bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

अस्तित्ववाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

astitvavad (ekzistenshiyalijm) ek navin yooropiy darshan ya vicharadhara ka hindi paryay. vastut: yah ek susngat darshan n hokar kee vicharadharaon ka samany nam hai, jo vyakti ke 'astitv' ko pradhanata deti hai. usake anusar kant ke bad sab adarshavadi aur bhautikavadi darshanik saiddhantik roop se prameyon ki charcha karate rahe hain, unaka vishay manushy ka 'sar' (manavata) raha hai, parntu manav ka yatharth 'astitv' nahin. 'ekzistens prisids eshens'-is sararoop gun samany se pahale janm-saty ki bhanti astitvavad mrityu ko pradhan manakar , manushy ko apane jivan ki disha ka nidarshan nirnayak manata hai. vyakti ki yah chunane ki shakti, sarthak kshanon men se nirnay karane ki snkalp-vikalp-shakti hi manushy ki svatntrata ki shart hai. anyatha maut to ant hai hi. manushy nirntar ant ki or gir rah hai, manushy vivash, asamarth, asahay aur pravahapatit ki bhanti hai. is avastha ka bhan prachin snton ne bhi bar bar karaya tha. snt agastin, dyoos skats, paskal adi sabane isaki charcha ki hai. parntu astitvavad nirashamay niyativad nahin hai. vah 'manavi avasthiti' ki is chunauti ko svikar karake chalata hai. den tatvgy saren kirkegard[1] ne apane grnth 'bhanti ki bhavana', 'bhay aur knp' adi men isaki charcha ki. 20vin shatabdi ke arnbh se ab tak yaspars aur haidegar men, jarmani men, shestov aur bedoyev men, roos men, unamyuno men, spen men, phrans men gatvar, grenie jyan pal sartr, kemua, vyavoee, anrdr, malaro adi men astitvadi darshan ke lakshan dikhaee dete hain, yadyapi inamen se kee lekhak apane ko astitvadi nahin manate.

dastaevski aur phranz kafka ke upanyason men bhi astitvavadi darshan ke lakshan milate hain. ab astitvavadi darshanikon lekhakon men bhi do dal ho ge hain ek eeshvaravadi hai aur doosara anishvaravadi. eeshvaravadi ya eesaee astitvavadiyon men gaibriel marsal, kirkegard, yaspars, elen adi hain. nirishvaravadiyon men sartr, kaimua adi any lekhak. yoorop men astitvavad ka mahatv gat do mahayuddhon ki vibhishika ke bad adhik ubharakar samane aya.[2]

astitvavad ko marksavadiyon aur roman kaitholikon donon se ghor virodh mila hai. manav jivan ki kshudrata par jor dene ke karan marksavadi ise jntuvadi aur nirashavadi darshan kahate hain. kaitholik to ise spashtat: anuttaradayi darshan manate hain. astitvavad ka kuchh kshin prabhav adhunik bharatiy sahity par bhi parilakshit hone laga hain. vishuddh astitvavad ki parinati nirashavad aur shoonyavad men ho rahi hai. vah ek snkara vyaktivadi darshan hai, aisa usapar arop hai.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1813-55
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 310 |
  3. sn.grn.-ee. monier: introdakshan aauv evizastenshiyalijm (1947); ech. ee. rid : ekzistenshiyalijm, markisajam aind anakijm (1947); el.je. blakaham : aikzistenshiyalist thinkars (1947); je.pi.sarki : aikzistenshiyalijm aind hmoomainijm.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah