}

ताण्ड्य ब्राह्मण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'tandy' namak achary dvara rache jane ke karan ise tandy brahman kaha gaya. isaki vishalata ke karan ise 'mahabrahman' bhi kahate hain. isamen 25 adhyay hone ke karan ise 'pnchavish' bhi kaha jata hai. isaka pramukh pratipady vishay 'somayag' hai. sarasvati ke punah vilupt hone tatha punah prakat hone ka ullekh tandv brahman men milata hai.

tandy brahman ke pravachanakarta

svayn tandy brahman se is par koee prakash nahin padata ki isaka rachayita kaun hai. han, parampara ke anusar tandi namak kinhin samaved ke achary ke dvara prokt hone ke karan yah tandi athava brahman ke nam se prasiddh hai.[1] samavidhan brahman[2] men sampradayapravartak acharyon ki jis parampara ka ullekh hai, tadnusar tandi aur shatyayan badarayan ke shishy the. rishi tandi se prarambh hone vale gotr ka ullekh vnsh brahman[3] men bhi hai. agnichiti ke sandarbh men shatapath brahman[4] men tandy namak achary ka ullekh hai. samavidhan ka ullekh vishesh pramanik pratit hota hai, kyonki tandi aur shatyayan shakhaon ka yugapadh anyatr bhi nam nirdesh hua hai.[5] pratit hota hai ki kauthum-shakha ki upashakhaon men tandy ka mahattv sarvadhik raha hai, kyonki shnkarachary ne chhandogy upanishad ka nirdesh tandishakhiyon ki upanishad ke roop men hi kiya hai.[6]

tandy brahman ka svaroop

tandy brahman ka namantar, 25 adhyayon men vibhakt hone ke karan, pnchavinsh brahman bhi hai. akar-prakar ki vishalata aur varnyavishayon ki garima ke karan yah mahabrahman tatha praudhabrahman ke namon se bhi jana jata hai. susantulit niroopan-shaili ke karan tandy brahman ki praudhata svaynmev lakshit ho jati hai. aitareyadi brahmanon ke saman isamen bhi bhig adhyayon ko 'pnchika' kahane ki parampara hai; is prakar tandy brahman pnchapnchikatmak hai. vidvanon ka vichar hai ki aitareyadi any vedon ke brahmanon ke saman samavediy tandy brahman men bhi moolat: 40 adhyay hone chahie. shadavinsh brahman aur upanishad brahmanon ko milakar yah snkhya sampann bhi ho jati hai. isake anusar kashikokt 'chatvarinsh brahman' shabd tandy brahman ke hi 40 adhyayatmak svaroop ke gyapanarth prayukt hai.[7] yadyapi shadgurushishy ka mat isake viparit hai.[8] is sandarbh men satyavrat samashrami ne sarvadhik dridhata se tandy brahman ke chatvarinshadadhyayatmak svaroop ka samarthan kiya hai.[9] shadavinsh to spasht roop se tandy brahman ka bhag hai.

tandy brahman ka pratipadyavishay

tandy brahman ka pramukh pratipady vishay somayag hai. agnishtomasnsth-jyotishtom se arambh karake sahastrasnvatsarasadhy somayagon ka isamen mukhyat: vidhan kiya gaya hai. inake angabhoot stotr, stom aur unaki vishtutiyon ke prakar evn stomabhag isamen vistar se vihit hain. adhyayanusar vishay-vastu ka snkshipt vivaran is prakar hai-

  • 1-udgata ke lie pathaniy yajushatmak mantr.
  • 2-3-trivrith-pnchadashadi stomon ki vishtutiyan.
  • 4-5-samast satrayagon ke prakritibhoot gavamayan ka varnan.
  • 6-9 (12ven khand tak)-jyotishtom, ukthy tatha atiratrasnsth-yagon ka varnan. navamadhyay ke shesh khandon men vibhinn prayashchitt-vidhiyon ka varnan.
  • 10-15-dvadashah yagon ka varnan.
  • 16-19-vibhinn ekah yagon ka varnan.
  • 20-22-ahin yagon ka niroopanh.
  • 23-25-satr-yagon ka vidhan.

kul milakar 781611 sutyak 178 somayag isamen niroopit hain. is prakar tandy brahman ka mukhy niroopy vishay somayag evn tadgat samagan ki pravidhi ka prastavan hai. vividh prakar ke sam, unake namakaranadi se sambaddh akhyayikaen aur niruktiyan bhi prasngat: pushkal pariman men aee hain. ygy ke vibhinn pakshon ke sandarbh men acharyon ke madhy prachalit vivadon aur mat-matantaron ka ullekh bhi hai. tandy brahman men niroopit vratyaygy ka nirdesh bhi yahan avashyak hai, jo samajik evn sanskritik drishti se atyant mahattvapoorn hai. brahmanayugin bhaugolik samagri bhi isamen prapy hai. somayagon ke vidhan men kram ki drishti se katyayan aur apastamb sadrish pramukh shrautasootrakar tandyokt kram ka hi avalamban karate hain.[10]

tandy brahman ka vaishishty

tandy brahman ki rachana ka samay vikram se tin sahastrapoorv pratit hota hai. kuru-panchal janapadon se naimisharany aur khandav vanon ke madhy aur sarasvati-drishadvati nadiyon tatha gnga-yamuna ki vistrit antarvedi men, jis snskriti ka us samay vikas hua, usake samajik, rajanitik evn arthik jivan ka suvishad vivaran tandy men prapt hota hai. tatkalin janapadon aur nadiyon ka vistrit bhaugolik vivaran tandy brahman ko gahari aitihasik arthavatta deta hai. vratyasamasya uttaravaidik kal ki pramukh samajik-dharmik prahelika rahi hai. yadyapi atharvaved aur vajasaneyisnhitaon men bhi vratyavishayak vivaran hai, kintu tandy se is par pramanik aur spasht prakash padata hai. tadanusar vraty bharatiy jan-samaj ke aise acharahin ang the, jinaki vaidik karmakand ke prati anastha thi. unhen pun: bharatiy samaj men, snskrit kar lane ke lie vratyastom yagon ki yojana ki gee. in yagon ke sandarbh men, tandy men vistrit vivaran prapt hota hai. 'yatiyon' ka bhi aisa hi pathabhrasht varg tha. sahityik drishti se, tandy men, 'kavi' aur 'kavy' donon shabd prapt hote hain. tandy ke arambh men hi kavy ki adhishthatri vagh devi se prarthana ki gee hai-'devi vegh. yatte madhumath tasminh ma dha:'. 'manushyadeva:', 'yajamano vai prastar:'[11], 'pashavo vai brihadrathantare' prabhriti lakshanik prayog tandy brahman ki abhivyakti-bhngima ko tikshnata pradan karate hain. ygy ke dravyamay roop ke sthan par shanai:shanai jis atm-ygyatmak roop ka varnan age hua, usake bij tandy brahman men hi dikhalaee de jate hain. sahastrasnvatsarasadhy-vishvasrijamayan yag[12] men, pratikatmakata aur manavikaran ke madhyam se atmaygy ki hi vastut: udbhavana ki gee hai. is ygy men tapasya, brahm, ira, amrit, bhoot-bhavishyatkal, rituon, saty, yash, bal, asha ahoratr aur mrityu ne vibhinn ritvijon aur dravyon ka sthan grahan kar ygy-sampadan kiya. asha ko havishy batalakar jivan ki ygyroopata ka hi prakarantar se pratipadan kiya gaya hai. sam-gan ke sath hi vina prabhriti vadyon tatha unake apaghatila aur van sadrish prabhedon ka vivaran tandy men hai. akhyayikaon ka bhi tandy brahman men anant hai. kul 180 akhyayikaen isamen hain. dasyu ke hriday-parivartan tatha gandharvon aur apsaraon ki premalilavishayini akhyayikaen ise rochakata pradan karati hai.

tandy brahman ke snskaran

tandy brahman ke upalabdh snskaran ye hain-

  • anandachandr vedantavagish dvara snpadit, kalakatta, 1870-74.
  • pn. chitrasvamishastri tatha pn. pattabhiramashastri ke dvara do bhagon men sampadit tatha chaukhamba varanasi snskrit pratishthan se prakashit (sanh 1924 tatha 1936). isi ka kuchh varshon poorv punarmudran bhi ho gaya hai (1989).
  • daau. lokeshachandr dvara sarasvati-viharasthit tandy mahabrahman ke hastalekh ka chhaya-mudran.
  • W. Caland ka angrezi anuvad 'The BRAHMANA of Twenty Five Chapters, Calcutta, 1931.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chitrasvami shastri, tandy brahman, purastath nivedanamh, prishth 2.
    • is parampara ka samarthan jaiminiy brahman ke us ansh se hota hai, jahan kaha gaya hai- 'tadu hovach tanday:.' apastamb shrautasootr men ise 'tandyakamh' kaha gaya hai. latyayan shrautasootr (8.10.17) men 'puranamh tandyamh' ullikhit hai. kaland ne yadyapi yahan kisi doosare prachin brahman ka snket mana hai, kintu unake samarthan men vastut: koee gambhir yukti nahin hai. bhashyakar agnisvami ne tandy brahman ki 'tandyapravachan' nam diya hai.
  2. samavidhan brahman 3.9.3
  3. vnsh brahman 2.6
  4. shatapath brahman 5.1.2.25
  5. anyeapi shakhin: tandim: shatyayin:- brahmasootr, shankarabhashy, 3.3.27
  6. yatha tandinamupanishadi, brahmasootr, 3.3.36
  7. kashika, 5.1.62
  8. aitarey brahman ki sukhaprada vyakhya
  9. 'adhyayanamh snkalanaya chatvarinshaddhyayatmakamh kauthumabrahmann sampadyate tandyanam'. trayiparichay, prishth 121; 'panchavinshn shadavinshn brahmann ch chhandogyopanishachch- militva tadyamahabrahmann bhavati. -satavalekar, samaved; bhoomika, prishth 13
  10. tandy brahman ke vishay men vishad adhyayan ke lie dekhie lekhak ka granth samavediy brahmanon ka parishilan (praptisthan-346, qanoonagoyal, barabnki, uttar pradesh
  11. tandy brahman 1.3.1
  12. tandy brahman, 25.18.2

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