamer tatha jayapur riyasat ki sima men pahunch jati hai aur chnbal nadi men ja milati hai. banas nadi ke atirikt mevad ki any nadiyon men khari, manasi, kothari, bedach, jakam tatha som is pradesh ki mukhy nadiyan hain.

chitrakala

17vin aur 18vin shatabdi men mevad ki chitrakala bharatiy laghu chitrakala ki mahattvapoorn shailiyon men se ek hai. yah ek rajasthani shaili hai, jo hindoo riyasat mevad (rajasthan) men vikasit huee. sade chatakile rng aur sidha bhavanatmak akarshan is shaili ki visheshata hai. is shaili ki mool sthanon aur tithiyon sahit bahut-si kalakritiyan mili hain, jinase any rajasthani shailiyon ke muqabale mevad men chitrakala ke vikas ke bare men satik janakari milati hai. isake prachinatam udaharan rngamala (rag-raginiyon ke bhav) shrinkhala ke hain, jinhen rajy ki prachin rajadhani chanvad men 1605 men chitrit kiya gaya tha. 1680 tak kuchh bhinnataon ke sath yah shaili abhivyaktipoorn aur sashakt bani rahi, jisake bad is par mugal prabhav havi hone laga. sahibadin arnbhik kal ke kuchh pramukh chitrakaron men se ek the.

mevad men chitrankan ki apani ek vishisht parnpara rahi hai, jise yahan ke chitrakar pidhiyon se apanate rahe hain. 'chitare'[1] apane anubhavon evn suvidhaon ke anusar chitran ke kee ne tarike bhi khojate rahe. rochak tathy yah hai ki vahan ke kee sthaniy chitran kendron men ve parnparagat takanik aj bhi jivit hain. takanikon ka pradurbhav pashchimi bharatiy chitran paddhati ke anuroop hi tad patron ke chitran karyon men hi upalabdh hota hai.
mahal ke taranatal (sviming pool) men maharana bhim sinh apane sathiyon ke sath
yashodhara dvara ullekhit shadang ke sndarbh evn 'samaraichchakaha' evn 'kuvalayamala' kaha jaise grnthon men 'datthum' shabd ka prayog chitr ki samiksha hetu hua hai, jisase is kshetr ki utkrisht parnpara ke praman milate hain. ye chitr moolyankan ki kasauti ke roop men pramukh manak tatha samiksha ke adhar the. vikas ke is satath pravah men vishnu dharmottar puran, samarangan sootradhar evn chitr lakshan jaise any grnthon men varnit chitr karm ke siddhant ka bhi palan kiya gaya hai. parnparagat kala siddhanton ke anuroop hi shastriy vivechan men aye adarshavad evn yatharthavad ka nirvah hua hai. prarnbhik svaroopon ka ullekh athavin sadi men haribhadrasoori dvara rachit 'samaraichchikaha' evn 'kuvalayamalakaha' jaise prakrit grnthon se prapt kala sndarbhon men milata hai. in grnthon men vibhinn prakar ke rng-tulika evn chitraphalakon ka tatkalin sahityik sndarbhon ke anukool ullekh mevad men pramanit roop se chitran ke takaniki paksh ka kramik vikas yahin se manate hain. yahan ke chitravashesh 1229 ee. ke utkirn bhittichitron evn 1260 ee ke tal patron par milate hain.[2]

inhen bhi dekhen: mevad ki chitrakala (takaniki)

bhasha evn lipi

  • mevad kshetr ki mukhy bhasha mevadi hai, jo hindi ka hi ek vikrit rup hai. rajy ke dakshin tatha pashchimi hisson ke logon tatha bhilon ki bhasha vagadi hai, jo gujarati se milati-julati hai. yah yahan ke poorvi hisse men, khairad ki taraf, boli jati hai, jo mevadi, dhoondhadi tatha hadauti ka hi mishran hai.
  • mevad rajy ki prachalit lipi nagari hai. yah yahan ki rajakiy lipi bhi hua karati thi. yahan ki nagari lipi lakir khinchakar ghasit roop men likhi jati hai. rajakiy adalaton men ise kuchh ashuddh roop men likha jata tha tatha sath men farasi shabdon ka bhi istemal kiya jata tha. mahajan logon ke patr-vyavahar men prayukt nagari lipi men bhi shuddhata ka vichar kam hi rahata hai.

hindoo dharm ka vikas

mevad men vedanuyayiyon ko panch hisson men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai- shaiv, vaishnav, shakt, ganapaty aur saur (soory). in panchon men se shaiv, vaishnav v shakt adhik prachalit the. snnyasi, nath tatha bahut se brahman shaivon ke achary the, lekin inamen matabhed tha. vaishnavonramavat, nimavat, madhavachary tatha vishnusvami, in charon namon se char sampraday prasiddh hain. punah inamen kee prashakhaen ban gee thin, jaise- ramasanehi sampraday, dadoopnthi, kabirapnthi, narayanapnthi adi. inake achar-vichar men bhi kuchh-kuchh bhinnataen thin. kuchh advait siddhant to kuchh upasana paksh ka ashray lete the. mevad ke adhikansh raja shaiv rahe the. shakton ki yahan do shakhaen thi- ek dakshin v doosari vam. dakshin shakha ke anuyayi vedanukool pooja, pratishtha, jap, homadi karate hain tatha vam shakha tntrashasr ke anusar pashu hinsa aur mady-mansacharan karate hain. ye log charmakari rajaki aur chandali ko kashisevi, pragasevi; mans ko shuddhi, mady ko tirth, kanda (pyaj) ko vayaj aur lahasun ko shukadev kahate the. rajasvala v chandali ki pooja karate the. inaka mukhy siddhant is shlok ke anusar hota tha-

antah shakta bahishaiva: sabha madhye ch vaishnava:.
nana rup dhara: kaula vicharanti mahi tale ..

jain mndir, chittaudagadh

mevad men shaiv matavalambiyon ke lie pramukh sthan kailasapuri hai, jo ekalingeshvar ki puri ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. ekalingeshvar is desh ke raja mane jate the tatha maharana isake divan. shivamat ke adhikansh mathadhari, mahant v gonsaee nirakshar the. vaishnav matavalambiyon k lie char pramukh sthan hain- nathadvara, kankadauli, charabhuja aur roopanarayan. nathadvara aur kankadauli ke gusaeeyon ka vaishnav sampraday men vishesh mahatv hai. is mat ko 15vin sadi men vallabhachary ne prachalit kiya tha. unake sat putr the. saton ki gaddiyan v poojan ki moortiyan alag-alag thin. sabase badi moorti athavin nathadvara ke shri govarddhananath ki thi. saton bhaiyon men tiket gosvami bhi, nathadvara ke gosvami hi kahalate the tatha kankadauli vale unake chhote bhaiyon men se the.[3]

pramukh lok snskar

prarambh se hi mevad samajik evn dharmik roodhiyon men jakada raha tha. in roodhiyon ne kee samajik-dharmik snskaron ko janm diya tatha unhen samaj men ek sthan diya. yahan prachalit solah snskaron men se kuchh snskar the- vivah, mritak snskar, punsavan, simantonnayan, jatakarm, namakaran, annaprashan aur choodakaran. in snskaron men vivah tatha mritak snskar samajik jivan ke abhinn ang the. any snskaron ka samaj par utana prabhav nahin tha. parantu 19vin sadi ke uparant dhire-dhire snskaron ka vaidik svaroop lok snskaron men parivartit hone laga tha tatha lambe samay tak vyavahar men ate-ate dharmik prathaon ka roop grahan kar chuka tha.

jatigat vyavastha

mevad mahotsav

mevad ki jatigat samajik vyavastha paramparagat roop se oonch-nich, pad-pratishtha tatha vnshotpann jatiyon ke adhar par sngathit thi. samajik sngathan men pratyek jati ka mahatv us jati ki vnshotpatti tatha usake dvara angikrit vyavasay par nirbhar thi. jati-vyavastha ko sthayitv pradan karane tatha usake astitv ko akshun banaye rakhane men jati pnchayaton ki bhoomika mahattvapoorn thi. jatigat pnchayaten apani jatiyon ko vyavasthit roop se snchalit karate hue khan-pan, shadi-vivah evn riti-rivajon se sambandhit samay-samay par niyam banati thin aur apani jati ke logon se jatiy vibhagon evn maryadaon ka palan karavati thin. is kary men jati-pnchayaton ko rajakiy snrakshan bhi prapt tha. jab mevad ki alochyakalin samajik snrachana ke svaroop ka vishleshan karate hain to pate hain ki samajik rachana men varn-vyavastha keval bhavatmak roop men vidyaman rah gee thi. jati aur dharm hi is kal ke varg tatha vyavasay ko prabhavit kiye hue the. 18vin shatabdi tak ka mevadi samaj dharm ke adhar par do bhagon hindoo tatha muslim men vargikrit tha. hindoo samuday men vaidik, jain tatha atmavadi mane ja sakate hain, vahi muslim samuday men 'shiya' tatha 'sunni' do upabhag vidyaman the.

vyavasay karane vali jatiyan

mevad ki vastukala

mevad men kuchh jatiyan aisi bhi thin, jo poornat: krishi karane vali mani jati thin, jaise- jat mali, dangi dhakad aur janava. mevad ki janasnkhya men inaka pratinidhitv 17 pratishat tha. yadyapi ye sabhi jatiyan apane svajati niyamon se abaddh thin, phir bhi inamen oonch-nich ka bhedabhav nahin tha. samajik, arthik pad-star par sabhi kisan apane ko 'karasa' kahalane men garv ka anubhav karate the. vivah svajati men hi hota tha, kintu vivah ke niyam kathor nahin the. vidhava vivah, punarvivah tatha vivah vichchhed sugamatapoorvak 'rit' aur 'nata' ki paramparanusar ho jate the. isilie samaj men unhen 'natayati' jatiyan kaha jata tha.

striyon ki sthiti

pahale mevadi samaj men striyon ko adhik svatntrata prapt thi. isake sath hi nirnay adi ke kee mahattvapoorn adhikar bhi unhen prapt the. bad men badalati huee paristhitiyon ne samaj men inake mahatv ko kam kar diya. abhilekhiy evn sahityik sroton se pata chalata hai ki maharana rajasinh dvitiy ke shasan kal tak raj parivar evn kulin varg ki striyon men parda pratha nahin thi. marathon evn pindariyon ke akraman kal se hi 'parda pratha' arnbh ho gee thi, jisaka prabhav any dvij jatiyon par bhi pada tha. parda pratha ke prachalan ne samaj men striyon ki sthiti ko aur bhi nimn bana diya. ab samaj men stri ki maryadaen nishchit kar di geen. kisi bhi tyohar, utsav aur mela adi ke avasar par unaka svatntratapoorvak ghoomana, par-purushon se baten karana adi kuchh had tak simit hone laga. ghar men stri keval apane pati ki kamechchha poorti ka sadhan mani jati thi.[4]

chitr vithika


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chitrakar varg
  2. mevad chitrakala ki chitran samagri (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 janavari, 2013.
  3. mevad men hindoo dharm ka vikas (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 janavari, 2013.
  4. mevadi samaj men striyon ki sthiti (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 28 faravari, 2013.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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