स्मृतियाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'smriti' shabd do arthon men prayukt hua hai. ek arth men yah vedavanmay se itar granthon, yatha panini ke vyakaran, shraut, grihyasootr evn dharmasootron, mahabharat, manu, yagyvalky evn any granthon se sambandhit hai. kintu snkirn arth men smriti evn dharmashastr ka arth ek hi hai, jaisa ki manu ka kahana hai.[1] taittiriy aranyak men bhi 'smriti' shabd aya hai[2] gautam[3] tatha vasishth[4] ne smriti ko dharm ka upadan mana hai.

dharmashastron ka ullekh

arambh men smriti-granth kam hi the. gautam[5] ne manu ko chhodakar kisi any smritikar ka nam nahin liya hai; yadyapi unhonne dharmashastron ka ullekh kiya hai. baudhayan ne apane ko chhodakar sat dharmashastrakaron ke nam liye hain- aupajnghani, katy, kashyap, gautam, prajapati, maudgaly evn harit. vasishth ne keval panch nam ginaye hain-- gautam, prajapati, manu, yam evn harit. apastamb ne das nam likhe hain, jinamen ek, kunik, pushkarasadi keval vyakti-nam hain. manu ne apane ko chhodakar chh: nam likhe hain-atri, utathy ke putr, bhrigu, vasishth, vaikhanas (ya vikhanas) evn shaunak. yagyvalky ne sarvapratham ek sthan par 20 dharmavakyaon ke nam diye hain jinamen ve svayn evn shnkh tatha likhit do prithakh-prithakh vyakti ke roop men sammilit hain. yagyvalky ne baudhayan ka nam chhod diya hai. parashar ne apane ko chhodakar 19 nam ginaye hain. kintu ygyvalky evn parashar ki soochi men kuchh antar hai. parashar ne brihaspati, yam evn vyas ko chhod diya hai kintu kashyap, gargy evn pracheta ke nam sammilit kar liye hain.

dharm-snhita

kubharil ke tantravartik men 18 dharm-snhitaon ke nam aye hain. vishvaroop ne vriddh-yagyvalky ke shlok ko uddhrit kar yagyvalky ki soochi men das nam jod diye hain. chatuvinshatimat namak granth men 24 dharnashastrakaron ke nam ullikhit hain. is soochi men yagyvalky vali soochi ke do nam, yatha katyayan evn likhit chhoot gaye hain, kintu chh: nam adhik hain, yatha gargy, narad, baudhayan, vats, vishvamitr, shnkh (shankhyayan). angira ne jise smritichandrika, hemadri, sarasvati vilas tatha any granthon ne uddhrit kiya hai, upasmritiyon ke nam bhi ginaye hain. ek any smriti ka nam hai shattrinshanmat, jise mitakshara, aparark tatha any granthon ne ullikhit kiya hai. paithinasi ne 36 smritiyon ke nam ginaye hain. aparark ke anusar bhavishy puran men 36 smritiyon ke nam aye hain. vriddh-gautamasmriti men 57 dharmashastron ke nam aye hain. viramitroday men uddhrit prayogaparijat ne 18 mukhy smritiyon, 18 upasmritiyon tatha 21 any smritikaron ke nam liye hain.[6]
manusmriti ke atirikt nimn smritiyan hain-

  • vyas smriti,
  • laghu vishnu smriti,
  • apastamb smriti,
  • vasishth smriti,
  • parashar smriti,
  • vrihatparashar smriti,
  • atri smriti,
  • laghushnkh smriti,
  • vishvamitr smriti,
  • yam smriti,
  • laghu smriti,
  • brihadyam smriti,
  • laghushatatap smriti,
  • vriddh shatatap smriti,
  • shatatap smriti,
  • vriddh gautam smriti,
  • brihaspati smriti,
  • yagyvalaky smriti aur
  • brihadyogi yagyvalky smriti.

gady-pady smriti

yadi bad men ane vale nibandhon, yatha nirnayasindhu, nilakand evn viramitroday ki mayookh-soochiyon ko dekha jay to smritiyon ki snkhya lagabhag 100 ho jayagi. vishvasaniy smritiyan kee yugon ki kritiyan hain. kuchh to poornataya gady men, kuchh mishrit arthath gady-pady men hain aur adhikansh pady men hain. kuchh ati prachin hain aur eesa se kee sau varsh poorv pranit hooee thin, yatha gautam, apastamb, baudhayan ke dharmasootr evn manusriti. kuchh ka pranayan eesa ki pratham shatabdi men hua, yatha yagyvalky, parashar evn narad.

kal-nirnay

uparyukt smritiyon ke atirikt any 400 ee. se 1000 ee. ke bich ki hain. sabaka kal-nirnay saral nahin hai. kuchh to prachin sootron ke padyon men snshodhan matr hain, yatha shnkh. kabhi-kabhi do ya tin smritiyan ek hi nam ke sath chalati hain, yatha shatatap, harit, atri. kuchh men to poornaroopen sampradayikata payi jati hai, yatha haritasmriti, jo vaishnav hai. kuchh smritiyon ke praneta hain pramukh smritikar; kintu vriddh, brihath evn laghu ki upadhiyon ke sath, yatha vriddh-yagyvalky, vriddh-gargy, vriddh-manu, vriddh-vasishth, brihath-parashar adi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shrutistu vedo vigyeyo dharmashastrn tu vai smriti:. manusmriti, 2.10
  2. taittiriy aranyak, 1.2
  3. gautam, 1.2
  4. vasishth, 1.4
  5. gautam, 11.19
  6. 18 mukhy smritikar hain-manu, brihaspati, daksh, gautam, yam, angira, yogishvar, pracheta, shatatap, parashar, snvart, ushana, shnkh, likhit, atri, vishnu, apastamb, harit.
    • upasmritiyon ke lekhak hain- narad: pulahau gargy: pulasty: shaunak: katu:. baudhayano jatakarno vishvamitr: pitamah:॥
      jabalirnachiketashch skando laugakshikashyapau. vyas: sanatkumarashch shantanurjanakastatha॥
      vyaghr: katyayanashchaiv jatookarny: kapinjal:. baudhayanashch kanado vishvamitrastachaiv ch. paithonasirgobhilashchetyupasmritividhayaka:॥
      any 21 smritikar hain-
      vasishtho naradashchaiv sumantushch pitamah:. vishnu: karshnajini: satyavrato gargyashch deval:॥
      jamadagnirbharadvaj: pulasty; pulah: ritu:. atreyashch gaveyashch marichirvats ev ch॥
      paraskarashcharshyashrino vaijavapastathaiv ch. ityete smritikartar ekavinshatirorita:॥
      viramitroday, paribhasha prh., prishth 18. dharm 6

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

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