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ज्ञानमीमांसा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gyanamimansa darshanashastr ki ek shakha hai. darshanashastr ka dhyey sath‌ ke svaroop ko samajhana hai. sadiyon se vicharak yah khoj karate rahe hain, parntu kisi nishchit nishkarsh se ab bhi utane hi door pratit hote hain, jitana pahale the. sadiyon se sath‌ ke vishay men vivad hota raha hai.

vidvan

adhunik kal men 'dekart' (1596-1650 ee.) ko dhyan aya ki prayatn ki asaphalata ka karan yah hai ki darshanik kuchh agrim kalpanaon ko lekar chalate rahe hain. darshanashastr ko ganit ki nishchitata tabhi prapt ho sakati hai, jab yah kisi dharana ko, jo svat: siddh nahin, pramanit kie bina n manen. usane vyapak sndeh se arnbh kiya. usaki apani chetana use aisi vastu dikhaee di, jisake astitv men sndeh hi nahin ho sakata. sndeh to apane ap chetana ka ek akar ya svaroop hai. is ninv par usane apane vichar men, paramatma aur srishti ke astitv ko siddh kiya. dekart ki vivechan-vidhi nee thi, parntu poorvajon ki tarah usaka anurag bhi tatvgyan men hi tha.[1]

  • 'jan laauk' (1632-1704 ee.) ne apane liye naya marg chuna. sadiyon se sath‌ ke vishay men vivad hota raha hai. pahale to yah janana avashyak hai ki hamare gyan ki pahunch kahan tak hai. isi se ye prashn bhi jude the ki gyan kya hai aur kaise prapt hota hai. yoorop mahadvip ke darshanikon ne darshan ko ganit ka pratiroop dena chaha tha, laauk ne apana dhyan manovigyan ki or phera 'manav buddhi par nibndh' ki rachana ki. yah yugantakari pustak siddh huee, ise 'anubhavavad' ka mooladhar samajha jata hai.
  • 'jarj barkale' (1684-1753) ne laauk ki alochana men 'manavgyan' ke niyam likhakar 'anubhavavad' ko age badhaya, aur devid hyoom (1711-1776 ee.) ne 'manav prakriti' men ise charam sima tak pahuncha diya.
  • 'hyoom' ke vicharon ka vishesh mahatv yah hai ki unhonne kant (1724-1804 ee.) ke 'alochanavad' ke liye marg khol diya. kant ne 'gyanamimansa' ko darshanashastr ka kendriy prashn bana diya. kintu pashchim men gyanamimansa ko uchit pad prapt karane men badi der lagi.

gautam ka nyayasootr

bharat men kabhi isaki upeksha huee hi nahin. gautam ke nyayasootron men pahale sootr men hi 16 vicharavishayon ka varnan hua hai, jisake yatharth gyan se ni:shreyas ki prapti hoti hai. inamen pratham do vishay 'praman' aur 'pramey' hain. ye donon gyanamimansa aur gyey tatv hi hain. yah ullekhaniy hai ki in donon men bhi pratham sthan 'praman' ko diya gaya hai.

gyanamimansa men pramukh prashn

'gyan', 'gyata' aur 'gyey' ka snbndh hai. dekart ne apane anubhav ke vishleshan se arnbh kiya, parntu manushy samajik prani hai, usaka anubhav shoony men nahin vikasit hota. darshanashastr ka itihas vadavivad ki katha hai. pleto ne apana mat snvadon men vyakt kiya. snvad men ek se adhik chetanaon ka astitv svikar kiya jata hai. gyanamimansa men vivechan ka vishay vaiyaktik chetana nahin, apitu samajik chetana ban jati hai. gyan ka apana astitv to asndigdh hai, parntu isamen nimnalikhit svikritiyan bhi nihit hoti[1] hain-

  1. gyan se bhinn gyata hai, jise gyan hota hai.
  2. gyan ek se adhik gyataon ke snsarg ka phal hai.
  3. gyan ka vishay gyan se bhinn hai.

pratyek dharana saty hone ka dava karati hai. parntu mimansa is dave ko uchit janch ke bina svikar nahin kar sakata. ham abhi in dharanaon ki pariksha karenge, parntu pahale gyan ke svaroop par kuchh kahana avashyak hai.

gyan ka svaroop: sammati, vishvas aur gyan

jab ham kisi dharana ko sunate hain ya usaka chintan karate hain to us sabndh men hamari vritti is prakar ki hoti hai --

  1. ham use saty svikar karate hain.
  2. use asaty samajhakar asvikar karate hain.
  3. saty aur asaty men nishchay n kar saken, to svikriti asvikriti donon ko viram men rakhate hain. yah sndeh ki vritti hai.
  4. upanyas padhate hue ham apane apako kalpana ke jagath‌ men pate hain aur jo kuchh kaha jata hai, use ham us samay ke liye tathy man lete hain. yah 'kalpanik svikriti' hai.

gyan aur gyata

anubhavavad ke anusar, gyanasamagri ke do hi bhag hain- prabhav aur unake binb. dravy ke liye inamen koee gyan nahin. hyoom ne kaha ki jis tarah bhautik padarth gunasamooh ke atirikt kuchh nahin, usi tarah anubhavi anubhavon ke samooh ke atirikt kuchh nahin. in donon samoohon men ek bhed hai- kul ke sabhi gun ek sath vidyaman hote hain, chetan ki chetanavasthaen ek doosare ke bad prakat hoti hain. chetana shreni ya pnkti hai aur kisi pnkti ko apane ap pnkti hone ka bodh nahin ho sakata. hriday ki vyakhya men smaran shakti ke liye koee sthan nahin; jaise viliyam jems ne kaha, "anubhavavad ko smriti mangani padati hai." hyoom ko gyata gyanasamagri men nahin mila; vah vahan mil hi nahin sakata tha. anubhavavad ke liye prashn tha- anubhav kya batata hai? pichhe kant ne poochha- anubhav banata kaise hai? anubhav anubhavi ki kriya ke bina ban hi nahin sakata.[1]

purushabahutv

manushy samajik prani hai; hamara sara jivan aur manushyon ke sath vyatit hota hai. purushabahutv vyapak svikriti hai. mimansa ke liye prashn yah hai ki is svikriti ki sthiti dridh vishvas ki sthiti hai ya gyan ki? is vishay men svapn sndeh ka karan hai. svapn men main dekhata sunata pratit hota hoon; any manushyon ke sath snsarg bhi hota pratit hota hai. kya jagaran aur svapn ka bhi svapn ki pratiti to nahin? ahnvad ke anusar sari satta bhari kalpana hi hai. hamara samajik jivan ahnvad ka khndan hai, parntu prashn to samajik jivan ke snbndh men hi hai. kya yah jivan vishvas matr hi to nahin? ahnvad ke viruddh koee aisa praman nahin jise akhndaniy kah saken. jab ham aise sndeh se grast hote hain to, jaisa hyoom ne kaha hai, thode samay ke bad ham apane apako thaka pate hain aur hamara dhyan vivash hokar duniya ki or phirata hai, jisamen bhautik padarth bhi hain aur chetan prani bhi. jab buddhi kam nahin karati, prakriti hamari sahayata karati hai.

pratibodh mimansa

'anubhavavad' ke anusar sara gyan ant men prabhavon aur unake chitron se banata hai. prabhav men gunabodh aur vastuvad ka bhed kar sakate hain; chitr men pratibinb aur pratyay ka bhed hota hai. pratyek gyanendriy kisi vishesh gun ka charichay deti hai- ankh roop ka, kan shabd ka, nak gndh ka. in gunon ke samanvay se vastugyan prapt hota hai. ise pratibodh ya pratyaksh bhi kahate hain. aise bodh men gyan ka vishay gyata ke bahar hota hai; pratibinb aur pratyay andar hote hain. yah bahar aur andar ka bhed kalpana matr hai ya tathy hai, gyanamimansa men yah pramukh prashn raha hai. pratibodh ya pratyaksh gyan ne jitana dhyan akarshit kiya hai, utana gyanamimansa men kisi any prashn ne nahin kiya.

sankhy darshan ke anusar pratyaksh ke do pramukh chihn hain --

pratyaksh indriy aur vishay ke snpark ka parinam hota hai.
pratyaksh men chitt vishay ke akar ko grahan kar leta hai.

isaka arth yah hai ki "pratyaksh gyan kalpanamatr nahin hota aur isamen kisi prakar ki bhranti nahin hoti." yah to spasht hi hai ki hamare pas pratyaksh se adhik vishvast gyan nahin, parntu prashn yah hai ki vishayi aur vishay men sidha snpark ho bhi sakata hai ya nahin. yadi aisa snpark hota hai, to bhranti kaise pravisht ho jati hai? vishayi aur vishay men kuchh antar hota hai. is antar ki dasha hamare bodh ko prabhavit karati hai. jngal ke vriksh door se hare nahin dikhate, kyonki unake rng ke sath bich men padane vali vayu ka rng bhi mil jata hai. phir, hamari indriy ki avastha bhi ek si nahin rahati, kan ka rogi padarthon ko pila dekhata hai. kuchh vicharak kahate hain ki ham bahy padarthon ko nahin dekhate, unake chitron ko dekhate hain, in chitron ke vishay men nishchayapoorvak nahin kah sakate ki ye bahy padarthon ke anuroop hain; yahan bhranti ki snbhavana sada bani rahati hai.[1]

vastavavad

'vastavavad' ke do roop hain- 'sakshatatmak vastavavad' aur 'pratibinbatmak vastavavad'. pahale roop men bhranti ka astitv samasya ban jata hai, doosare roop men saty gyan ka samadhan nahin hota.

vigyanavad andar aur bahar ke bhed ko samapt kar deta hai. jan laauk ke vicharon men hi isaka bij vidyaman tha. usane kaha ki dravy ka pratyay aspasht hai. usane yah bhi kaha ki bhautik padarthon ke pradhan gun to unamen vidyaman hote hain, parntu apradhan gun ve parinam hain jo pradhan gunon ke aghat se hamare man men vyakt hote hain. barkale ne kaha ki jo yuktiyan apradhan gunon ke vastugat astitv ke viruddh di jati hain, vahi pradhan gunon ke viruddh di jati hai. bahar kuchh hai hi nahin, usake bodh ke spasht ya aspasht hone ka prashn pratyay ban gaya hai. indriyadatt (roop, ras, gndh adi) bahy padarthon ke gun nahin, n hi ye manasik avasthaen hain. ye gyata se bhinn, usake bahar hain aur unaka svatntr astitv hai. rassala ke anusar, 'indriyagrahyon' ke samooh vidyaman hain, inake kuchh ansh grihit ho jate hain. hamara paribodh saty gyan hai, parntu anshik gyan.

gyan ki simaen

kant ne apani vikhyat pustak 'shuddh buddhi ki samalochana' ko in shabdon ke sath arnbh kiya-

'is bat men to sndeh hi nahin ho sakata ki hamara sara gyan anubhav ke sath arnbh hota hai. kyonki yah kaise snbhav hai ki bodh shakti kuchh karane lage, sivay isake ki hamari indriyon ko prabhavit karanevale padarth ise yah kshamata den. parntu yadyapi hamara sara gyan anubhav ke sath arnbh hota hai, isase yah nishkarsh nahin nikalata ki sara gyan anubhav ki hi den hai. kant ne anubhav ki banavat men buddhi ke bhagadan par bal diya. aisa karane par bhi, usane arnbh men kaha ki hamara vichar prakatanon ki duniya se pare nahin ja sakata. pichhe usane anushilak buddhi aur vyavaharik buddhi men bhed kiya aur kaha ki anushilak buddhi gyan deti hai, parntu yah gyan prakatanon ki duniya se pare hi satta hai.

niti ki mang

manushy sarabhoot roop men naitik prani hai. niti ki mangen ye hain-

  1. manushy ke kartavy hain, isaliye usamen kartavyapalan ki kshamata hai; vah svadhin hai.
  2. manushy ka lakshy annt hai, isaki siddhi ke liye anntakal ki avashyakata hai. atma amar hai.
  3. niti ki mang yah hai ki sadachar aur sukh snyukt hon. aisa snyog hamare vash men nahin, paramatma hi aisa snyog karane men samarth hai; paramatma ka astitv hai.

para tatha apara

bharat men 'para vidya' aur 'apara vidya' men bhed kiya gaya hai aur donon men pratham ko ooncha pad diya hai. kuchh vicharak to apara vidya ko avidya hi kahate hain. pleto ne vishesh padarthon ke bodh ko sammati ka pad diya, aur sammati ko vidya aur avidya ke madhy men rakha. pratyek nirman saty hone ka dava karata hai. is dave ka arth kya hai? nirnay men do pratyayon ya vicharon ke snbndh ki bat kahi jati hai. yadi yah snbndh un padarthon men bhi vidyaman hai, jo un vicharon ke mool hain, to nirnay saty hai. saty ka yah samadhan 'anuroopatavad' kahalata hai. vigyanavad bahy jagath‌ ko kalpana matr kahata hai, isake anusar satta men chetanaon aur chetan avasthaon ke atirikt kuchh bhi nahin hai.[1]

vyavaharavad

yadi koee nirnay shesh gyan se snsakt ho sakata hai, to vah saty hai. yah 'avirodhavad' hai. adhunikavad kal men amarika men 'vyavaharavad' ka prasar hua hai. isake anusar, jo dharana vyavahar men saphal siddh hoti hai, vah saty hai. saty koee sthayi vastu nahin, jise ham dekhate hain; yah banata hai. vastav men yahan do prashn hain- (1) saty ka svaroop kya hai? (2) kisi dharana ke saty hone ki kasauti kya hai? anuroopatavad pahale prashn ka uttar deta hai tatha avirodhavad aur vyavaharavad doosare prashn ka.


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adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
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shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 gyanamimansa (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 30 aprail, 2014.

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