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अध्यात्मवाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

adhyatmavad us vicharadhara ka nam hai, jisamen atma ko hi sabaka mool mana jata hai. upanishadon tatha mahabharat men adhyatm shabd ka prayog 'sharir' ke arth men hua hai, kintu kalantar men chaitany atmatattv ke arth men yah shabd roodh ho gaya. pashchim men grik darshanik aphalatoon ne sarvapratham is vishay par vichar kiya. usane snsar ke mool men abhautik tattv ki sthiti mani aur use 'indiya' (aidiya) nam diya. usake bad un sabhi darshanon ke lie 'aidiyalizm' shabd ka vyavahar hone laga, jinake anusar bhautik jagath ka mool abhautik tattv hai. adhyatmavad aur 'aidiyalizm' samanarthak shabd hain.[1]

gyan, gyata aur vishay

gyan jiv ko jad se prithakh karata hai. gyan ke lie gyan ka vishay, gyata aur vishay tatha gyata ka snbndh (gyan) hona avashyak hai. inamen se ek ke bhi abhav men gyan snbhav nahin hai. phir bhi tinon men se gyata ka sthan mahatvapoorn hai, kyonki gyata ke abhav men vishay aur snbndh ka koee arth nahin. yatharthavadi darshanik gyan ko vishay aur snbndh se utpann gun manate hain. kintu jab vishay jad hai aur gyata (atma) chetan hai, tab in donon men svabhavabhed hone ke karan kary-karan-bhav snbndh kaise ho sakata hai? is prashn ke uttar men kuchh darshanik atma ko bhi prithvi, jal adi ki tarah dravy man lete hain aur kuchh atma ki chetanata ki raksha karane ke lie vishay ko atma se abhinn manate hain. kintu gyata yadi prithvi adi ki tarah ek padarth hai tatha gyan usaka gun matr hai to vah gyata apane ap men patthar ki tarah chetana shoony tattv hoga. sath hi yah bhi prashn uthata hai ki gyata svayn gyan ka vishay nahin hota hai ya nahin. gyata ko bhi gyan ka vishay man lene par gyata ko jitane vale ek alag gyata ki sthiti manani padegi. is tarah alag gyata manane ka koee ant n hoga. yadi gyata svayn bhi nahin janata to 'main janata hoon', is anubhav ka kya hoga? isalie gyata ko chetan svaroop manana chahie, chetana aur gyata men gun-guni-snbndh tark ki drishti se asngat hai.

gyan ka mool adhar

chetan atma sabhi gyan ka mooladhar hai. par is atma ka jad vishay ke sath snbndh kaise snbhav hai? adhyatmavad men is prashn ka uttar dene ke lie vishay ko gyata se aprithakh mana gaya hai. gyan men pratibhasit vishay sarvada bauddhik hota hai, padarth apane bhautik roop men gyan ke vishay nahin hote. mano ek hi atma gyata aur gyey ke roop men dvidha vibhakt hokar gyan ki utpatti karati hai. vishay aur gyata ko ek tattv ke hi do roop man lene par svabhavat: bahm jagath ka astitv svapnavat manana padega. kintu svapn aur jagrat ka antar sarvanubhavasiddh hai. yogachar bauddh darshan tatha gaudavad ke mat men svapn aur jagath ke anubhav men vastavik bhed nahin hai. at: adhyatmavad ke mool siddhanton men satta ke do ya tin star svikar kie ge hain. vyavaharik roop se ham jagrat avastha ke anubhavon ko svapnavastha se prithakh manate hain. is bhed ka mool karan hai svapn ka mithyatv. vastu ka jo roop anubhoot hota hai, kalantar men usaka apalap ho jata hai, isalie usaka anubhavagamy roop hi milata hai.[1]

mithyatv

svapn men anubhoot vishay isi karan jagrat avastha men mithya kahe jate hain. at: svapn ke vishayon ko paramarthik drishti se 'svabhavashoony' kaha ja sakata hai. mithyatv ke is lakshan ko jagrath‌ anubhav men ane vale vishayon par bhi lagoo kiya gaya hai. isilie madhyamik darshan tatha paravarti advait vedant men vishad roop se jagrat anubhav ke vishayon ko unaki nashvarata ke karan svapn ke vishayon ki tarah mithya mana gaya hai. mithyatv ke is lakshan ke adhar par yah bhi kaha gaya hai ki jo tattv apane ap men poorn hoga, jise apani sthiti ke lie doosare ki avashyakata n hogi, vahi tattv saty hai. anubhavagamy vishay sapeksh hote hain. at: ve poorn saty ki paribhasha men nahin a sakate. sath hi, poornata aur asimata paryayavachi shabd hain.

sapekshata ya dvait bhavana poornata ka vinash karati hai. at: charam tattv nity, annt aur dvitiy rahit advay tattv hi ho sakata hai. yah advay tattv chetan hai, kyonki chetan ke bina jad ki sthiti, snsar ka nirman, asnbhav hai. at: adhyatmavad men atma ko hi paratpar ek tattv mana gaya hai. yadi atma hi tattv hai to usaka is jagath se kaisa snbndh ho sakata hai? adhyatmavad men isi prashn ko lekar kee avantar vad utpann hue hain. advait vedant men 'maya' ko atma aur jad ka chetan ke roop men prakat hoti hai. at: snsar maya nirmit evn atma ki drishti se asath‌ kaha jata hai. kintu atma is snsar ke mool men hai, isalie yah atma se alag bhi nahin hai. is drishti se yadyapi snsar ki vastuen prithak-prithakh atma ka vastavik roop prakat nahin kar patin, phir bhi ve kisi had tak atma ka apoorn pratik hain. braidale aur higel jaise pashchaty darshanik tattv ke samagr roop men star ka bhed manate hain.[1]

saty se sakshatkar

yadi vastu atma ka apoorn roop aur sapeksh satta hai to vastu ko apane ap men nahin jana ja sakata. choonki asath‌ se sath‌ ki utpatti snbhav nahin hai. at: snsar ke mool men kisi satta ki sthiti bhi avashyak hai. in donon drishtiyon ko milane par yah nishkarsh nikala jata hai ki yadyapi vastu apane ap men kya hai, yah nahin kaha ja sakata[2], tathapi vastu ka mool saty men nihit hai. gyan ki simaon (shreniyan) ke bhitar padane vali sapeksh, anity, dikkalavachchhinn vastuon ka parishilan karane vali prgya vishay nirapeksh, dikkalatit tattv ka sakshatkar karane men asamarth hai. at: us tattv ka abhas matr hota hai. tattv ka vastavik gyan sakshatkar ke bina snbhav nahin, aur sakshatkar gyata-gyey-gyan ki 'triputi' se pare hone par bhi snbhav hai. at: saty ke sakshatkar ka arth hai, 'satyamay' ho jana.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 adhyatmavad (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 15 faravari, 2014.
  2. anirvachaniyatavad

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