सांख्य दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prachinata aur parampara

sankhy darshan ka avaran prishth

mahabharat[1] men shantiparv ke antargat srishti, utpatti, sthiti, pralay aur moksh vishayak adhikansh mat sankhy gyan v shastr ke hi hain jisase yah siddh hota hai ki us kal tak (mahabharat ki rachana tak) vah ek supratishthit, suvyavasthit aur lokapriy ekamatr darshan ke roop men sthapit ho chuka tha. ek susthapit darshan ki hi adhikadhik vivechanaen hoti hain, jisake parinamasvaroop vyakhya-niroopan-bhed se usake alag-alag bhed dikhaee padane lagate hain. isilie mahabharat men tattvaganana, svaroop varnan adi par maton ki vividhata drishtigochar hoti hai. yadi is vividhata ke prati savadhani n barati jay to koee bhi vyakti prainkalin edagartan ki tarah yahi man lega ki mahakavy men sankhy sngya kisi darshan vishesh ke lie nahin varanh moksh hetu 'gyanamarg' matr ke lie hi prayukt hua hai.[2] is prakar ki bhranti se bachane ke lie sankhy darshan ki vivechana se poorv 'sankhy' sngya ke ardh par vichar karana apekshit hai.

'sankhy' shabd ka arth

sankhy shabd ki nishpatti snkhya shabd se huee hai. snkhya shabd 'khya' dhatu men samh upasarg lagakar vyutpann kiya gaya hai jisaka arth hai 'samyakh khyati'. snsar men pranimatr du:kh se nivritti chahata hai. du:kh kyon hota hai, ise kis tarah sada ke lie door kiya ja sakata hai- ye hi manushy ke lie shashvat jvalant prashn hain. in prashnon ka uttar dhoondhana hi gyan prapt karana hai. 'kapil darshan' men prakriti-purush-vivek-khyati (gyan) 'sattvapurushanyathakhyati' is gyan ko hi kaha jata hai. yah gyanavardhak khyati hi 'snkhya' men nihit 'gyan' roop hai. at: snkhya shabd 'samyakh gyan' ke ardh men bhi grihit hota hai. is gyan ko prastut karane ya niroopan karane vale darshan ko sankhy darshan kaha jata hai.

  • 'sankhy' shabd ki nishpatti gananarthak 'snkhya' se bhi mani jati hai. aisa manane men koee visngati bhi nahin hai.
  • daau. adyaprasad mishr likhate hain-'aisa pratit hota hai ki jab tattvon ki snkhya nishchit nahin ho paee thi tab sankhy ne sarvapratham is drishyaman bhautik jagat ki sookshm mimansa ka prayas kiya tha jisake phalasvaroop usake mool men vartaman tattvon ki snkhya samanyat: chaubis nirdharit ki gee.[3]' lekin achary 'udayavir shastri' gananarthak nishpatti ko yuktisngat nahin manate 'kyonki any darshanon men bhi padarthon ki niyat ganana karake unaka vivechan kiya gaya hai. sankhy pad ka mool gyanarthak 'snkhya' pad hai gananarthak nahin.[4]'hamare vichar men gananarthak aur gyanarthak- dono roopon men sankhy ki sarthakata hai. uddeshy-prapti men vividh roop men 'ganana' ke arth men 'sankhy' ko svikar kiya ja sakata hai. shantiparv men donon hi arth ek sath svikar kiye gaye hain.[5]

snkhyan prakurvate chaiv prakritin ch prachakshate.
tattvani ch chaturvinshath ten sankhya: prakirtita:॥[6]

  • prakriti purush ke vivek-gyan ka upadesh dene, prakriti ka pratipadan karane tatha tattvon ki snkhya chaubis nirdharit karane ke karan ye darshanik 'sankhy' kahe gaye hain.
  • 'snkhya' ka arth samajhate hue shanti parv men kaha gaya hai-

doshanan ch gunanan ch pramann pravibhagat:.
knchidardhamamiprety sa snkhyetyupadharyatamh॥[7]

arthat jahan kisi vishesh arth ko abhisht manakar usake doshon aur gunon ka pramanayukt vibhajan (ganana) kiya jata hai, use snkhya samajhana chahie. spasht hai ki tattv-vibhajan ya ganana bhi pramanapoorvak hi hoti hai. at: 'sankhy' ko gananarthak bhi mana jay to usamen gyanarthak bhav hi pradhan hota hai. nishkarshat: ham kah sakate hain ki 'sankhy' shabd men snkhya gyanarthak aur gananarthak donon hi hai. ab prashn uthata hai ki snskrit vanamay men 'sankhy' shabd kisi bhi prakar ke mokshonmukh gyan ke lie prayukt hua hai ya kapil pranit sankhy darshan ke lie prayukt hua hai? isake uttar ke lie katipay prasngon par charcha apekshit hai.
  • shri pulin bihari chakravarti ne charak snhita ke do prasngon ko uddhrit karate hue unake arth ke sambandh men apana nishkarsh prastut kiya. ve uddharan hain-

sankhyai: snkhyat-snkhyeyai: sahasinn punarvasumh.
jagadvitarth paprachchh vahnivnsh: svasnshayamh॥
yatha va adityaprakashakastatha sankhyavachann prakashamiti
ayann punarakhyatametadh yogasyayogibhi:.
snkhyatadharmai: sankhyaishch muktaurmokshasy chayanamh॥
sarvabhavasvabhavgyo yatha bhavati nisprih:.
yogn yatha sadhayate sankhy sampadyate yatha॥

  • pratham prasng men shri chakravarti snkhya ko samyak-gyan v gyata ke roop men prayukt manate hain aur
  • dvitiy prasng men spashtat: sankhy darshanabodhak. yahan yah vicharaniy hai ki charak snhitakar ke samay tak ek vyavasthit darshan ke roop men kapilokt darshan sankhy ke 'p men supratishthit tha aur charak snhitakar is tathy se parichit the. tab pratham prasng men 'sankhy' shabd ke upayog ke samay ek darshan sampraday ka dhyan rakhate hue hi ukt shabd ka upayog kiya gaya hoga. snbhav hai kapilaprokt darshan mool men chikitsakiy shastr men bhi apani bhoomika nibhata raha ho aur us drishti se chikitsakiy shastr ko bhi sankhy kaha gaya ho.[8] isase to sankhy darshan ki vyapakata ka hi snket milata hai[9] at: donon prasngon men vidvan, gyan adi shabd 'sankhy gyan' ke roop men grahy ho sakata hai.
  • ahirbudhnyasnhita ke barahaven adhyay men kaha gaya hai-

sankhyaroopen snkalpo vaishnav: kapiladrishe:.
udito yadrish: poorvn tadrishn shrrinu meadhuna॥18॥
shashtibhedn smritn tantrn sankhyn nam mahamune:॥19॥

yahan 'sankhy' shabd ko samyak gyan v kapil darshan 'sankhy' donon hi arthon men grahan kiya ja sakata hai. sankhy roop men (samyak gyan roop men) poorv men kapil dvara snkalp jis roop men prastut kiya gaya hai- 'mujhase suno. mahamuni ka sath padarthon ke vivechan se yukt shastr 'sankhy' nam se kaha jata hai. 'sankhyaroopen' usako samyak gyan v 'sankhy darshan' donon hi arthon men samajha ja sakata hai. yahan mahabharat shantiparv ka yah kathan ki 'amoort paramatma ka akar sankhy shastr hai'- se paryapt samy smaran ho ata hai.
  • shvetashvatar upanishad men prayukt 'sankhyayogadhigamyamh[10]' ki vyakhya tatsthane n kar sharirak bhashy[11] men shnkar ne 'sankhy' shabd ko kapilaprokt shastr se anyatha vyakhyayit karane ka prayas kiya. shnkar kahate hain- 'yattu darshanamuktn tatkarann sankhy- yogabhipannamh iti, vaidikamev tatr gyanamh dhyann ch sankhyayogashabdabhyamabhilapyate' snbhavat: yah svikar kar lene men koee visngati nahin hogi ki yahan sankhy pad vaidik gyan ke lie prayukt hua hai. lekin kis prakar ke vaidik gyan ka lakshy kiya gaya hai, yah vicharaniy hai. shvetashvatar upanishad men jis darshan ko prastut kiya gaya hai vah 'bhokta bhogyn preritarn' ke trait ka darshan hai. rigved ke 'dva suparna'- mantransh se bhi trividh aj tattvon ka darshan prapt hota hi hai. mahabharat men upalabdh sankhy darshan bhi prayash: traitavadi hi hai.
  • daau. adyaprasad mishr ne thik hi kaha hai- 'trait maulik sankhy ki apani vishishtata thi, isase spasht hota hai ki maulik sankhy darshan ke isi traitavad ki prishthabhoomi men shvetashvatar ki rachana huee.[12]' at: is arth men sankhy shabd 'vaidikgyan' ke arth men grahan kiya jaye tab bhi nishkarsh men isaka lakshyarth kapilokt darshan hi grihit hota hai.
  • bhagavadgita men sankhy-yog shabdon ka prayog bhi vicharaniy hai kyonki vidvanon men yahan bhi kuchh matabhed hai. dvitiy adhyay ke unchalisaven shlok men kaha gaya hai- 'esha teabhihita sankhye buddhiryoge tviman shrrinu'.
  • anima senagupta ka mat hai ki yahan yah 'sankhy' saty gyan ki prapti ke atirikt any kisi roop men vyakhyayit nahin kiya ja sakata.[13] jabaki achary udayavir shastri ne bade vistar se ise kapilaprokt 'sankhy' ke arth men niroopit kiya. ukt shlok men shrikrishn kah rahe hain ki yah sab sankhy buddhi (gyan) kaha hai ab yog buddhi (gyan) suno. yahan vicharaniy yah hai ki yadi 'sankhy' shabd gyanarthak hai, sampraday-vishesh nahin, tav sankhy 'buddhi' kahakar punarookti ki avashyakata kya thi? buddhi shabd se kathaniy 'gyan' ka bhav to sankhy ke 'khyati' men a hi jata hai. 'sankhy' buddhi men yah dhvanit hota hai ki 'sankhy' mano koee pranali ya marg hai, usaki buddhi ya 'gyan' ki bat kahi gee hai. vah chintan ki pranali ya marg gita men prastut men gyan ya darshan hi hoga. gita men jis mukt bhav se sankhy darshan ke paribhashik shabdon ya avadharanaon ka prayog kiya gaya hai usase yahi spasht hota hai ki vah 'sankhy' gyan hi hai. at: sankhy shabd ko gita ka ek paribhashik shabd man lene par bhi usaka lakshyarth kapil ka sankhy shastr hi niroopit hota hai.
  • bhagavadgita ke hi tisare adhyay ke tisare shlok men 'sankhy' shabd ka prayog hua hai. kaha gaya hai-

lokeasmindvividha nishtha pura prokta mayanagh.
gyanayogen sankhyanan karmayogen yoginamh॥ gita 3.3॥

yahan bhi do prakar ke margon ya nishtha ki charcha ki gee hain-
  1. gyanamarg
  2. karm-marg. vicharaniy yah hai ki jab 'karmayogen yoginan' kaha ja sakata hai tab 'gyanayogen gyanina' n kahakar 'sankhyanan' kyon kaha gaya? nishchay hi 'gyanayogiyon' ke 'gyan' ke vishesh svaroop ka ullekh abhisht tha. vah vishesh gyan kapilokt shastr hi hai, yah gita tatha mahabharat ke shanti parv se spasht ho jata hai. 'yadev yoga: pashyanti sankhyaistadanugamyate[14]' isilie shanti parv men vasishth ki hi tarah gita men shrikrishn bhi kahate hain- 'sankhyayogau prithagbala: pravadanti n pandita:.[15]'
  • shantiparv tatha gita men to saman vaky se ek hi bat kahi gee hai- 'ekn sakhyn ch yogn ch y: pashyati s pashyati.[16]'
  • gita mahabharat ka hi ansh hai. at: prachalit shabdavali ko saman roop men hi grahan kiya jana uchit hai. gita men prayukt 'sankhy' shabd bhi chahe vah gyanarthak matr kyon n pratit hota ho, kapilaprokt shastr ke roop men grahan karana chahie.
  • mahabharat ke shantiparv men prayukt 'sankhy' shabd ka lakshyarth to itana spasht hai ki us par kuchh kahane ki avashyakata hi nahin. itana hi ullekhaniy hai ki kapil aur sankhy ka sambandh, aur sankhy darshan ki shabdavali ka puratan vyapak prachar-prasar is bat ka dyotak hai ki yah ek atyant yuktisngat darshan raha hai. aise darshan ki or vidvanon ka akrisht hona, us par vichar karana aur apane vicharon ko ukt darshan se samarthit ya snyukt batana bahut svabhavik hai. jis tarah vedant darshan ki prasthanatrayi men gita ka itana mahattv hai ki pray: sabhi acharyon ne is par bhashy rache aur apane mat ko gitanusar batane ka prayas kiya. isi tarah gyan ke vibhinn pakshon men ruchi rakhane vale vidvanon ne apane vicharon ko sankhy roop hi de diya ho to kya ashchary? aise vikas ki prakriya men mool darshan ke vyakhya-bhed se anek sampradayon ka janm bhi ho jana svabhavik hai. apani ruchi, uddeshy aur avashyakata ke anusar vidvan vibhinn pakshon men se kisi ko gaun, kisi ko mahattvapoorn manate hain aur tadanuroop granth rachana bhi karate hain. at: kisi ek mat ko mool kahakar shesh ko anyatha ghoshit kar dena uchit pratit nahin hota. samast vaidik sahity vedon ki mahatta, upayogita aur avashyakatanusar vibhinn kalon men prastuti hi hai. kabhi karm ygy adi ko mahattvapoorn manakar to kabhi jivant jigyasa ko mahattvapoorn manakar vedon ki mool bhavana ko prastut kiya gaya. isase kisi ek paksh ko avaidik kahane ka to koee auchity nahin. paramarshi kapil ne bhi vedon ko darshanik gyan ko tark buddhi par adharit karake prastut karane ka saphal prayas kiya. isamen tarkabuddhi ki pahunch se pare kisi vishay ko chhod diya 'pratit' ho to itane matr se kapil darshan ko avaidik nahin kaha ja sakata.

sankhy darshan ki vedamoolakata

  • sankhy darshan ki vaidikata par vichar karane se poorv vaidik ka abhipray spasht karana abhisht hai. ek ardh vaidik kahane ka to yah hai ki jo darshan vedon men hai vahi sankhy darshan men bhi ho. vedon men bataye gaye manavadarsh ko svikar karake use prapt karane ke lie svatntr roop se vichar kiya gaya ho, to yah bhi vaidik hi kaha jayega. ab vedon men kis prakar ka darshan hai, is vishay men matabhed to snbhav hai lekin paraspar virodhi matavaibhinny ho, to nishchay hi unamen se avaidik darshan ki khoj ki ja sakati hai. vedon men srishtikarta paramatma ki svaroop charcha men, jagat jiv ke sath paramatma ke sambandhon ke bare men matabhed hai. tab bhi ye sabhi darshan vaidik kahe ja sakate hain, yadi ve vedon ko apana darshan-mool svikar karate hon. lekin yadi koee darshan paramatma ki satta ko hi asvikar kare to use paramatma ki satta ko n manane vale darshan ke roop men svikar karake hi kiya jata hai. is mat men kitani satyata ya pramanikata hai yah sankhy darshan ke svaroop ko spasht karane par svat: spasht ho javega.
  • mahabharat shantiparv men kaha gaya hai ki vedon men, sankhy men tatha yog shastr men jo kuchh bhi gyan is lok men hai vah sab sankhy se hi agat hai. ise atirnjit kathan bhi mana jaye to bhi, itana to spasht hai ki mahabharat ke rachanakar ke anusar tab tak vedon ke atirikt sankhy shastr aur yog shastr bhi pratishthit ho chuke the aur unamen vichar samy bhi hai. at: isase yah svikar karane men sahayata to milati hi hai ki ved aur sankhy paraspar virodhi nahin hain.
  • shanti parv men hi kapil-syoomarashmi ka snvad[17] prachin itihas ke roop men bhishm ne prastut kiya. isamen kapil ko sattvagun men sthit gyanavan kahakar parichit karaya gaya. mahabharatakar ne kapil ka sankhy-pravartak ke roop men ullekh kiya, sankhyacharyon ki soochi men bhi ek hi kapil ka ullekh kiya aur 'syoomarashmi-snvad' men ullikhit kapil ka sankhy-praneta kapil se parthaky dikhane ka koee snket nahin diya, tab yah manane men koee anauchity nahin hai ki yah kapil sankhy-praneta kapil hi hain.[18]
  • uparyukt snvad men syoomarashmi dvara kapil par vedon ki pramanikata par sndeh ka akshep lagane par kapil kahate hain- 'nahn vedanh vinindami[19]'
  • isi snvad kram men kapil pun: kahate hain 'veda: pramann lokanan n veda: prishthat: krita:[20]' phir vedon ki mahima ka varnan karate hue kahate hain.[21]

vedanshch veditavyn ch viditva ch yathasthitimh.
evn ved vidityahuratoany vatarechak:॥
sarve vidurvedavido vede sarvn pratishthitamh.
vede hi nishtha sarvasy yadh yadasti ch nasti ch॥

  • ukt vicharayukt kapil ko avaidik kahana kadapi uchit pratit nahin hota. phir, kapil pranit sootr dvara ved ke svat:pramany ko svikar kiya gaya hai- 'nijashakyabhivyakte svat:pramanyamh[22]' is sootr men aniruddh, vigyanabhikshu adi bhashyakaron ne svat:pramany ko spasht kiya hai.
  • sankhyakarika men 'aptashrutiraptavachanamh[23]' kahakar ved pramany ko svikar kiya gaya hai. 5vin karika ke bhashy men vachaspati mishr kahate hain- 'tachch svat:pramanyamh, apaurusheyavedavakyajanitatven sakaladoshashnkavinirmutven yuktn bhavati.' itana hi nahin, 'vedamoolasmrititihasapuranavakyajanitamapi gyann yuktn bhavati' kaha hai.
  • vedashrit smriti, itihas, puran vaky se utpann gyan bhi jab nirdosh mana jata hai, tab ved ki to bat hi kya? isi karika ki vritti men mathar kahate hai- 'at: brahmaday: acharya:, shrutirvedastadetadubhayamaptavachanamh.' is tarah sankhy shastr ke granthon men vedon ka svat: pramany svikar karake use bhi 'praman' roop men svikar karate hain. tab sankhy shastr ko avaidik ya ved viruddh kahana kathamapi samichin nahin jan padata.
  • sankhy darshan men prachalit paribhashik shabdavali bhi ise vaidik niroopit karane men ek mahattvapoorn sakshy hai. 'purush' shabd ka upayog manushy, atma, chetana adi ke ardh men vaidik vanamay men anek sthalon par upalabdh hai. lekin 'purush' shabd ka darshan shastriy prayog karate hi jis darshan ka smaran tatkal ho uthata hai vah sankhy darshan hai. isi tarah avyakt, mahat, tanmatr, trigun, sattv, rajash, tamas adi shabd bhi sankhy darshan men darshan ki snrachana inhin shabdon men prastut kiya gaya hai. at: chahe vaidik sahity se ye shabd sankhy men ae hon ya sankhy parampara se inamen ge hon, itana nishkarsh to nikala hi ja sakata hai ki sankhy darshan vaidik hai. shaddarshan men sankhy darshan ko rakhana aur bharatiy darshan ki sudirdh parampara men ise astik darshan manana bhi sankhy ki vaidikata ka spasht udghosh hi hai.

sankhy sahity

sankhyapravachanabhashy

  • sankhyapravachanasootr par achary vigyanabhikshu ka bhashy hai. achary vigyanabhikshu ne sankhyamat pun: pratishthit kiya. vigyanabhikshu ka samay achary udayavir shastri ke anusar sanh 1350 ee. ke poorv ka hona chahie. adhikansh vidvan inhen 15vin-16vin shatabdi ka manate hain. vigyanabhikshu ki kritiyon men sankhyapravachanabhashy ke atirikt yogavartik, yogasar sngrah, vigyanamritabhashy, sankhyasar adi pramukh rachanayen hain. sankhy darshan ki parnpara men vigyanabhikshu ne hi sarvapratham sankhyamat ko shruti aur smritisammat roop men prastut kiya. sankhy darshan par lage avaidikata ke akshep ka bhi inhonne saphalata poorvak nirakaran kiya. apani rachanaon ke madhyam se achary ne sankhy darshan ka jo atyant prachin kal men supratishthit vaidik darshan mana jata tha, ka virodh parihar karate hue parimarjan kiya.
  • sankhyakarika-vyakhya ke adhar par prachalit sankhyadarshan men kee spashtikaran v snshodhan vigyanabhikshu ne kiya. pray: sankhyadarshan men tin ant:karanon ki charcha milati hai. sankhyakarika men bhi ant:karan trividh[24] kahakar is mat ko svikar kiya. lekin vigyanabhikshu ant:karan ko ek hi manate hain. unake anusar 'yadyapyekamevant:karann vrittibheden trividhn laghavath' sa.pr.bha. 1/64). achary vigyanabhikshu se poorv karikavyakhyaon ke adhar par prachalit darshan men do hi sharir sookshm tatha sthool manane ki parampara rahi hai. lekin achary vigyanabhikshu tin shariron ki manyata ko yuktisngat manate hain. sookshm sharir bina kisi adhishthan ke nahin raha sakata, yadi sookshm sharir ka adhar sthool sharir hi ho to sthool sharir se utkranti ke pashchath lokantar gaman sookshm sharir kis prakar kar sakata hai? vigyanabhikshu ke anusar sookshm sharir bina adhishthan sharir ke nahin rah sakata at: sthool sharir ko chhodakar sharir hi hai[25]. . 'anagushthamatr:purushoantaratma sada jana hridaye sannivisht:[26]', angushthamatrn purushn s[27]- adi shruti-smriti ke praman se adhishthan sharir ki siddhi karate hain.
  • any sankhyacharyon se ling sharir ke vishay men vigyanabhikshu bhinn mat rakhate hain. vachaspati mishr, mathar, shnkarachary adi ki tarah aniruddh tatha mahadev vedanti ne bhi ling sharir ko attharah tattvon ka svikar kiya. inake viparit vigyanabhikshu ne sootr 'saptadashaikamh lingamh[28]' ki vyakhya karate hue 'satrah' tattvon vala 'ek' aisa svikar karate hain. vigyanabhikshu aniruddh ki is manyata ki ki sankhyadarshan aniyatapadarthavadi hai- katu shabdon men alochana karate hain[29] aniruddh ne kee sthalon par sankhy darshan ko aniyat padarthavadi kaha hai. 'kin chaniyatapadarthavadasmakamh[30]', 'aniyatapadarthavaditvatsankhyanamh[31]' isaki alochana men vigyanabhikshu ise moodh pralap ghoshit karate hain. unaka kathan hai ki -'eten sankhyanamaniyatapadarthabhyupagam iti moodhapralap upekshaniy:[32]' . vigyanabhikshukrit yah tippani uchit hi hai. sankhyadarshan men varg ki drishti se jad chetan, ajatattvon ki drishti se bhokta, bhogy aur prerak tatha samagraroop se tattvon ki snkhya 24, 25 va 26 adi mane ge hain. at: sankhy ko aniyatapadarthavadi kahana galat hai. han, ek arth men yah aniyat padarthavadi kaha ja sakata hai yadi padarth ka arth indriy jagath men gochan nanavidhi vastu grahan kiya jay. sattv rajash tamash ki paraspar abhinav, janan, mithun, pratikriyaon se asnkhy padarth utpann hote hain jinake bare men niyataroop se kuchh nahin kaha ja sakata.
  • aniruddh pratyaksh ke do bhed-nirvikalp tatha savikalp, ki charcha karate hue savikalp pratyaksh ko smritijany at: manojany, manate hain. vigyanabhikshu isaka khandan karate hain. vigyanabhikshu aniruddhavritti ko lakshy kar kahate hain- 'kashchittu savikalpakn tu manomatrajanyamiti' lekin 'nirvikalpakn savikalpakaroopn dvividhamapyaindrikamh' hain. achary udayavir shastri ne bhog vishayak aniruddh mat ka bhi vigyan bhikshu ki manyata se bhed ka ullekh kiya hai[33]. tadanusar aniruddh gyan bhog adi ka snpain buddhi men manate hain. vigyanabhikshu ukt mat upekshaniy kahate hue kahate hain. 'evn hi buddhirev gyatritve chidavasano bhog: ityagami sootradvayavirodh: purushon prabhanabhavashch. purushalingasy bhogasy buddhavev svikarath[34]'. yadi gyatritv bhoktritvadi ko briddhi men hi man liya gaya tab chidavasano bhog:[35] vyarth ho jayega. sath hi bhoktribhavath kahakar purush ki astitvasiddhi men diya gaya praman bhi purush ki apeksha buddhi ki hi siddhi karega. tab purush ko pramanit kis tarah kiya ja sakega.
  • sankhy darshan ko svatntr pradhan karanavadi ghoshit kar sankhyavirodhi prakriti purush snyog ki asnbhavana ka akshep lagate hain. vigyanabhikshu pratham sankhyachary hai, jinhonne snyog ke lie eeshvarechchha ko mana. vigyanabhikshu eeshvaravadi darshanik the. lekin sankhy darshan men eeshvar pratishedh ko ve is darshan ki durbalata manate hain[36]. vigyanabhikshu ke anusar sankhy darshan men eeshvar ka khandan pramanapekshaya hi hai. eeshvar ki siddhi pramanon (pratyakshanuman) se nahin ki ja sakati isalie sootrakar eeshvarasiddhe:[37] kahate hain. yadi eeshvar ki satta ki asvikrit vanchhit hoti to 'eeshvarabhavath'- aisa sootrakar kah dete. is prakar vigyanabhikshu sankhy darshan men eeshvar ki satta ko svikar karake yog, vedant tatha shruti-smriti ki dhara men sankhy darshan ko la dete hain, jaisa ki mahabharat puranadi men vah upalabdh tha. is tarah vigyanabhikshu sankhy darshan ko usaki prachin parampara ke anusar hi vyakhyayit karate hain. aisa karake ve sankhy, yog tatha vedant ke pratiyaman virodhon ka parihar kar samanvay karate hain. pratipady vishay men pramukhata ka bhed hote hue bhi siddhantat: ye tinon hi darshan shruti-smriti ke anuroop vikasit darshan hain. advaitachary shnkar ne vibhinn astik darshanon ka khandan karate hue jis tarah advaitavad ko hi shrutimoolak darshan bataya usase yah manyata prachalit ho chali thi ki inaka vedant se virodh hai. vigyanabhikshu hi aise pratham sankhyachary hain jinhonne kisi darshan ko 'mall' ghoshit n kar ek hi dharatal par samanvit roop men prastut kiya.
  1. sankhyasootravrittisar-aniruddhavritti ka saransh hi hai jisake rachayita mahadev vedanti hain.
  2. bhashyasar vigyanabhikshukrit sankhyapravachanabhashy ka sar hai jisake rachayita nagesh bhatt hain.
  3. sarvopakarini tika yah agyat vyakti ki tattvasamas sootr par tika hai.
  4. sankhyasootravivaran tattv samas sootr par agyat vyakti ki tika hai.
  5. kramadipika bhi tattvasamas sootr ki tika hai karta ka nam gyat nahin hai.
  6. tattvayatharthyadipan- tatvasamas ko yah tika vigyanabhikshu ke shishy bhavaganesh ki rachana hai yah bhikshu vicharanuroop tika hai.
  7. sankhyatattv vivechana- yah bhi tatvasamas sootr ki tika hai jisake rachayita shimanand ya kshemendr hain.
  8. sankhyatattvalok- sankhyayog siddhanton par hariharanand arany ki kriti hai.
  9. puranetihasayo: sankhyayog darshanavimarsh: - namak pustak puranon men upalabdh sankhyadarshan ki tulanatmak prastuti hai. isake lekhak da. shrikrishnamani tripathi hain. aur isaka prakashan, sampoornanand snskrit vishvavidyalay se sanh 1979 ee. men hua.
  10. sankhyayogakosh:- lekhak achary kedaranath tripathi varanasi se sanh 1974 ee. men prakashit.
  11. shriramashnkar bhattachary ne sankhyasar ki tika tatha tattvayatharthyadipan satippan ki rachana ki. donon hi pustaken prakashit hain[38].

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahabharat shanti parv, adhyay 301
  2. ensa. prishth 5 par uddhrit
  3. ensa. prishth 5 par uddhrit
  4. san. d.ai.p.
  5. san. si. prishth 20
  6. shanti parv 306/42-43
  7. shanti parv 306/42-43
  8. ode san/si.
  9. ode san/si.
  10. shvetashvataropanishad (6/13
  11. 2/1/3
  12. san. d. ai. p.
  13. i.sa.dha.
  14. mahabharat shanti parv, gita
  15. gita
  16. shanti parv men 'sapashyati' ke sthan par 's buddhiman' hai.
  17. adhyay 268-270
  18. shri pulin bihari chakravarti is prasng men kapil ko sankhy-praneta kapil mane jane ki snbhavana ko to svikar karate hain lekin vedon tatha any sthanon par kapil ke ullekh tatha sankhy-praneta kapil se unake sambandh ke vishay par spasht pramanon ke abhav men ise pramanik nahin manate. (o.de.san.si. prishth
  19. shanti parv. 268.12
  20. shanti parv adhyay 268-70
  21. shanti parv adhyay 268-70
  22. 5/51
  23. karika 5
  24. karika 33
  25. vahi- 1/12
  26. kathopanishad 1॥6. 17
  27. mahabharat vanaparv 397/17
  28. 3/9
  29. sankhyanamaniyatapadarthamyupagam iti moodhapralap upekshaniy:. san.pr.bha. 1/61
  30. san. soo. 1/.45
  31. 5/85
  32. sa.pr.bha. 1/61
  33. san. d.i. prishth 348-49
  34. sa.pr.bha. 1/99
  35. sootr 1/104
  36. san. pr.bha. 1/92
  37. sootr 1/92
  38. adhunik kal men rachit any kuchh rachanaon ke lie drashtavy ensayaklapidiya aph indiyan philasaphi bhag-4

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

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