मेवाड़ का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mevad vishay soochi
mevad ka itihas
rana ka mahal, mevad
vivaran mevad, rajasthan ke dakshin madhy men sthit ek prasiddh riyasat thi. isamen adhunik bharat ke udayapur, bhilavada, rajasamnd tatha chittaudagadh zile sammilit the.
rajy rajasthan
zila udayapur zila
snbndhit lekh banas nadi, kunbhalagadh, chittaud, haldighati, rana sanga, maharana pratap, chetak, bhamashah
bhaugolik sthiti uttari akshansh 25° 58' se 49° 12' tak tatha poorvi deshantar 45° 51' 30' se 73° 7' tak
any janakari saikadon salon tak mevad men rajapooton ka shasan raha. gahalaut tatha sisodiya vnsh ke rajaon ne 1200 sal tak mevad par raj kiya tha.

rajasthan ka mevad rajy parakrami gahalauton ki bhoomi raha hai, jinaka apana ek itihas hai. inake riti-rivaj tatha itihas ka yah svarnim khazana apani matribhoomi, dharm tatha snskriti v raksha ke lie kiye gaye gahalauton ke parakram ki yad dilata hai. svabhavik roop se yah is dharati ki khas visheshataon, logon ki jivan paddhati tatha unake arthik tatha samajik dasha se pratyaksh v apratyaksh roop se prabhavit hota raha hai. shakti v samriddhi ke prarnbhik dinon men mevad simaen uttar-poorv ke taraf bayana, dakshin men revaknth tatha maniknth, pashchim men palanapur tatha dakshin-pashchim men malava ko chhooti thi.

rajapoot shasan

mevad men kafi lambe samay rajapooton ka shasan raha tha. bad ke samay men muslim akramanakariyon ne bhi yahan lootapat ki. khilaji vnsh ke alauddin khilaji ne 1303 ee. men mevad ke gahalaut shasak ratan sinh ko parajit karake ise dilli saltanat men mila liya tha. gahalaut vnsh ki ek any shakha 'sisodiya vnsh' ke hammiradev ne muhammad tugalak ke samay men chittaud ko jit kar poore mevad ko svatntr kara liya. 1378 ee. men hammiradev ki mrityu ke bad usaka putr kshetrasinh (1378-1405 ee.) mevad ki gaddi par baitha. kshetrasinh ke bad usaka putr lakkhasinh 1405 ee. men sinhasan par baitha. lakkhasinh ki mrityu ke bad 1418 ee. men isaka putr mokal raja hua. mokal ne kaviraj bani vilas aur yogeshvar namak vidvanon ko ashray apane rajy men ashray pradan kiya tha. usake shasan kal men mana, phanna aur vishal namak prasiddh shilpakar ashray paye huye the. mokal ne anek mndiron ka jirnoddhar karaya tatha ekaling mndir ke charon taraf parakote ka bhi nirman karaya. gujarat shasak ke viruddh kiye gaye ek abhiyan ke samay usaki hatya kar di gayi. 1431 ee. men mokal ki mrityu ke bad rana kumbha mevad ke raj sinhasan par baitha. rana kumbha tatha rana sanga ke samay rajy ki shakti utkarsh par thi, lekin lagatar hote rahe bahari akramanon ke karan rajy vistar men kshetr ki sima badalati rahi. ambaji nam ke ek maratha saradar ne akele hi mevad se qarib do karod rupaye vasoole the.

kunbhalagadh durg, udayapur

1473 ee. men usaki hatya usake putr udayasinh ne kar di. rajapoot saradaron ke virodh ke karan udayasinh adhik dinon tak satta-sukh nahin bhog saka. usake bad usaka chhota bhaee rajamal (shasanakal 1473 se 1509 ee.) gaddi par baitha. 36 varsh ke saphal shasan kal ke bad 1509 ee. men usaki mrityu ke bad usaka putr rana sngram sinh ya 'rana sanga' (shasanakal 1509 se 1528 ee.) mevad ki gaddi par baitha. usane apane shasan kal men dilli, malava, gujarat ke viruddh abhiyan kiya. 1527 ee. men khanava ke yuddh men vah mugal badashah babar dvara parajit kar diya gaya. isake bad shaktishali shasan ke abhav men jahangir ne ise mugal samrajy ke adhin kar liya. mevad ki sthapana rathaur vnshi shasak chund ne ki thi. jodhapur ki sthapana chund ke putr jodha ne ki thi.

rana kumbha

rana kumbha ke mevad men shasan kal ke dauran usaka ek rishtedar ranamal kafi shaktishali ho gaya tha. ranamal se eershya karane vale kuchh rajapoot saradaron ne usaki hatya kar di. rana kumbha ne apane prabal pratidvandvi malava ke shasak husngashah ko parast kar 1448 ee. men chittaud men ek 'kirti stambh' ki sthapana ki. sthapaty kala ke kshetr men usaki any upalabdhiyon men mevad men nirmit 84 qilon men se 32 qile hain, jise rana kumbha ne banavaya tha. madhy yug ke shasakon men rana kumbha ek mahanh shasak tha. vah svayn vidvanh tatha ved, smriti, mimansa, upanishad, vyakaran, rajaniti aur sahity ka gyata tha.

haldighati ka yuddh

akabar ne sanh 1624 men mevad par akraman kar chittaud ko gher liya, par rana udayasinh ne usaki adhinata svikar nahin ki thi aur prachin adhatapur ke pas udayapur namak apani rajadhani basakar vahan chala gaya tha. unake bad maharana pratap ne bhi yuddh jari rakha aur adhinata nahin mani thi. unaka haldighati ka yuddh itihas prasiddh hai. is yuddh ke bad pratap ki yuddh-niti chhapamar ladaee ki rahi thi. akabar ne kumbhalamer durg se bhi pratap ko khaded diya tatha mevad par anek akraman karavaye the par pratap ne adhinata svikar nahin ki thi. ant men sanh 1642 ke bad akabar ka dhyan doosare kamon men lage rahane ke karan pratap ne apane sthanon par phir adhikar kar liya tha. sanh 1654 men chavnd men unaki mrityu ho gee thi.

mugal adhipaty

maharana pratap ke bad usake putr rana amarasinh ne bhi usi prakar viratapoorvak mugalon ka pratirodh kiya par ant men usane shahajahan khurram ke dvara samrat jahangir se sandhi kar li. usane apane rajakumar ko mugal darabar men bhej diya par svayn maharana ne, any rajaon ki tarah darabar men jana svikar nahin kiya tha. maharana s 1617 men mrityu ko prapt hua tha. maharana karnasinh ne kabhi shahajada khurram ko pichhola jhil men bane jagamandir namak mahal men rakha tha. maharana ka bhaee bhim shahajade ki seva men raha tha, jise usane badashah banane ke bad toda (todabhim) ki jagir di. khurram ko lakheri ke bad gopaladas gaud ne bhi madad pradan ki thi. badale men maharana jagatasinh ne apane saradaron ko badashahi darabar men bheja aur dakshin ke abhiyan men sainik sahayata bhi di thi. usaka ladaka rajasinh pratham bhi ajamer men badashah ke samaksh hazir hua tha.
maharana pratap sinh dvitiy
maharana ke bade samnt bhi badashahi manasabadar ban ge the. chittaud ke qile ki marammat tatha kuchh bagiyon ko prashray dene ka bahana kar mugalon ne rajasinh par akraman kiya aur chittaud ke qile ki divaron ko tod dala. is par ek samajhauta hua, jisake anusar maharana ka chhah varsh ka ladaka badashah ke pas ajamer bheja gaya. yuddh ke samay rajasinh ne tikadaud ke bahane n keval mevad ke pur, mandal, badanaur adi ko loota apitu malapura, toda, chakasoo, sambhar, lalasot, tonk, savar, khetadi adi par hamala kiya aur lootapat ki. usane vahan ke anek bhoomipatiyon se badi-badi rakamen bhi kar ke roop men li thin.

marathon ka prabhav

maharana ne mugal shahazada dara shikoh ka paksh n lekar aurngajeb ka paksh liya aur uttaradhikar ke yuddh men usaki vijay par badhaee di thi. kishanagadh ki rajakumari charoomati, jisaka vivah aurngajeb ke sath hona tha, ko bhagakar le jane se apasi rnjish bhi huee. aisa hi jasavntasinh ke navajat putr ajit sinh ko sharan dene ke karan bhi hua. rajasinh ne apane ladake jayasinh ko bhi mugal darabar men bheja. aurngajeb dvara hinduon par lagaye ge jaziya ka virodh bhi usane kiya. mevad men vyapak roop se lootapat aur tabahi machane vali mugal faujon se use sngharsh karana pada tha. 1727 vi. men rajasinh ki mrityu ho gee. vah dharm, kala aur sahity ka snrakshak tha. prasiddh rajasamnd ka nirman kar vahan rajaprashasti namak kavy ko shilaon par ankit karavane ka shrey usi ko hai. usake putr jayasinh ne bahadurashah ke samay jodhapur tatha jayapur ke nareshon ko mevadi rajakumariyan dekar rajy prapti men unaki sahayata ki thi. maharana sngram sinh dvitiy ka kal upadravon se grast raha tha. usake putr jagatasinh dvitiy ke samay hurada sammelan hua, par usake putr jagatasinh aise kamakaj ke lie saksham nahin tha. usane marathon ko ghoos dekar sahayata prapt ki, jisase mevad par marathon ka pnja kasata gaya aur maharanaon ko badi rakamen dekar unhen prasann karana pada tha.

prashasanik vibhag

mevad riyasat ke prashasan men bahut-se vibhagon ki sthapana ki gee thi. in vibhagon ko 'karakhana' kaha jata tha aur karakhane ke pradhan ko us karakhane ka 'daroga' kaha jata tha. in karakhanon ke nam nimnalikhit hain -

mevad ke vibhinn prashasanik vibhag
vibhag vibhag ke mahattvapoorv kary aur dayitv
gahane ka bhndar is vibhag par abhooshan tatha qimati chizon ki zimmedari hoti thi.
kapade ka bhndar yah kapade tatha sile hue vastron ka mukhy bhndar kaksh tha.
hukum kharch yah vibhag darabar se jude kharch, jaise- puraskar, dan adi ka hisab rakhata tha.
panera, kamadar, aphasar vagaira kary karane vale adhikariyon ka vibhag
rasoda khana maharana ka rasoee vibhag
bada rasoda, khalla samany rasoee vibhag
kothar yah apoorti vibhag tha. is vibhag ke antargat bade godam tatha ghar bane hote the, jisamen kam-se-kam 1000 man anaj, ghi tatha rashan ki any vastuen rakhi jati thin.
nij sainik sabha ya phauj ka mahakama sainikon ka pradhan mukhyalay. is vibhag ka daroga sainikon ka netritv karata tha.
ardali agyakari prahariyon ka vibhag. janani mahal ke najadik ek khas daravaza, jahan ardali baithate the. ise 'ardali ki dyodi' kahate hain.
bndookon ki ori is vibhag men raifal tatha any prakar ke bina barood vale hathiyaron ko rakha jata tha.
kadatooson ki ori visphotak padarth v goliyon ke chharre rakhane vala barood vibhag.[1]
sileh khana chhote hathiyar, banduk, pistol, agneyastr ya topakhana shakha vala vibhag.
chhoori katar ki ori is vibhag men katar, chhure, talavar, bajuband tatha male rakhe jate the.
pharas khana lok kalyan vibhag
sej ki ori shayanakaksh se judi huee vastuon ka vibhag
lavajame ka karakhana is vibhag ko vardi vale naukar chalate the, is par antyeshti karm se judi vastuen, rajy chihn, jhnde ityadi ki zimmedari hoti thi.
takhat ka karakhana palakhi, takhat, tamajam, mena, tabari ityadi ke lie zimmedar vibhag.
tabela ya paynga yah vibhag rajakiy seva men ane vale ghodon ke rahane ki vyavastha karata tha.
baggi khana shahi logon ki baggi adi ki sucharu dekhabhal se juda hua vibhag.
hathiyon ka halka hathiyon ke rahane ki vyavastha se sambaddh vibhag.
jail khana qaidakhana vibhag, jahan aparadhi, chor tatha shatruon adi ko bandi banakar rakha jata tha.
chhoti jail rajy ke chhote mukadamon se judi kachahari.
dharmasabha dan, puny, karmakand tatha any vidhi vidhan se juda vibhag.
oonton ka karakhana saman adi dhone vale oonton ka vibhag.
kabootarari ori kabootar, tote, battakh ityadi udane vale pakshiyon ka vibhag.
naubatakhana sngit ke upakaranon vala vibhag. isamen pray: pratidin bajane vale tatha yuddh ke samay bajane vale donon prakar ke vady upakaran rakhe jate the.
ghadiyal ka mahakama ghadi tatha ghnte vala vibhag.
raushani ka mahakama sampoorn rajy men raushani ki vyavastha karane vala vibhag.
alaladar[2] svachchhata sambandhi vibhag.
chataron ka karakhana ya tasaviron ka karakhana kalakaron ki karmashala. yah mahal men hi hota tha, jahan ve chhavi, vibhinn drishy tatha pothi rngane ka kam karate the.
mahakama khas rajy ka grih vibhag, jo rajy men rana ke vyaktigat karyon ki dekhabhal karata tha.
mahakama hisab rajy ka lekha vibhag, jo rajy men naqad tatha paison ke vinimay sambandh ki dekharekh karata tha.
bakhshikhana rikaaurd karyalay ya abhilekhagar vibhag, jahan sabhi tarah ke purane dastavejon ko surakshit rakha jata tha.

bhoomi ka vargikaran

mevad men bhoomi ke vargikaran ke antargat pratyek ganv men tin prakar ke bhoo-khand the-

  1. avasiy bhoo-khnd
  2. krishit bhoo-khnd
  3. padat va bnjhar

avasiy bhoo-khnd men avasiy patte nirdharit kiye jate the. in patton ke anusar ganv tatha unake avason ko do bhagon men vargikrit kiya jata tha- 'kachche patte' aur 'pakke patte'.[3] kachche ganv men koee bhi vyakti kahin bhi rah sakata tha, kintu pakke ganvon men us ganv ki gram pnchayat ki bagair svikriti tatha najarana diye bina nahin raha ja sakata tha. padat bhoomi do prakar ki hoti thi-

  1. gochar bhoomi
  2. bedakhali bhoomi
  • gochar bhoomi - is bhoomi ko 'charnota' bhi kaha jata tha. is bhoomi par ganv athava kee ganv ki pnchayaton ka samoohik adhikar hota tha. is prakar ki bhoomi pashuon ke ahar-vihar hetu raj se yukt rahati thi. isaka kray-vikray karana pap mana jata tha.
  • bedakhali bhoomi - is prakar ki bhoomi par koee bhi vyakti krishi karane ke lie svatntr tha, kintu isake lie gram pnchayat ko lagat ya dastoor dena hota tha, jo bahut kam hota tha. dastoor dene ke bad yah dakhili bhoomi ki shreni men a jati thi tatha ise krishit bhoo-khand man liya jata tha.

bhoo-vyavastha

mevad rajy ka arthik jivan pratyaksh v apratyaksh roop men bhoomi-vyavasthaon se bndha hua tha. sikke ka prachalan kam hone ke karan rajy evn samaj ki sevarth bhoomi vitaran ki parampara alochyakal ke poorv se hi chali a rahi thi. kisan to vaise bhi bhoomi utpadan par adharit apani jivika chalate the, kintu bhoomihin vyakti bhi yajamani sevaon athava bhoomidhari vyaktiyon ki bhoo sevaon dvara jivan nirvah karate the. rajy ki snprabhu shakti dharak rana rajyadhin snpoorn bhoomi kshetr ka vaidhanik svami tha. vah apane kshetr vishesh men kisi bhi vyakti ko kisi bhi shart par anudan adhigrahan tatha kararopan karane ka adhikar rakhata tha. rana dvara pratyaksh roop se niyntrit bhoomi 'khalasa bhoomi' ke roop men jani jati thi. is arakshit bhoomi ke alava rana dvara pradatt bhoomi anudanon ki do shreniyan thin-

  1. dharmarth bhoomi anudan
  2. dharmettar bhoomi anudan

dharmath bhoomi anudan

dharmik karyon se snbndhit anudanon ka samaj men vishesh mahatv tha. ye anudan do tarah ke ho sakate the. pahala dharmik sthanon, mndiron, masjidon, devaron evn mathon men vyavastha banaye rakhane ke lie tha. is anudan ko "shatdarshan" kaha jata tha. 19vi. shatabdi men inhen "devasthani" ke nam se jana jane laga tha. dvitiy shreni ke dharmik anudan brahman, charan, bhat, snnyasi, gusanee aur vidvanh adi ko jivika nirvah ke lie pradan kiye jate the. dharmarth bhoo anudan ki bhoomi ka kray-vikray prayah nahin kiya jata tha. aisi bhoomion par adhikar prapti hetu uttaradhikari dvara shasan se pushti karana avashyak hota tha. yadyapi aise pushtikaran matr parnpara nirvah hetu kiye jate the. isase shasan ko pratyek navinikaran par us bhoomi ki sthiti tatha usaki dyritiyon ka pata prapt hota rahata tha. dvitiy shreni ki bhoomi ka kray-vikray athava bndhak rakhana rana ki svikriti par nirbhar karata tha.[3]

dharmettar bhoomi anudan

is prakar ki bhoomi anudan ko alochyakalin prapt vivaranon ke adhar par do mukhy bhagon men banta ja sakata hai-

  1. asainik sevarth
  2. sainik sevarth
asainik sevarth anudan

yah anudan inam ke roop men diye gaye anudan ya chakadana naukari ke nimitt diye gaye anudan ho sakate the. vishisht sevaon ke lie vyakti athava vnshanugat diya jane vala bhoomi anudan 'inamiyamaphi' kahalata tha. isake bhoo raj ka phaisala anudan ki ichchha par nirbhar tha. rajy seva ke parishramik hetu diya gaya bhoo-anudan 'chakaranamaphi' kaha jata tha. yah bhoomi vyakti dvara rajy seva karate rahane tak pradan ki jati thi, atah is par koee raj nahin liya jata tha. sirph kuchh utsavon v tyoharon par raj ke anupat men anshik nazarane liye jate the. vyavaharikata men choonki mevad rajy ke adhikatar pad vnshanugat hote the, isalie aisi bhoomi ke punargrahan ke avasar bahut hi kam ate the. choonki aisi bhoomi grahita dvara sevarth prapt ki jati thi. atah isaka vikray nahin kiya ja sakata tha.

sainik sevarth anudan

rajy ki sainik seva ke lie pradan ki gee bhoomi ki mukhyatah char prakar ki shreniyan thin- 'bhoom', 'gras', 'ravali' aur 'patta'.

  • bhoom - is prakar ki bhoomi adhikatar rajapoot jati ke logon, jinhonne sainik karyavahiyon men apana sarvasv balidan kar rana se prashnsa arjit ki ho, ko di jati thi. aisi bhoomi par grahita ko vnshaparnparagat adhikar pradan kiye jate the. yah bhoomi rajy ke raj se mukt rahati thi. prayah rajy ke pratyek pramukh thikanedar ka thikana usaki 'bhoom' rahi thi. aisi bhoomi ke kray-vikray tatha bndhak rakhane par shasan ka koee niyntran nahin tha. doosari taraf bhoom-dharak bhoomiya ko rajy ki sainik seva ke lie sadaiv tatpar rahana padata tha. isake alava 'bhoom-barad' namak varshik kiraya rajy ko jama karana padata tha. karttavyon ka palan nahin karane par bhoomi adhigrahan ho sakata tha. is bhoomi anudan ke atirikt rajy ki sainikottar sevaon ke lie bhil adivasiyon ko bhi ganv men rajamukt bhoomi pradan ki jati thi. badale men ve ganv ki chaukidari tatha rajyadhikariyon ki seva karate the.
  • gras - aise anudan raja dvara nikatatam snbndhiyon ko roti-kharch chalane ke lie pradan kiya jata tha. gras grahitaon se koee raj nahin liya jata tha, lekin snkatavastha men rajy inase sainik sahayata prapt karata tha.
  • ravali ya jageri - ravali bhoomi svayn rana, janani dyodhi tatha kunvaron ke niji kharch chalane hetu pradan ki jati thi. snbhavatah poorv alochyakalin rana dvara svayn ka vetan bhi bhoomi dvara nishchit kiya jata raha tha. uttar alochyakal men yah nij kharch naqad roop men liya jane laga tha.
  • ravali - is prakar ki bhoomi bhi raj se mukt hoti thi tatha isaka vikray ya bndhak rana ki poorv svikriti ke bina nahin kiya ja sakata tha.
  • patta - yah bhoomi moolatah rajy ki sainik evn prashasanik vyavastha banaye rakhane ke lie di jati thi. aise anudanon men kee ganv aur paragana sammilit rahate the. grahita ko kray-vikray ka adhikar to nahin rahata tha, kintu ve dharmik purn:anudan ke lie svatntr the. karttavyachyut hone par bhoomi ko rajy dvara adhigrahit kar liya jata tha.[3]

jagiradari

maharana fateh sinh

kisanon se unaki raksharth tatha kshetr vyavastha hetu shasak ko krishi utpadan ka bhag lene ka adhikar prapt tha. yah ansh prayah 1/6 se 1/4 ke madhy parasparik samajhaute ke anusar nishchit kiya jata tha. vaise to rajy ki sabhi tarah ki arthik gatividhiyon par rana ka niyntran hota tha, parntu vyavaharik roop se sthiti kuchh bhinn thi. rana ne rajy ke utkrisht sevarth jagiradaron ko vanijy-vyapar, ayat-niryat tatha rajasv vasuli ke vyapak adhikar bhi de diye the. jagiron men jagir tatha unamen bhi punah khndit jagiron ki anudan pravritti ne kendriy raj pranali ke alava vyaktigat adhikaron ki pratishtha ko bhi prabhavit kar diya tha. rana ki bhoomi par kam karane vale 'khalasa krishak' kendradhin kshetr men kahin bhi basane tatha kheti karane ke lie svatntr the, vahi jagir ke krishak bagair jagiradar ki svikriti se anyatr jane ke lie pratibndhit hote the.

mukata pratha

mugal prabhav se prabhavit 'ijaredari pranali' mevad men 'mukata pratha' ke roop men vidyaman rahi thi. bhoo-raj vasooli ke lie bhoomi ko theke par dene ka sarvadhik prachalan maratha atikraman kal (1751 ee. se 1818 ee.) tak vyapt raha. kee tarah ke kharch v rinon ki rashi shesh rahane par ya samayanusar adayagi nahin hone par mevad par rin ka bhar badhata jata tha. rinon ki poorti hetu rana tatha jagiradar apani khalasa v jagir bhoomi maratha nayakon ke pas giravi bndhak rakh dete the. is bhoomi ko giravi rakhane ka parinam yah hota tha ki ve mukate par rakhe gaye bhoomi se rajasv vasuli ka adhikar mil jata tha aur is prakar vah us vishesh bhoo-khand ka mukatedar ban jata tha. saiddhantik roop se to pradata dvara grahita se mukate ka anubndh kiya jata tha, kintu pradata ki or se hisab-kitab ka vyavasthit niyntran nahin tha. mukatedar ki pravritti sadaiv adhik se adhik labharjan ki hoti thi. apane rin tatha byaj ka labhansh prapt karane ke lie mukata bhoomi ki praja se manamana rajasv vasooli karane lag jata tha. 'barad' namak sabhi shulk ya karadhan maratha rajasv vyavastha ke hi parinam the. marathaon ke atikraman kal ke pashchath british snrakshan kal men bhi mukatadari pratha yathavat prachalit rahi thi. is pratha ka sidha parinam rajy ki arthavyavastha par pada. yah marathaon ke sainik atikraman n hokar unaki arthik loot thi. isi pranali ne sahookar tatha satoriyon ke ek madhyasth varg ko janm diya, jo pratyaksh roop se praja ka arthik dohan karate the.[3]

hajaredari pratha

mukata pratha ke sath-sath raj pranali men krishi bhoomi ko bhagidari men jotane ke lie hi jare par pradan kiya jata tha. mukata men jahan ek bar rakam adayagi ka anubndh ho jata tha, vahan hijare men upaj ka hissa nishchit kiya jata tha, jo 1/2 se 1/4 tak hota tha. kisan ko hijara bhoomi karane ka tatpary tha, aisi bhoomi jo rajy ke arthik snpann vyakti ko de di jati thi, par apratyaksh raj vasooli hota tha. is pranali men fasal utpadan tatha unaka nishchit bhagon men vitaran rajy ke karmachariyon ki dekharekh men hota tha. atah hijaredaron ko manamani ka mauka kam milata tha. is prakar madhyasth varg ki svechchhachari svachchhand pravritti par niyntran bana rahata tha. yah pratha data aur krishak donon ke lie saman roop se hitakari thi.

khanda pratha

unnisavin shatabdi ke yuddhavihin shantikal men rajapoot jati ki viratmak gatividhiyan kuchh pradarshanon v pratikon dvara abhivyakt hoti thin. inamen se ek 'navaratri' ke utsav par 'khanda' karane ki pratha thi. 'navami' ko yadi koee rajapoot ek hi samay men talavar se bhainse ki gardan katane men asaphal ho jata tha to use udayapur ke rajy darabar aur mahalon men pravesh se varjit kar diya jata tha. vah jati pnchayat men uth-baith nahin sakata tha, jab tak ki vah usi varsh pun: navaratri par apane bal ko pratishthit nahin kar deta tha. unake ye kriyakalap unake virasati gunon ki jhalak mani ja sakati hai.

rajasv vyavastha

18vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men mukatedari ke roop men marathon ki nirntar bhoo-dohan niti praja ke lie du:khadayi bhar tha. marathe mukatedar loot-khasot men apani vyastata ke karan ek sthan par nahin thaharate the. ve apani mukata bhoomi ko svami ya any jagiradaron ko maukhik anubndh par de dete the. vanijy, avas tatha any vyavastha shulkon ko vibhinn baradon ke roop men vasool kiya jata tha. vyaparik fasalon par kar hasil liya jata tha. 1818 ee. angrez men eest indiya knpani aur mevad ke madhy ek sndhi ke pashchath arthavyavastha ko sudridh karane ke lie theka vyavastha ko protsahit kiya gaya. isamen hijara pranali ki pramukhata thi. hijare pradan ki gee bhoomi par raj ka nirdharan hisson athava naqad koont dvara kiya jata tha. koonte men barabari ke tin bhag men yadi bhoomi hijare par hoti to tin bhag tatha rana ke niyntran vali bhoomi par do bhag kiye jate the. hijara bhoomi par pratham bhag shasan ka, dvitiy bhag hijaredar ka tatha tritiy bhag kisan ka hota tha. rana niyntrit bhoomi par pratham bhag shasan ka tatha dvitiy bhag krishak ka rahata tha. krishak ke hisse ka 1/2 bhag rajy tatha samaj sevakon ke hisse tatha yajamani neg ke roop men diye jate the.

koonta pranali

koonta pranali men raj khadi fasal par liya jata tha. fasal ki kshati ka raj par prabhav nahin padata tha. is prakar yah raj adhikariyon ke lie labhaprad tha. banta athava bhag pranali men fasal ki labh-hani ka prabhav kisan ke sath-sath shasan ko bhi bhugatana padata tha. kuchh vishesh sthitiyon men fasal ka raj koonte dvara nahin dekar bhag dvara ada karane ko agrah kiya jata tha. koonta nirdharakon dvara fasal ke raj ko kam ya zyada koontane ki gunjaish rahati thi. ve apana niji labhansh prapt kar, koonte ke kisanon ko kee prakar ki chhoot pradan karate the. snbhavatah ranaon ko bhi in snbhav gatividhiyon ka gyan rahata tha. ve rajy dvara bhrashtachar ki sthiti ko svikarate hue raj adhikariyon v karmachariyon se unaki ay par 'lag' lete the. 1862 ee. men lata-koonta ke raj nirdharan ko bnd kar diya gaya. rajy pradhan kothari kesharasinh ne 1852 ee. se 1862 ee. tak ki ausat upaj ke hisab se naqad raj lene ki yojana prarnbh ki. raj prashasan men prashasanik parivarttan karate hue vnshanugat adhikariyon ki jagah patavari tatha chaparasi ki vaitanik niyuktiyan ki geen. raj ke hisab-kitab tatha kisanon ki suvidha ke lie do-tin ganvon ko milakar patavarakhane khole gaye. is prakar yah mevad men daphtariy paddhati prarnbh hone ka kal tha. is badalav ne jahan bichauliyon ke bhrashtachar par niyntran kiya, vahi doosari or yah kisanon ke lie labhakari bhi tha.[3]

rana sajjanasinh ke kal men bhoo-rajasv vyavastha ke doshon ko door karane ke lie british bharat sarakar ke ek adhikari shri vinget ki sahayata se rajy ki snpoorn bhoomi kar pakka bndobast kiya gaya. san 1886 ee. men fateh sinh ke kal se is bndobast ke anusar lagan liya jane laga tha. bhoomi ka usake upaj ke anusar vargikaran kiya gaya tha. ganv ke parakoton vali krishikari bhoomi 'adhan', ganv ke pas vali bhoomi 'gorama', tatha ganv se door vali ko 'rakad-kankad' kaha jata tha. pahadi ya patharili bhoomi 'magada' tatha varsha par nirbhar bhoomi 'mal' kahalati thi. in bhoomi ke alag-alag koonte nishchit kar usi ke anusar raj nirdharit kiya gaya tha. bndobasti ne jativadi bhoo-raj ko poornatah samapt kar, sabhi ko ek shreni men lane ka prayas kiya, lekin bhoomi ke sath-sath fasal ka vargikaran nahin kiya jana, is pranali ka sabase bada dosh tha.

prachalit sikke

prachin kal se hi mevad rajy men sone, chandi aur tanbe ke sikkon ka prachalan tha. chandi ke sikke 'dramm' aur 'roopak' tatha tanbe ke sikke 'karshapan' kahalate the. yahan se milane vale sabase purane sikke chandi aur tanbe ke hi bane hue hain, jo prarnbh men chaukhoonte hote the, lekin bad ke samay men unake kinare par kuchh golaee ati gee. jab maharana amarasinh pratham ne badashah jahangir ke sath sandhi kar li, tab mevad ke takasal bnd kara diye gaye. mugal badashahon ke adhinasth rajyon men unhin ke dvara chalaya gaya sikka chalane ka prachalan tha. usi prakar jab badashah akabar ne chittaud par kabja kiya, tab yahan apane nam se hi sikke chalavae v avashyakatanusar takasalen bhi kholin. is prakar jahangir tatha usake bad ke shasakon ke samay bahari takasalon se bane hue unhin ke sikke yahan chalate rahe.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. uparyukt donon vibhag suraksha ki drishti se rajy men ek-doosare ke door banaye jate the, taki rajy ke andar kisi prakar ke sashakt chadaee chhid jane ki sambhavana kam ho jae.
  2. naee, mehatar adi)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 mevad men bhoomi vargikaran (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 15 janavari, 2013.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah