कौषीतकि ब्राह्मणोपनिषद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

yah upanishad rigved ke kaushitaki brahman ka ansh hai. isamen kul char adhyay hain. is upanishad men jivatma aur brahmalok, pranopasana, agnihotr, vividh upasanaen, pranatattv ki mahima tatha soory, chandr, vidyut megh, akash, vayu, agni, jal, darpan aur pratidhvani men vidyaman chaitany tattv ki upasana par prakash dala gaya hai. ant men 'atmatattv' ke svaroop aur usaki upasana se prapt phal par vichar kiya gaya hai.

pratham adhyay

pratham adhyay men gautam rishi (uddalak) evn garg rishi ke prapautr chitr ke snvadon dvara 'brahmgyan' ke lie kiye jane vale agnihotr tatha usaki phalashruti par prakash dala gaya hai. jab mrityu ke uparant sadhak brahmalok pahunchata hain, to usaka samana apsaraon aur ek vichitr pnlag (parynk) par baithe brahmaji se hota hai. vah unase baten karata hai. is vartalap ko 'parynk-vidya' bhi kahate hain. garg rishi ke prapautr, maharshi chitr, ygy karane ka nishchay karake arun ke putr mahatma uddalak (gautam) ko pradhan ritvik ke roop men amantrit karate hain, parantu muni uddalak svayn n jakar apane putr shvetaketu ko ygy sampann karane ke lie bhej dete hain. shvetaketu apane pita ki agyanusar vahan pahunchakar ek oonche asan par virajaman hote hain. tab chitr usase prashn karata hai-'he gautamakumar! is lok men koee aisa avaranayukt sthan hai, jahan tum mujhe le jakar rakh sakate ho ya phir usamen bhi koee aisa sarvatha prithakh aur vilakshan avaran se shoony pad hai, jisako janakar tum usi lok men mujhe pratishthit kar sakate ho?'
chitr ki bat sunakar shvetaketu ne maharshi chitr se kaha-'he bhagavan! main yah sab nahin janata. mere pita achary hain. main unhin se is prashn ko poochhoonga.'
aisa kahakar shvetaketu ygy ka asan chhodakar chale gaye aur apane pita se prashn kiya-'he pitashri! maharshi chitr ne jo prashn mujhase kiya hai, usaka uttar men kaise doon?' shvetaketu ne chitr ka prashn apane pita ke samane dohara diya. tab uddalak rishi ne kaha-'putr! main bhi isaka uttar nahin janata. ham donon maharshi chitr ki ygyshala men chalakar v isaka adhyayan karake hi is vidya ko prapt karenge.'
tadanantar donon pita-putr prasiddh aruni muni ke hath se samidha grahan karake jigyasu-bhav se maharshi chitr ke pas gaye aur kaha ki ve vidya-prapti hetu unake pas aye hain. chitr ne kaha-'he gautam! ap brahmanon men ati poojaniy hain aur brahmavidya ke adhikari hai; kyonki mere pas ate hue apake man men apani shreshthata ka tanik-bhi abhiman nahin hai. main nishchay hi apako isaka bodh karaoonga.'
maharshi chitr ne kaha-'he vipravar! jo vyakti agnihotradi satkaryon ka anushthan karane vale hain, ve sabhi is lok se chandralok, arthath svargalok ki or gaman karate hain, lekin jo vyakti svargiy sukh ke prati asakt hokar chandralok svikar kar leta hai, usake sabhi puny nasht ho jate hain aur vah pun: is dharati par vapas a girata hai, arthath usaka phir se punarjanm ho jat hai. use moksh nahin mil pata.'
maharshi chitr ke aisa kahane par gautam muni ne phir poochha-'he bhagavan! mujhe batayen ki main kaun hoon? mujhe is bhavasagar se par hone ka vah upay batayen, jisase main samast bhav-bandhanon se mukt ho sakoon?'
brahmgyan kya hain?
tab maharshi chitr ne use 'brahmgyan' ka upadesh diya aur sarvapratham bataya ki jivatma is lok se paralok athava 'brahmalok' tak do margon se hi ja sakata hai. ek 'pitriyan' marg hai aur doosara 'devayan' marg. pitriyan marg se jane vale sadhak ka bar-bar janm hota hai, use moksh prapt nahin hota, parantu devayan marg se jane vale sadhak ka punarjanm nahin hota, use moksh prapt ho jata hai. svarg v narak ke vastavik svaroop ko janakar, jo sadhak virakt ho jata hai, vahi guru se 'brahmavidya' pane ka adhikari hota hai.
maharshi chitr ne kaha-'he gautam! devayan marg se jane vala sadhak kramash: agnilok, vayulok, sooryalok, varunalok, indralok v prajapatilok adi chhah lokon men se hota hua 'brahmalok' men pravesh kar pata hai. 'brahmalok' ke pravesh dvar par 'ar' nam ka ek bada jalashay hai. yah jalashay kam, krodh, moh adi shatruon dvara nirtit hai. yahan pal-bhar ka bhi ahnkar aur kam, krodh, lobh adi ka bandhan, sadhak ke sabhi punyon ko nasht kar dalata hai. 'isht' ki prapti men yah jalashay sabase badi badha hai, parantu jo ise par kar leta hai, vah phir se pavan viraja nadi ke kinare pahunch jata hai. usaka samast shram aur vriddhavastha, viraja nadi ke darshan matr se hi door ho jate hain. usamen age 'ily' namak vriksh (prithivi ka ek nam ila bhi hai) ata hai. yahin par anek devataon ke sundar upavanon, udyanon, bavali, koop, sarovar, nadi aur jalashay adi se yukt nagar hai, jo viraja nadi aur ardhachandrakar parakote se ghira hai. ye sabhi man ko bar-bar mohane ke lie samane ate hain, kintu jo sadhak inamen lipt n hokar age badh jata hai, use samane hi brahma ji ka ek vishal devalay dikhaee padata hai. is devalay ka nam 'aparajita' hai. soory ki prakhar rashmiyon se yukt hone ke karan ise vijit karana atyant kathin hai. isaki raksha megh, ygy se upalakshit vayu tatha akash-svaroop indr evn prajapati dvara ki jati hai, parantu jo unhen parajit kar leta hai, vah brahmalok men pravesh kar jata hai. vahan ek vishal vaibhav-sampann sabha-mandap ke madhy 'vichakshana' (adhyatmik) namak vedi (chabootara) par sarvashaktiman pranasvaroop brahma ji ek ati sundar sinhasan (pnlag) par virajaman dikhaee padate hain. vishv janani amba aur ambavayavi namak apsaraen unaki seva men rat hain, jo brahmavetta sadhak ka svagat karati hain aur use alnkrit karake brahma ji ke sammukh upasthit karati hain.'
is upanishad men ek atyant sundar roopak bandhakar devayan marg se brahmalok tak pahunchane ka marg dikhaya gaya hai. yahin par rishi kahata hai ki rath men baithakar yatra karane vala purush, jis prakar rath ke pahiyon ko daudate hue to dekhata hai, parantu vah pahiyon ki gati ke bhoomi se hone vale snyog ko nahin dekh pata. isi prakar brahmalok ki yatra karane vala sadhak rath par baithakar din aur rat ko to dekhata hai, kal ki gati ko bhi dekhata hai, pap-puny ko bhi dekhata hai, parantu vah unamen lipt nahin hota. vah unase door rahakar hi 'brahm' ko prapt karata hai. kam, krodh, lobh, moh aur ahnkar usake marg ke badhak nahin banata.
maharshi chitr age batate hain-'he gautam! brahmavetta ban sadhak apani sampoorn indriyon men brahmagandh, brahmaras, brahmatej, brahmayash tatha brahmanad ka anubhav karata hai. tab brahma ji us brahmgyani se prashn karate hain-'tum kaun ho?' us samay brahma ji dvara poochhe gaye prashnon ka uttar brahmgyani ko is prakar dena chahie—
'main vasant ritu-roop, svayn prakash parabrahm ka hi ansh hoon. jo ap hain, vahi main hoon.' is par brahmaji poochhate hain-'main kaun hoon?'
brahmavetta uttar deta hai-'ap saty hain.'
brahma ji poochhate hain-'jise tum saty kahate ho, vah kya hai?'
brahmavetta ka uttar-'jo samast devataon evn pranon se bhi sarvatha bhinn evn vishesh lakshanon se yukt hai, vah 'sath' hai aur jo devata pranasvaroop hai, vah 'ty' hai. vani ke dvara jis tattv ko 'saty' kahate hain, vah yahi hai. yah aur ap sabhi kuchh hain. at: ap hi 'saty' hain.'
brahma ji poochhate hain-'tum mere purushavachak namon ko kisase grahan karate ho?'
sadhak ka uttar-'pran se.'
brahma ji ka prashn-'strivachak namon ko kisase grahan karate ho?'
sadhak ka uttar-'vani se.'
pr.-'napunsakavachi namon ko kisase grahan karate ho?'
u.-'man se.'
pr.-'gandh ka anubhav kisase karate ho?'
u.-'pran se- ghranendriy se.'
pr.–'roopon ko kisase grahan karate ho?'
u.-'netron se.'
pr.-'shabdon ko kisase sunate ho?'
u.-'kanon se.'
pr.-'ann ka asvadan kisase karate ho?'
u.-'jihva se.'
pr.-'karm kisase karate ho?'
u.-'hathon se.'
pr.-'sukh-du:kh ka anubhav kisase karate ho?'
u.-'sharir se.'
pr.-'rati ka anand evn prajotpatti ka sukh kisase uthate ho?'
u.-'upasth se, arthath indri se.'
pr.-'gaman-kriya kisase karate ho?'
u.-'donon pairon se.'
pr.-'buddhi-vrittiyon ko, gyatavy vishayon ko aur manorathon ko kisase grahan karate ho?'
u.-'prgya se.'
is prakar brahma ji ke sabhi prashnon ka uttar dene ke uparant svayn brahma ji sadhak se kahate hain ki 'jal' adi prasiddh panch mahabhoot mere sthan hain. at: yah mera lok bhi jal adi tattv dvara pradhan hai. tum mujhase abhinn mere upasak ho. at: yah tumhara bhi lok hai.'
is prakar vah sadhak brahma ki 'jiti' (vijay prapt karane ki shakti) aur 'vyashti' (sarvavyapak shakti), donon ko prapt kar leta hai.'
maharshi chitr ne is prakar 'brahmgyan' ka upadesh dekar gautam rishi ko abhibhoot kiya. rishi gautam apane putr shvetaketu ke sath maharshi chitr ko pranam karake vapas laut gaye.

dvitiy adhyay

is adhyay men 'pranatattv' ki upasana aur 'brahmavidya' ke vyavaharik paksh par prakash dala gaya hai. isake atirikt apane papon ko nasht karane ke lie 'sooryopasana' putr ki kushal-mngal kamana aur suraksha ke lie, 'chandropasana,' achchhe svasthy ke lie 'somopasana,'moksh-prapti ke lie 'pranonpasana' tatha putr ko apane sampoorn jivan ka dayitv-bhar saunpate samay 'sampradan karm' ka bada hi sangopang varnan kiya hai.
pranatattv ki upasana
is adhyay men 'pran' ko hi 'brahm' ka roop mana hai. pran ki kalpana raja ke roop men ki gayi hai. 'man' usaka doot hai, 'vani' usaki rani hai, 'chakshu' usaki suraksha karane vale mantri hain, 'karnendriy' sandesh grahan karane vale dvarapal hain. pran ke ate hi samast indriyon ki seva pran-roopi raja ko svat: hi prapt ho jati hai. suprasiddh mahatma shushkabhringar 'pran' ko hi brahm ka roop svikar karate hain. at: pran ki upasana hi isht siddhiyon ko dene vali hai. jivan men shreshthata, sukh-samriddhi, yash, tejasvita tatha gyan pranopasana dvara ho sakata hai.
sooryopasana
kaushitaki rishi ne apane anubhav se sooryopasana tin bar-prat:kal, madhyahnakal aur sanyakal- karane ki bat kahi hai. unhonne kaha hai ki prat:kal ygyopavit ko savy bhav se baen kandhe par rakhakar achaman karen. phir jalapatr ko tin bar shuddh jal se bharakar, uday hote hue soory ko ardhy pradan karen aur is mantr ka uchcharan karen—'Om vargoasi papmann me vridadhi.'[1] is prakar madhyahnakal men, bhagavan bhaskar ko smaran karen aur is mantr ka uchcharan karen-'Om udvargoasi papmann men snvridadhi.'[2] isi prakar sanyakal men, ast hote hue soory ki upasana karen aur is mantr ka uchcharan karen- 'Om snvargoasi papmann me snvridadhi.'[3] is prakar sooryopasana karane se manushy ke din-rat ke sare papon ka shaman ho jata hai, pap karm n karane ki shakti utpann ho jati hai.
chandropasana
amavasya men, jab soory pashchim bhag men sthit ho tatha chandrama sushumna namak rashmi men chandrama sthit ho, tab is vidhi se chandropasana karani chahie. ardhy dene vale patr men do hari doorva ke ankur bhi avashy rakh len. tab ardhy dete hue is mantr ka uchcharan karen-'yatte susimn hridayamadhi chandramasishritn tenamritatvasyeshane maahn pautramadyn roodamh.' [4] is prakar ki prarthana se upasak putr shok se bacha rahata hai tatha putr n hone ki sthiti men putr-ratn prapt kar leta hai.
somopasana
rishi ne somopasana ko svasth sharir ka karan mana hai. vah som se prarthana karata hai-'he stri-roopi som! tum purush-roopi soory ke prakash se vikas ko prapt ho. tum sabhi or se ann ki prapti men sahayak bano. he som! tum saumy gunon se yukt ho. tumhara divy ras soory ke tez ko prapt karake purush matr ke lie atyant hitakari ho jata hai. tum is divy ras ka sevan karane vale purushon ko pushti do aur unake sabhi shatruon ka parabhav karane men poori tarah se sahayak bano. he som! tum agney tez se prasannata ko prapt karate hue, amritv ki prapti men sahayog pradan karo aur svayn apane yash ko svargalok men sthir karo. he som! main tumhari hi gati ka anugaman karate hue apani dahini bhuja ko bar-bar ghumata hoon.' rishi ne som ko panch mukh vala prajapati kaha hai. usaka ek mukh 'brahman' hai, doosara mukh 'kshatriy' hain, tisara mukh 'baj' pakshi hai, chautha mukh 'agni' hai. aur panchavan mukh tum 'svayn' ho. is prakar som ki prarthana karane ke uparant garbhadhan ke lie tatpar stri ke pas baithane se pahale usake hriday ka sparsh karen aur is mantr ka path karen—'yatte sumime hridaye hitamant: prajapatau manyeahn man tadvidvansn ten maahn pautramadhn roodamh.'[5] is prakar ki gayi prarthana se sadhak ko kabhi putr shok nahin jhelana padata. rishi ka snket us mata ki or hai, jo apana doodh apani santan ko pilati hai. usake doodh men somaras-jaisi rakshatmak shakti vidyaman hoti hai. usi se balak svasth rahata hai. mata ka doodh balak ke lie naisargik prakriya hai. prakriti ka virodh anekanek bhayanak parinamon ka karan ban jata hai.
moksh hetu pranopasana
moksh ke lie pranatattv ki upasana ke sandarbh men, rishi ne ek sundar roopak dvara pranon ke mahattv ko darshaya hai. ek samay vani adi samast devata ahnkar ke vashibhoot hokar apani-apani mahatt siddh karane ke lie paraspar vivad karane lage. pran ke sath sabhi ne sharir se bahirgaman kar diya. unake nikal jane se sharir kashth ki bhanti chetana-rahit hokar so gaya. 'vani' ne apana varchasv siddh karane ke lie sharir men akele hi pravesh kiya. vani ke pravesh karate hi sharir vani se bolane laga, lekin vah apane sthan se uth nahin saka. isake bad 'netrendriy' devata ne sharir men pravesh kiya. tab vah vani se bolane aur netron se dekhane laga, parantu is bar bhi vah uth nahin saka. phir 'shrotendiy' devata ne sharir men pravesh kiya. vah sunane laga, bolane bhi laga aur dekhane bhi laga. lekin is bar bhi vah uth nahin saka, nishchesht hi pada raha. tatpashchath us sharir men 'man' ne pravesh kiya. man ke dvara vah sochane yogy to ho gaya, par is bar bhi vah uth nahin saka. tab sabase ant men 'pran' ne us sharir men pravesh kiya. us pranatattv ke pravesh karate hi vah sharir uthakar baith gaya. isase pranon ka mahattv sarvopari siddh ho gayan sabhi any indriyon ne pran men hi, moksh adi sadhana ki shakti ko svikar kiya. unhonne jana ki pranon ke dvara hi amritv gun ko prapt kiya ja sakata hai aur yah sharir oopar uthakar svargalok ki or ja sakata hai. pranon ke dvara hi, sharir ki samast chetanaen aur indriyan kary karati hain. at: pranon ki upasana dvara hi brahm se snyog ka karan banata hai. pranon ke dvara hi vishisht gyan-svaroop parabrahm ko prapt kiya ja sakata hai.
pita dvara sampradan-karm (uttaradhikar dena) karana
is adhyay men pita dvara apane putr ko uttaradhikari banane ki prakriya ka sangopang ullekh kiya gaya hai. rishi ka kahana hai ki apana antim samay aya janakar, pita ko apane sampoorn uttaradayitvon se mukt ho jana chahie aur jo kuchh bhi usake pas hai, use apane putr ko saunp dena chahie. putr ko bhi apane pita dvara chhode gaye dayitv ko saharsh svikar kar lena chahie. pita ko chahie ki shubhr vastr dharan karake apane putr ko apane pas bulaye aur usase kahe-'he putr! main tumhen apani vakh shakti, apane pran, apane netr, apane kan, apane rasasvadan, apane samast shreshth karm, apane sukh-du:kh, apani maithunajany shakti tatha rati-sukh, apani gatishilata, apani samast ichchhaen, apani buddhi, apana yash, brahmatez au apana shreshth svasthy tatha ann ko pachane ki shakti adi sabhi sadgun pradan karata hoon ya tumhare bhitar pratishthit karata hoon.' pita dvara aisa kahane par putr vinamrata se unhen svikar kare aur apane baen kandhe ki or drishti karake hath se ot karake kahe-'pitashri! ap apani ichchhanusar kamanayukt svarg ko tatha vahan ke samast bhogon ko prapt karen.' isake uparant, yadi pita nirog ho, to vah apane putr ko ghar ka svami banakar athava manakar usake sath nivas kare ya phir sabhi kuchh tyagakar v ghar chhodakar sannyas ka jivan bitaye. aisa pita uchit samay ke ane par divyalok ko gaman karane vala hota hai. vastav men uttaradhikar ka sahi niyam yahi hai.

tisara adhyay

is adhyay men rishi ne pran, prgya aur indriyon ka vishad varnan karate hue unake parasparik sambandhon ka vishleshan kiya hai. isake lie snvad-shaili ka sahara liya gaya hai. yahan indr aur divodas raja ke putr pratardan ke parasparik snvadon dvara pran ko prgya ka svaroop bataya hai aur kaha hai ki is prgya se hi lokahit sambhav hai.
lok-kalyan ka adhikari kaun hai?
ek bar devasur sngram men, devataon ki sahayata ke lie raja divodas ke putr pratardan svargalok gaye the. vahan unaki advitiy yuddhakala evn shaury se prasann hokar indr ne unhen varadan dena chaha tha. is par pratardan ne kaha-'he devaraj! jis shreshth var ko ap manav-jati ke lie param kalyanayukt manate hon, vaisa hi koee shreshth var ap svayn hi mujhe pradan karen.'
pratardan ki bat sunakar devaraj indr ne kaha-'rajan! is snsar men koee bhi aisa vyakti nahin hai, jo doosaron ke sukh ke lie var mangata ho. ap koee aisa var mangen, jo apake apane lie ho?'
is par pratardan ne koee bhi var grahan karane se inkar kar diya. raja pratardan ko saty ka aroodh dekhakar devaraj indr ne kaha-'he rajan! tum mujhe hi, mere yatharth roop ko jano? yahi manav-jati ke lie shreshth varadan hai.'
devaraj ke is kathan men pratardan ne pahachana ki indr ne n jane kitane pathabhrasht asuron aur rishi-muniyon ko dand diya, par ahnkaravihin aur nishkami hone ke karan indr ka bal bhi banka nahin hua. tab usane samajha ki nishkam karm karate hue aur ahnkar ka sarvatha tyag karate hue, jo jivan jiya jata hai, vah manav-kalyan ke lie hi hota hai. at: lok-kalyanakari vyakti ke lie nirabhimani aur nishkam karmi hona param avashyak hai. aisa vyakti hi indr, arthath prgya-roopi pran-tattv ke yatharth svaroop ko praptaj kar sakata hai aur bade-se-bada papakarm bhi use prabhavit nahin kar sakata. yadi daivik pravrittiyon ki raksha ke lie kisi atatayi vyakti ka vadh bhi karana pade, to usaka bhi pap nahin lagata.
prgya-svaroop pran kaun hai?
devaraj indr ne pratardan ko upadesh dete hue kaha ki jo bhi mere saty svaroop ko pahachan jata hai, use kabhi pap nahin lagata; kyonki, 'main svayn hi prgya-svaroop pran hoon.'[6] indr age kahata hai ki us pran tatha shreshth gyan se yukt atmasvaroop ke roop men prakhyat, mujh indr ki, tum ayu au amrit-roop se upasana karo. vah spasht karata hai ki ayu hi pran hai, pran hi ayu hai aur pran hi amritatattv hai. is sharir men jab tak pran hai, tabhi tak ayu hai. is pranatattv ke dvara hi sadhak doosare lok men jakar amritatattv ke vishesh sukh ko prapt karata hai. jo vyakti 'ayu' aur 'amrit' ke roop men indr ki upasana karata hai, vah is lok men poornayu ko prapt karata hai aur svarg ke sukhon ka pan karata hai. sharir men pran ka mahattv hi sarvopari hai. yadi pran ke rahate sharir ka koee ang nasht ho jaye, to bhi sharir jivit rahata hai, parantu pran ke n rahane par, ek kshan bhi sharir ka jivit rahana asambhav hai. kriya shakti ka bodh karane vala pran hi hai. pran hi gyan men pravritti hone ki shakti deta hai. ise hi 'prgya-svaroop pran' athava 'atma' kaha gaya hai. at: jivan ke utthan ke lie prgya-svaroop is pran ki hi upasana karani chahie. sharir men prgya aur pran, donon sath-sath nivas karate hain tatha jivatma ke sath milakar ek sath hi is sharir ko chhodate hain. pranamay parabrahm ka yahi darshan (gyan) hai aur yahi vigyan hai. isi ki upasana jan-kalyan ka mukhy srot hai.
pran, prgya aur indriyon ka sambandh
sushupt avastha men, jab manushy soya hua hota hai, tab sabhi indriyan aur gyan, pran men samahit ho jate hain. lekin jab vah jagata hai, tab sabhi prakar ka gyan, pran se nikalakar apani-apani indriyon men sama jata hai aur sushupt indriyan sajag ho jati hain. ise upanishad men maranasann vyakti ke udaharan se samajhaya hai. ek vyakti, jo maranasann avastha men hai, usaki samast chetana shakti indriyon ka sath chhodakar pran men sama jati hai. us samay vah n to sunata hai, n dekhata hai, n bolata hai, ne hath-pair hila pata hai, n usaka mastishk hi kam karata hai. yahi sthiti dhyanasth yogi ki hoti hai. parantu jab vah maranasann vyakti rogon se chhutakara pakar pun: jivit ho uthata hai athava vah dhyanasth yogi phir se sahaj jivan men laut ata hai, tab unaki samast indriyan apane-apane svabhav ke anusar phir se sajag ho uthati hain. man ke dvara nirdeshit hone lagati hain. pran hi sarvapratham 'man' ko jagrat karata hai. vahi sampoorn indriyon ko niyantrit aur aniyantrit karata hai. man ka sidha sambandh 'prgya' se hai aur prgya ka pran se. is prakar pran, prgya aur indriyon ka anyonyashrit sambandh hai. pranatattv se hi prgya hai aur prgya se hi samast indriyon ko snchalan hota hai. sharir se unmukt hone vala 'pran' jab utkraman karata hai, tab vah us samay in sabhi indriyon-sahit hi utkraman karata hai. vani sabhi namon ka, nak sabhi gandhon ka, chakshu sabhi roopon ka, kan sabhi dhvaniyon ka aur man sabhi dhyanasth vishayon ka parityag kar deta hai. at: sharir men pran hi vah prgya hai aur prgya hi vah pran hai, jo ek sath is sharir men nivas karate hain. sharir ki samast indriyon ka parichalan inhin ke dvara hota hai. prgya ke dvara hi vah samast indriyon ke svabhav ke anuroop anubhooti ko prapt karata hai. prgya ke abhav men sabhi ka astitv nagany ho jata hai. pran athava prgya ke bina kisi bhi roop, vishay athava indriy ki siddhi nahin ho sakati. jis prakar rath ki nemi aron ke aur are rath ki nabhi ke ashrit hote hain, usi prakar ke samast indriyan, prgya ke dvara hi vidyaman hain. yah prgya athava pran hi paramatma ka anandasvaroop aur ajar-amar roop hai. yah n to achchhe kam se vriddhi pata hai au n bure kary se snkuchit hota hai. yah samadarshi hai. yah samast lokon ka adhipati hai aur sabaka svami hai. yah pran hi hamara atma hai. ise janakar hi paramatma ki upasthiti ko anubhav kiya ja sakata hai.

chautha adhyay

is adhyay men gargy namak brahman rishi aur kashi ke vidvanh raja ajatashatru ke madhy hue vartalap ko adhar banakar snvad-shaili men brahmand ki vividh shaktiyon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai tatha 'atma' ko hi 'brahm' svikar kiya hai.
brahmand ki shaktiyan
garg gotr men utpann balaka rishi ke putr ka nam gargy rishi ke nam se prasiddh tha. ve charon vedon ke prakand vidvanh the. ushinar pradesh unaka nivasasthan tha. ve pray: desh ke vibhinn pradeshon men bhraman karate rahate the. kabhi matsy desh men, to kabhi kuru-panchal men rahane pahunch jate the. ek bar ve ghoomate-ghoomate kashi ke vidvanh raja ajatashatru ke dabar men pahunche. vahan ve atyant ahnkarapoorn vani men raja se bole-'he rajan! main apako 'brahmatatv' ka upadesh doonga.' gargy rishi ke aisa kahane par kashi naresh ajatashatru ne kaha-'he vipravar! apake is upadesh ke lie main apako ek sahastr uttam kul vali gauen pradan karoonga. mujhe to prasannata hai ki ab tak brahmavidya ke shrota aur dani ke roop men mithila naresh janak ka hi nam tha. aj apane hamare pas akar videh raj janak ki bhanti hamara gaurav badhaya hai.' 'brahmatattv' ka upadesh dete hue rishi gargy aur ajatashatru ke madhy is saprakar vartalap hua-
rishi gargy—'he rajan! is sooryamandal men jo antaryami parameshvar sthit hai, main brahmabuddhi se usi ki sadhana karata hoon.'
ajatashatru—'he brahman! aisa nahin hai. yah shvet vastradhari soory to sabhi se mahanh hai. yah sabase uchch sthiti men kendrit, sabaka shish hai. jo manushy is virat purush ki is prakar se aradhana karata hai, vah sabase uchch sthiti men pahunchata hai.'
rishi gargy-'he rajan! chandr mandal men jo yah antaryami virat purush hai, main use brahmaroop men manakar usaki upasana karata hoon.'
ajatashatru-'he vipravar! aisa nahin hai. yah to som raja hai aur ann ki atma bhi yahi hai. main isi prakar isaki upasana karata hoon. jo bhi is prakar isaki upasana karata hai, vah nishchiy hi ann ki atma ho jati hai tatha dhan dhany se bhar jata hai.'
rishi gargy-'he rajan! vidyut mandal ke antargat yah jo antaryami virat parabrahm hai, main usi ka upasak hoon.'
ajatashatru-'he vipravar! aisa nahin hai. main is vidyut ko 'prakash ki atma' manakar isaki upasana karata hoon. jo bhi is prakar isaki upasana karata hai, vah svayn prakash-svaroop 'atma' ho jata hai.'
rishi gargy-' he rajan! megh mandal men garjana ke roop men vidyaman us antaryami eeshvar ko main sakshat brahm manata hoon.'
ajatashatru-'he vipravar! aisa n kahen. main shabd ki atma samajhakar hi is shreshth tattv ki upasana karata hoon. jo is prakar isaki upasana karata hai, vah svayn hi shabd ki atma ke roop men parinat ho jata hai.'
rishi gargy ne phir kaha-'he rajan! akash mandal men pratishthit parabrahm parameshvar ki main avinashi brahm ke roop men upasana karata hoon.'
ajatashatru ne uttar diya-'he vipravar! main is vishay men kuchh nahin kahana chahata. yah to poorn, pravritti-rahit (kriya-rahit) brahm, sabhi se vishal hai. avashy hi main isi roop men isaki upasana karata hoon. jo aise divy brahm ki upasana karata hai, vah samast praniyon men nirvikar ho jata hai. samay se poorv usaki mrityu nahin hoti.'
isi prakar varta ko age badhate hue gargy rishi ne vayumandal men sthit virat purush ko brahm kaha, par ajatashatru ne use indr ke shreshth aishvary se yukt vaikunth kaha, jahan kunthaen nasht ho jati hain au vah sadaiv aparajit rahata hai. usake bad rishi ne agni mandal men sthit virat purush ko, jalamandal men upasthit virat purush ko, darpan men pratibimbit virat purush ko, pratidhvani men sthit dhvani ko, gatishil virat purush ke pichhe uthane vale dhvanyatmak shabd ko, shariradhari ki chhaya ko, sharir men sthit virat purush ko, prgya se yukt pran-svaroop atma ko, dahine netr men sthit virat purush ko, baen netr men sthit virat purush ko avinashi brahm ke roop men upasthit karake, usaki upasana karane ki bat kahi. parantu ajatashatru ne kramash: sabhi ko nakarate hue agni ko doosaron ka prahar sahan karane vala 'vishasahi,' jal men sthit brahm ko namadhari jivatma, pratibimb ko pratiroop, pratidhvani ko gati ka abhavayukt, dhvanyatmak shabd ko 'pranasvaroop', sharir ki chhaya ko mrityu-roop, sharir men sthit virat purush ko prajapati ka svaroop, prgya se yukt atma ko yam ka svaroop, dahine netr men sthit purush ko nam, agni aur jyoti ki atma, baen netr men sthit purush ko saty, vidyut aur tez ka atma bataya aur usi roop men unaki upasana karane ki bat kahi. ajatashatru ki bat sunakar gargy rishi maun ho gaye aur unhonne ajatashatru ko apana guru svikar kar liya, parantu kshatriy hone ke karan ajatashatru ne brahman gargy ko shishy banana svikar nahin kiya. han, ekant men unhen unhen brahm ka gyan avashy karaya. ve unhen lekar ek sote hue vyakti ke pas gaye aur use anek namon se pukar kar jagane ka prayatn kiya, parantu jab vah nahin jaga, to ajatashatru ne chhadi se chot marakar use uthaya. usake jagane par ajatashatru ne rishi gargy se kaha-'he vipravar! yah vyakti is prakar achet hokar kahan sota tha aur kis pradesh men yah tha aur ab jagane ke bad yah kahan a gaya hai?' rishi gargy is rahasy ko nahin samajh sake, to raja ajatashatru ne pun: kaha-'rishivar! yah purush jahan sota tha, vah sthan pran-roopi hridayakamal hai. vahan 'hita' nam ki prasiddh nadi hai. usake dvara hriday ka vistar sampoorn nadiyon tak hai, jo bal ke hazaraven bhag se bhi sookshm hai. in nadiyon men purush sote samay sthit rahata hai. is soye hue purush ke hriday men sthit 'pran' ka sabhi indriyon se samabhav hai. yah pran hi 'atma' ka khol hai. yah prgyavan atma isi khol men sookshm roop se usi prakar virajaman rahati hai, jaise lakadi ki myan men talavar rahati hai. purush ke jagane par yah 'atma' sampoorn 'pranatattv' ko sakriy kar deti hai. tab us 'sakshi-roop atma' ka sabhi indriyan anumat sevak ki bhanti anusaran karati hain.' isi 'atma' ko janane vala gyani, indr ki bhanti apane sabhi shatru asuron athava papon ko nasht karake triloki ka sarvashreshth pad prapt karata hai. at: 'atma' ko janane ke lie ahnkar ka tyag param avashyak hai. tabhi vah apane papon kon nasht kar sakata hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. arthath he sooryadev! snsar ko trinavat tyag dene se tum varg kahalate ho. prabhu! mere papon ko mujhase door karo.
  2. arthath he sooryadev! tum udvarg kahe jate ho. at: mere papon ko nasht karo.
  3. arthat- he sooryadev! tum snvarg kahalate ho. at: mere papon ko door karo.
  4. arthath he som mandal ki adhishthatri devi! atisundar bhavanaon se yukt apaka hriday, jo poorn anandamay svaroop hai, chandramandal men vidyaman hai. usake dvara ap amritattv pad par bhi adhikar rakhane vali hain. ap mujh par aisi kripa karen, jisase mujhe kabhi putrashok se vyathit hokar rona n pade.
  5. isaka arth yahi hai ki he sundar mang vali sundari! tum som roop vali ho. tumhara hriday praja (santati) ka palak hai. usake andar somamandal ki bhanti jo amrit-rashi hai, arthath doodh bhara hua hai, use mh janata hoon. is saty ke prabhav se main kabhi putrashok se n rooon, mujh par aisi kripa karo.
  6. 'pranoasmi prgyatma.'-(kaushi.3 adhyay 2


snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan


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