भारतीय दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiy darshan
bharatiy ved
vivaran 'bharatiy darshan' ka arnbh vedon se hota hai. 'ved' bharatiy dharm, darshan, snskriti, sahity adi sabhi ke mool strot hain. aj bhi dharmik aur sanskritik krityon ke avasar par ved-mntron ka gayan hota hai. anek darshan-snpraday vedon ko apana adhar aur praman manate hain.
bhasha snskrit
rachana kal vedon ka rachana kal bahut vivadagrast hai. pray: pashchimi vidvanon ne rigved ka rachana kal 1500 ee. poo. se lekar 2500 ee. poo. tak mana hai. isake viparit bharatiy vidvanh jyotish adi ke pramanon dvara rigved ka samay 3000 ee. poo. se lekar 7500 varsh ee. poo. tak manate hain.
shaddarshan sankhy, yog, nyay, vaisheshik, mimansa, vedant
snbndhit lekh upanishad, ved, uttar mimansa, poorv mimansa, rigved, samaved, atharvaved, yajurved.
any janakari vaidik aur avaidik darshanon ke atirikt bharatiy darshan parnpara men ek tisari dhara shaiv tatha shakt snpradayon ki pravahit hoti rahi hai. rigved aur yajurved ke rudr ke roop men shiv ka varnan hai.

bharatiy darshan bharatiy darshan ka arnbh vedon se hota hai. 'ved' bharatiy dharm, darshan, snskriti, sahity adi sabhi ke mool strot hain. anek darshan-snpraday vedon ko apana adhar aur praman manate hain. prachin kal men itane vishal aur samriddh sahity ke vikas men hazaron varsh lage honge, isamen koee sndeh nahin. upalabdh vaidik sahity snpoorn vaidik sahity ka ek chhota-sa ansh hai. vaidik sahity ka vikas char charanon men hua hai. ye 'snhita', 'brahman', 'aranyak' aur 'upanishad' hain.[1]

snskriti ke mool strot

'ved' bharatiy dharm, darshan, snskriti, sahity adi sabhi ke mool strot hain. adhunik arth men vedon ko ham darshan ke grnth nahin kah sakate. ve prachin bharatavasiyon ke sngitamay kavy ke snkalan hai. unamen us samay ke bharatiy jivan ke anek vishayon ka samavesh hai. vedon ke in giton men anek prakar ke darshanik vichar bhi milate hain. chintan ke inhin bijon se uttarakalin darshanon ki vanarajiyan vikasit huee hain. adhikansh bharatiy darshan vedon ko apana adi strot manate hain. ye 'astik darshan' kahalate hain. prasiddh 'shaddarshan' inhin ke antargat hain. jo darshan snpraday apane ko vaidik parnpara se svatntr manate hain, ve bhi kuchh sima tak vaidik vichar dharaon se prabhavit hain.

rachana samay

vedon ka rachana kal bahut vivadagrast hai. pray: pashchimi vidvanon ne rigved ka rachana kal 1500 ee. poo. se lekar 2500 ee. poo. tak mana hai. isake viparit bharatiy vidvanh jyotish adi ke pramanon dvara rigved ka samay 3000 ee. poo. se lekar 7500 varsh ee. poo. tak manate hain. itihas ki vidit gatiyon ke adhar par in prachin rachanaon ke samay ka anuman karana kathin hai. prachin kal men itane vishal aur samriddh sahity ke vikas men hazaron varsh lage honge, isamen koee sndeh nahin hai . upalabdh vaidik sahity snpoorn vaidik sahity ka ek chhota-sa ansh hai. prachin yug men rachit samast sahity snkalit bhi nahin ho saka hoga aur snkalit sahity ka bahut-sa bhag akramanakariyon ne nasht kar diya hoga. vastavik vaidik sahity ka vistar itana adhik tha ki usake rachana kal ki kalpana karana kathin hai. nissndeh vah bahut prachin raha hoga.

vaidik kal

vaidik rishiyon ne ekant aranyon (vanon) men rahakar jin grnthon ki rachana ki, ve aranyak kahalaye. in grnthon men tap ko gyan marg ka adhar manakar tap par hi bal diya gaya tha. sootr grnthon ki rachana ke sath karmakand ki mahatta badhane lagi. bharatiy ygy paddhati ka samyak vivechan shraut sootron men milata hai, manav jivan ke solah snskaron ka vivechan smriti sootron men upalabdh hai. smritiyon ka pariganan bhi vaidik sahity men hi hota hai. in grnthon men vaidik snskriti ka svaroop ankit kiya gaya hai. yadyapi manusmriti tatha yagyvalky smriti hi sarvadhik charcha ka vishay banin kintu smritiyon ki snkhya puranon ki bhanti bahut adhik hai. smriti grnth lok jivan ke achar-vichar, dharmashastr, ashram, varn, rajy aur samaj adi parak anushasan ka ankan prastut karate hain. kul milakar is samast vaidik sahity men nirgun param satta ki vidyamanata many thi. usi param satta ki daiviy shakti prakriti ke vibhinn tattvon men samahit mani jati thi. varun, soory, agni bhautik tattv pradan karane vale devataon ke roop men poojy the. indr un devataon ke niynta the. tab log mndiron ki sthapana nahin karate the kyonki prakriti ke ansh-ansh men usaki abhivyakti ka anubhav karate the. unake achar-vichar men karm, gyan, upasana ki svikriti thi. tatkalin snskriti men ygy ki pradhanata thi.

mahabharat kal

mahabharat yug tak vaicharik virodh badh chuka tha. us sngharshamay samaj men ek or gyan par bal diya ja raha tha doosari or karm par. aisi visham kadiyon men ek or charvak ne gyan aur karm ki nirarthakata par prakash dalakar jivan ke bhautik sukh ko ujagar karane ka kary kiya, to doosari or sankhy darshan ke ankur bhi tatkalin snskriti men ubharate dikhalayi pade. bhagavadgita ne samajik vishamataon ko door kar samanata lane ka kary kiya. gita ne naitik drishtikon ko sarvasulabh banaya. isake madhyam se prabuddh manav samaj se itar janasadharan men charvakajany pravritti tatha upanishadajany nivritti ka samanvit roop ankit hua. gita ke upadesh ne phalakankshavihin karm men lage rahane ki or pravritt kiya. isake anusar samast karm eeshvar ke prati arpit hone chahie. at: uttar vaidik kal men sarveshvaravad ka prachar hua, atma-paramatma ke ansh-anshi snbndh ka vivechan hua. ygyon ki anek roopata ka prasar hua. grih ygy, pnchamahaygy, solah snskar snbndhi ygyon ki snpannata bhinn-bhinn mantron se hoti thi; at: ygy vishayak gyan purohiton tak simit hota gaya. uttarottar karmavad ki mahatta badhati gayi. gyan tatha upasana ki apeksha karmakand adhik mahattvapoorn ho gaya. ygyon men anek prakar ke jivon ki ahutiyan di jane lagin.

  • is prakar ka raktapat janasadharan ki utpida ka karan ban baitha. un vishay ghadiyon men nastik darshanon ne janm liya. nastik ka abhipray vedon men vishvas n hone se tha. charvak, jain tatha bauddh darshanavadi karmakand ki atishayata ko vaidik parnpara manakar usase door hat rahe the. unhonne manav-samaj ko lekar jivan ki vyavaharik paksh ki or le jane ka prayas kiya. charvak darshan men sukhapoorvak jivanayapan karane par bal diya gaya tha -

yavajjiveth sukhn jiveth rinn kritva ghritnpiveth.
bhasmi bhootasy dehasy punaragamann kut:॥

  • janata janardan ke lie is prakar ke kathan itane sundar the ki yah darshan charvak (charu+vakh =charvak) kahalaya. yah bhautikavadi, pratyakshavadi, nirishvaravadi, yadrichchhavadi, svabhavavadi tatha sukhavadi darshan hai. yah panch tattvon men se akash ko svikar nahin karata, keval pratyaksh par vishvas karata hai. jivan ka lakshy adhikadhik bhautik sukh prapt karana hai. mahabharat yuddh ke uparant samaj kuchh aisi vicharadhara men phns gaya tha ki manavamatr svayametar kisi par vishvas nahin karana chahata tha. jain tatha bauddh mat ne manav samaj ke atmavishvas ko pusht kar unhen vyavaharik jivan sucharu roop se jine ke lie prerit kiya.

'ved' ek snpoorn sahity

vedon ke snbndh men yah spasht karana avashyak hai ki quran aur baibil ki bhanti 'ved' kisi ek grnth ka nam nahin hai aur n ve kisi ek manushy ki rachanaen hain. 'ved' ek snpoorn sahity hai, jisaki vishal parnpara hai aur jisamen anek grnth sammilit hain. dharmik parnpara men vedon ko nity, apaurushey aur eeshvariy mana jata hai. aitihasik drishtikon se ham unhen rishiyon ki rachana man sakate hain. ved mntron ke rachane vale rishi anek hain.[1]

vaidik sahity ka vikas

darshan pravartak/rachiyata
pramukh darshan evn pravartak (shaddarshan ke atirikt)
bauddh darshan gautam buddh
jain darshan mahavir
ajivak makkhaligoshal
akriyavad pooran kashyap
nity padarthavad pakuth kachyayan
advaitavad shnkarachary
vishishtadvait ramanujachary
dvaitadvait nimbarkachary
shuddhadvait ballabhachary
pashupat lakulish
pramukh darshan evn rachiyata
charvak (bhautikavadi) charvak
sankhy kapil
yog pntajali (yogasootr)
nyay gautam (nyayasootr)
poorv mimansa jaimini
uttar mimansa (vedant) badarayan (brahmasootr)
vaisheshik kanad v ulook

vaidik sahity ka vikas char charanon men hua hai. ye nimnalikhit hain-

  1. snhita
  2. brahman
  3. aranyak
  4. upanishad

snhita

mntron aur stutiyon ke sngrah ko 'snhita' kahate hain. rigved, yajurved, samaved tatha atharvaved, ye sabhi mntron ki snhitaen hi hain. inaki bhi anek shakhaen hain. in snhitaon ke mntr ygy ke avasar par devataon ki stuti ke lie gae jate the. aj bhi dharmik aur sanskritik krityon ke avasar par inaka gayan hota hai. in vedamntron men indr, agni, varun, soory, som, usha adi devataon ki sngitamay stutiyan surakshit hain. ygy aur devopasana hi vaidik dharm ka mool roop tha. vedon ki bhavana uttarakalin darshanon ke saman snnyasapradhan nahin hai. vedamntron men jivan ke prati astha tatha jivan ka ullas ot prot hai. jagath ki asatyata ka vedamntron men abhas nahin hai. rigved men maulik moolyon ka paryapt man hai. vaidik rishi devataon se ann, dhan, sntan, svasthy, dirghayu, vijay adi ki abhyarthana karate hain.

vedon ke mntr prachin bharatiyon ke sngitamay lokakavy ke uttam udaharan hain. brahman, aranyak aur upanishad grnthon men gady ki pradhanata hai, yadyapi unaka yah gady bhi layayukt hai. brahman grnthon men ygyon ki vidhi, unake prayojan, phal adi ka vivechan hai. aranyak grnthon men adhyatmikata ki or jhukav dikhaee deta hai. jaisa ki is nam se hi vidit hota hai, ye vanaprasthon ke upayog ke grnth hain. upanishadon men adhyatmik chintan ki pradhanata hai. charon vedon ki mntr snhitaon ke brahman, aranyak aur upanishad alag-alag milate hain. shatapath, tanday adi brahman prasiddh aur mahatvapoorn hain. aitarey, taittiriy adi ke nam se aranyak aur upanishad donon milate hain. inake atirikt eesh, ken, kath, prashn, mundak, mandooky adi prachin upanishad bharatiy chintan ke adi strot hain.

upanishad

hastalikhit grnth, eeshavasyopanishad

upanishadon ka darshan adhyatmik hai. brahm ki sadhana hi upanishadon ka mukhy lakshy hai. brahm ko atma bhi kahate hain. 'atma' vishayajagat, sharir, indriyon, man, buddhi adi sabhi avagamy tatvon se pare ek anirvachaniy aur atindriy tatv hai, jo chitsvaroop, annt aur anndamay hai. sabhi parichchhedon se pare hone ke karan vah annt hai. aparichchhann aur ek hone ke karan atma bhed moolak jagath men manushyon ke bich antarik abhed aur advait ka adhar ban sakata hai. atma hi manushy ka vastavik svaroop hai. usaka sakshatkar karake manushy man ke samast bndhanon se mukt ho jata hai. advaitabhav ki poornata ke lie atma athava brahm se jad jagath ki utpatti kaise hoti hai, isaki vyakhya ke lie maya ki anirvachaniy shakti ki kalpana ki gee hai. kintu srishtivad ki apeksha atmik advaitabhav upanishadon ke vedant ka adhik mahatvapoorn paksh hai. yahi advaitabhav bharatiy snskriti men otaprot hai.

vedant

darshan ke kshetr men upanishadon ka yah brahmavad shnkarachary, ramanujachary adi ke uttarakalin vedant maton ka adhar bana. vedon ka antim bhag hone ke karan upanishadon ko 'vedant' bhi kahate hain. upanishadon ka abhimat hi age chalakar vedant ka siddhant aur snpradayon ka adhar ban gaya. upanishadon ki shaili saral aur gnbhir hai. anubhav ke gnbhir tatv atynt saral bhasha men upanishadon men vyakt hue hain. unako samajhane ke lie anubhav ka prakash apekshit hai. brahm ka anubhav hi upanishadon ka lakshy hai. vah apani sadhana se hi prapt hota hai. guru ka snpark usamen adhik sahayak hota hai. tap, achar adi sadhana ki bhoomika banate hain. karm atmik anubhav ka sadhak nahin hai. karm pradhan vaidik dharm se upanishadon ka yah matabhed hai. snnyas, vairagy, yog, tap, tyag adi ko upanishadon men bahut mahatv diya gaya hai. inamen shraman parnpara ke kathor snnyasavad ki prerana ka srot dikhaee deta hai. tapovadi jain aur bauddh mat tatha 'gita ka karmayog' upanishadon ki adhyatmik bhoomi men hi ankurit hue hain.[1]

nastik darshan

upanishadon ke 'adhyatmavad' tatha 'tapovad' men hi vaidik karmakand ke viruddh ek pratikriya ne ek prakat kranti ka roop grahan kar liya. jain dharm ka arnbh bauddh dharm se pahale hua tha. mahavir svami ke poorv 23 jain tirthnkar ho chuke the. mahavir svami ne jain dharm ka prachar kiya. bauddh dharm ke pravartak gautam buddh unake samakalin the. donon ka samay eesa poorv chhathi shatabdi mana jata hai. inhonne vedon se svatntr ek navin dharmik parnpara ka pravartan kiya. vedon ko n manane ke karan jain aur bauddh darshanon ko 'nastik darshan' bhi kahate hain. inaka maulik sahity kramash: mahavir aur buddh ke upadeshon ke roop me hai, jo kramash: prakrit aur pali ki lokabhashaon men milata hai tatha jisaka sngrah in mahapurushon ke nirvan ke bad kee sngitiyon men unake anuyayiyon ke paramarsh ke dvara hua. buddh aur mahavir donon himalay pradesh ke rajakumar the. yuvavay men hi snnyas lekar unhone apane dharmo ka upadesh aur prachar kiya. unaka yah sanyas upanishadon ki parnpara se prerit hai. jain aur bauddh dharmon men tap aur tyag ki mahima bhi upanishadon ke dasharn ke anukool hai. ahinsa aur achar ki mahatta tatha jatibhed ka khndan in dharmon ki visheshata hai. ahinsa ke bij bhi upanishadon men vidyaman hain. phir bhi ahinsa ki dhvaja ko dharm ke akash men phaharane ka shrey jain aur bauddh snpradayon ko dena hoga.

mahavir svami ke upadesh

mahavir ki pratima, dilli

mahavir svami ke upadeshon se lekar jain dharm ki parnpara aj tak chal rahi hai. mahavir svami ke upadesh 41 sootron men snkalit hain, jo jainagamon men milate hain. umasvati ka 'tatvarthadhigam sootr' (300 ee.) jain darshan ka prachin aur pramanik shastr hai. siddhasen divakar (500 ee.), haribhadr (900 ee.), merutung (14vin shatabdi), adi jain darshan ke prasiddh achary hain. siddhant ki drishti se jain darshan ek or adhyatmavadi tatha doosari or bhautikavadi hai. vah atma aur pudgal[2] donon ko manata hai. jain mat men atma prakash ke saman vyapak aur vistarashil hai. punarjanm men navin sharir ke anusar atma ka snkoch aur vistar hota hai. svaroop se vah chaitany svaroop aur anndamay hai. vah man aur indriyon ke madhyam ke bina paroksh vishayon ke gyan men samarth hai. is alaukik gyan ke tin roop hain-

  1. avadhigyan
  2. man:paryay
  3. kaivaly gyan

poorn gyan ko 'kaivaly gyan' kahate hain. yah nirvan ki avastha men prapt hata hai. yah sab prakar se vastuon ke samast dharmon ka gyan hai. yahi gyan 'praman' hai. kisi apeksha se vastu ke ek dharm ka gyan 'nay' kahalata hai. 'nay' kee prakar ke hote hain. gyan ki sapekshata jain darshan ka siddhant hai. yah sapekshata manaviy vicharon men udarata aur sahishnuta ko snbhav banati hai.[1]

asrav

sabhi vichar aur vishvas anshik saty ke adhikari ban jate hain. poorn saty ka agrah anuchit hai. vah nirvan men hi prapt ho sakata hai. nirvan atma ka kaivaly hai. karm ke prabhav se pudgal ki gati atma ke prakash ko achchhadit karati hai. yah 'asrav' kahalata hai. yahi atma ka bndhan hai.

nirjara

tap, tyag aur sadachar se is gati ka avarodh 'snvar' tatha snchit karmapudgal ka kshay 'nirjara' kahalata hai. isaka ant 'nirvan' men hota hai. nirvan men atma ka annt gyan aur annt annd prakashit hota hai.


inhen bhi dekhen: mahavir svami, mahavir jayanti, jain dharm evn jain dharm ke siddhant

buddh ke upadesh

buddh pratima, bodhagaya, bihar

bhagavan buddh ke upadesh tin pitakon men snkalit hain. ye nimn hain-

  1. sutt pitak
  2. vinay pitak
  3. abhidhamm pitak

ye pitak bauddh dharm ke agam hain. kriyashil saty ki dharana bauddh mat ki maulik visheshata hai. upanishadon ka brahm achal aur aparivartanashil hai. buddh ke anusar parivartan hi saty hai. pashchimi darshan men hairaklaitas aur bargasan ne bhi parivartan ko saty mana hai. is parivartan ka koee aparivartaniy adhar bhi nahin hai.

bauddh darshan

bauddh darshan ke pratishthapak mahatma buddh (siddharth) the. mahatma buddh ne rajasi vaibhav ki nissarata ka anubhav kiya tatha bodhisattv prapt karake unhonne nirishvaravad ki sthapana ki. bauddh darshan ke anusar char aryasaty hain:

  1. sarvndu:khamh
  2. du:kh samuday
  3. du:kh nirodh
  4. du:kh nirodhagamini pratipad

n sansarik bhog men lipt rahana uchit hai aur n sharir ko vyarth ka kasht dena. ashtangik marg se ichchhaon aur trishnaon par vijay prapt ki ja sakati hain yah darshan kshanikavadi hai. is darshan men atma ke sthayitv ki bhi asvikriti hai, vah nirntar parivartanashil mani gayi hai. bauddh darshan men mukhy roop se satkarm par bal diya gaya hai, vahi nirvan tak pahuncha sakata hai.


inhen bhi dekhen: bauddh dharm, mahatma buddh ke prerak prasng, bauddh math evn bauddh chintan

anatmavad

bahy aur antarik jagath men koee dhruv saty nahin hai. bahy padarth 'svalakshanon' ke snghat hain. atma bhi manobhavon aur vigyanon ki dhara hai. is prakar bauddh mat men upanishadon ke atmavad ka khndan karake 'anatmavad' ki sthapana ki gee hai. phir bhi bauddh mat men karm aur punarjanm many hain. atma ko n manane par bhi bauddh dharm karuna se otaprot hain. du:kh se dravit hokar hi buddh ne snnyas liya aur du:kh ke nirodh ka upay khoja. avidya, trishna adi men du:kh ka karan khojakar, unhonne inake uchchhed ko nirvan ka marg bataya. anatmavadi hone ke karan bauddh dharm ka vedant se virodh hua. is virodh ka phal yah hua ki bauddh dharm ko bharat se nirvasit hona pada. kintu eshiya ke poorvi deshon men usaka prachar hua. buddh ke anuyayiyon men matabhed ke karan kee snpraday ban ge. jain snpraday vedant ke saman dhyanavadi hai. isaka chin men prachar hai. siddhantabhed ke anusar bauddh parnpara men char darshan prasiddh hain. inamen 'vaibhashik' aur 'sautrantik' mat hinayan parnpara men hain. yah dakshini bauddh mat hain. isaka prachar bhi lnka men hai. 'yogachar' aur 'madhyamik' mat mahayan parnpara men hain. yah uttari bauddh mat hai. in charon darshanon ka uday eesa ki arnbhik shatabdiyon men hua tha. isi samay vaidik parnpara men shaddarshanon ka uday hua. is prakar bharatiy pnrapara men darshan snpradayon ka avirbhav lagabhag ek hi sath hua hai tatha unaka vikas paraspar virodh ke dvara hua hai. pashchimi darshanon ki bhanti ye darshan poorva par kram men udit nahin hue hain.

bahyanumeyavad

vasubndhu (400 ee.), kumaralat (200 ee.) maitrey (300 ee.) aur nagarjun (200 ee.) in darshanon ke pramukh achary the. vaibhashik mat bahy vastuon ki satta tatha svalakshanon ke roop men unaka pratyaksh manata hai. at: use bahy pratyakshavad athava 'sarvastitvavad' kahate hain. saitrantik mat ke anusar padarthon ka pratyaksh nahin, anuman hota hai. at: use bahyanumeyavad kahate hain.

vigyanavad

yogachar mat ke anusar bahy padarthon ki satta nahin hai. hamen jo kuchh dikhaee deta hai, vah vigyan matr hai. yogachar mat vigyanavad kahalata hai. madhyamik mat ke anusar vigyan bhi saty nahin hai. sab kuchh shoony hai. shoony ka arth nirasvabhav, ni:svaroop athava anirvachaniy hai. shoonyavad ka yah shoony vedant ke brahm ke bahut nikat a jata hai.

charvak darshan

vedavirodhi hone ke karan nastik snpradayon men charvak mat ka bhi nam liya jata hai. bhautikavadi hone ke karan yah adar n pa saka. isaka itihas aur sahity bhi upalabdh nahin hai. 'brihaspati sootr' ke nam se ek charvak grnth ke uddharan any darshan grnthon men milate hain. charvak mat ek prakar ka yatharthavad aur bhautikavad hai. isake anusar ek pratyaksh hi praman hai. anuman aur agam sndigdh hote hain. pratyaksh par ashrit bhautik jagath hi saty hai. atma, eeshvar, svarg adi sab kalpit hain. bhooton ke snyog se deh men chetana utpann hoti hai. deh ke sath maran men usaka ant ho jata hai. atma nity nahin hai. usaka punarjanm nahin hota hai. jivan kal men yathasnbhav sukh ki sadhana karana hi jivan ka lakshy hona chahie.

gita karmayog

upanishatkal men ek or bauddh aur jain dharmon ki avaidik parnparaon ka avirbhav hua tatha doosari or vaidik darshanon ka uday hua tha. eesa ke janm ke poorv aur bad ki ek do shatabdiyon men anek darshanon ki samanantar dharaen bharatiy vichar bhoomi par pravahit hone lagin. bauddh aur jain darshanon ki dharaen bhi inamen sammilit hain. vaidik darshanon men shaddarshan adhik prasiddh hain. gita darshan bhi inaka samakalin hai. gita ka karmayog upanishadon ke brahmavad ke bad ek mahatvapoorn maulik darshan hai. sabhi vaidik darshanon ne karmayog ka mahatv svikar kiya hai. vyavaharik hone ke karan use pratinidhi bharatiy jivan darshan kaha ja sakata hai. gita ke karmayog men adhyatm aur jivan ka adbhud samanvay hua hai. aitihasik drishti se yah vaidik karmakand aur upanishadon ke brahmavad ka samanvay hai. adhyatm aur karm ka yah samanvay atynt mahatvapoorn hai. upanishadon ke vedant tatha bauddh aur jain dharm ke snnyasavad ke prabhav s bharatiy janata men virakti aur nivritti ka prabhav itana badh raha tha ki samaj ke lie ghatak ban jata hai. aisi sthiti men gita ne karmayog ka sndesh dekar desh ko ek snjivan mntr pradan kiya. adhyatm ko svikar kar gita ne sanyas ko ek nee paribhasha di. 'sanyas' ka samany arth 'tyag' hai. kintu is tyag men pray: bhranti ho jati hai. bhojan, shayan adi prakritik karmon ka tyag kiya ja sakata hai. kamy karmon ka bhi tyag snbhav hai. yahi gita ka snnyas hai. phal ki kamana tyag kar lok snbhav hai. yahi gita ka sanyas hai. phal ki kamana tyag kar lok sngrah ke lie nishkam karm karana jivan ka adarsh hai. yahi moksh ka sadhan hai. gita ka yah nishkam karmayog adhikansh bharatiy darshanon ne apanaya hai. gyanayog usaka adhyatmik adhar hai aur bhaktiyog usaka bhavatmak darshan hai.

shaddarshan

gita ke karmayog ke atirikt vaidik darshanon men shaddarshan prasiddh hain. inake nam nimn prakar se vidit hai-

  1. sankhy
  2. yog
  3. nyay
  4. vaisheshik
  5. mimansa
  6. vedant

inake praneta kapil, patnjali, gautam, kanad, jaimini ke badarayan the. eesa ke janm ke asapas in darshanon ka uday mana jata hai. inake arnbhik snket upanishadon men bhi milate hain. pratyek darshan ka adhar grnth ek darshanasootr hai. 'sootr' bharatiy darshan ki ek adbhut shaili hai. gine chune shabdon men siddhant ke sar ka snket sootron men rahata hai. snkshipt hone ke karan sootron par vistrit bhashy aur anek tikaon ki rachana huee. bharatiy darshan ki yah shaili svatntr darshan grnthon ki pashchimi shaili se bhinn hai. guru-shishy-parnpara ke anukool darshan ki shiksha aur rachana isaka adhar hai. yah parnpara shaddarshanon ke bad navin darshanon ke uday men badhak rahi. vyakhyaon ke prasng men kuchh navinata aur matabhed ke karan mukhy darshanon men upabhed avashy paida ho ge. praman vichar, srishti mimansa aur moksh sadhana shaddarshanon ke samany vishay hain. ye chh: darshan kisi n kisi roop men atma ko manate hain. atma ki prapti hi moksh hai. punarjanm, achar, yog adi ko bhi ye manate hain. nyay, yog adi kuchh darshan eeshvar men vishvas karate hain. sankhy aur mimansa darshan nirishvaravadi hain. pratyaksh, anuman, upaman aur shabd ye char praman samanyat: sabhi darshanon ko many hain. mimansa mat men arthapatti aur anupalabdhi ye do praman aur mane jate hain. upanishanmoolak hone ke karan inamen vedant darshan sabase adhik prachin hai. kintu brahmasootr men any darshanon ka khndan hai tatha usaka prachinatam bhashy shnkarachary ka hai[3]. any darshan sootron ke bhashy eesa ki arnbhik shatabdiyon men rache ge.

sankhy darshan

sankhy sootr snbhavat: lupt ho gaya hai. eeshvarakrishn[4] ki 'sankhyakarika' sankhy darshan ka pramanik grnth hai. sankhy darshan nirishvaravadi dvaitavad hai. isake anusar prakriti aur purush do svatntr aur sanatan sattaen hain. 'prakriti' jad hai aur jagath ka sookshm karan hai. vah satv, rajas aur tamas in tin gunon ki samyavastha ka nam prakriti hai. prakriti ke sath purush ka snpark hone se sarg ka arnbh hota hai. sarg purush ka bndhan hai. tatvgyan se moksh hota hai. apane shuddh chetan kartritv bhoktritv rahit svaroop ke gyan se purush mukt hota hai. sankhy darshan ke praneta kapil muni the. unhonne jad jngam jagath ki prahelika sulajhate hue purush ke sath chaubis prakritik tattvon ka akhyan kiya. isi se yah sankhy darshan nam se abhihit hua. kapil muni ke anusar jab tak prakriti ki sattv raj tam men samyavastha hai, utpatti nahin hoti. vishamavastha men utpatti hoti hai, pun: samy hone par pralay men sab kuchh samahit ho jata hai. purush ajanma, sarvashaktisnpann, amar aur alipt hai. vah keval prakriti ki samyavastha ko bhng karata hai. chaubis tattvon ki ganana is prakar ki hai: prakriti (sath, raj, tamh se yukt) 1+buddhi 1+ahnkar 1. (sath, raj, tam ke udvelan se kuchh antarik parinam utpann hote hain tatha kuchh bahy): antarik parinam = man (1) + gyanendriyan (5)+ karmenndriyan (5)bahy parinam= tanmatra (5)+ pnchabhoot (5) phalat: srishti ka udbhav hota hai. kapil muni ne sankhy darshan men matr siddhanton ka vivechan kiya hai.

yog darshan

yog darshan ke siddhant sankhy ke saman hain. yog sootr par rachit bhashy aur tikaen yog darshan ki vistrit parnpara ka adhar hain. yog darshan ka mukhy lakshy samadhi ke marg ko prashast karana hai. samadhi men chitt ki samast vrittiyon ka nirodh ho jata hai. abhyas, vairagy aur dhyan yog ke mukhy sadhan hain. eeshvar ko bhi dhyan ka lakshy banaya ja sakata hai. itana hi yog darshan men eeshvar ka mahatv hai. yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dharana, dhyan aur samadhi ke ath angon se yukt 'ashtangayog' yog ka sarvajan sulabh marg hai. yog darshan ke udbhavak patnjali ne sankhy darshan ke siddhanton ko karm se jodakar prastut kiya. unhonne chittavritti nirodh par bal diya. usako do shreniyon men banta-

  1. shariraparak (hathayog),
  2. manaparak (rajayog).

hathayog ke antargat ahinsa, saty, astey, brahmachary, aparigrah, niyam, asan, pranayam pratyahar ka vivechan hai tatha rajayog ke antargat dharana, dhyan, samadhi ka ankan hai. indriyon ke lobh snvaran tatha chittavritti nirodh ke phalasvaroop turiyavastha (samadhi ki avastha) taduparant jivanamukti (jab tak sharir nahin tyaga) aur antatogatva dehamukti (sharir tyag kar) ki upalabdhi hoti hai.

nyay darshan

'nyay' snskrit shabd hai jisaka arth hai- "vyutpatti ke adhar par margadarshan karane vala", bad men isaka nishchit arth niyam ho gaya, jo vyakti ko kisi nishkarsh, path ki vyakhya ke siddhant ya tark tak le jata hai. bharatiy vyakhyatmak aur vivekapoorn chintan ke arnbhik kal men nyay ka upayog samanyat: mimansa dvara vikasit vivechan ke siddhanton ke liye kiya gaya hai. lekin bad men is shabd ka upayog bharatiy darshan ki chhh pranaliyon (darshanon) men se ek ke lie hone laga, jo apane tark tatha gyan mimans ke vishleshan ke lie mahattvapoorn tha. nyay darshan ki sabase badi den nishkarsh ki vivechana pranali ka vistrit varnan hai. nyay darshan ke praneta gautam muni the. yah mat tark tatha gyan par bal deta hai. isake anusar brahm sarvashaktisnpann, sarvgy tatha saty hai. atma bhi saty, ajar tatha amar hai. tark char pramanon (anuman, upaman, pratyaksh tatha apt shabd) par adharit rahata hai. is darshan ne tark-pranali ko vikasit kiya.

vaisheshik darshan

nyay vaisheshik praman pradhan darshan hain. nyay ek prakar ka bharatiy tarkashastr hai. vaisheshik darshan ke udbhavak kanad muni the. unhonne drishy jagath ki vyakhya, use vibhinn shreniyon men vibhakt karake ki hai, at: is darshan ke anusar vishv ka saty-dravy, gun, karm, samany, vishesh tatha samavay hai. vaisheshik ne paramanuvad par phir se drishti dali. nyay sootr par anek prasiddh tikaen hain. gngesh upadhyay[5] ki 'tatvachintamani' se navadvip men navy nyay ki parnpara ka arnbh hua tha. nyay darshan ke pahale hi sootr men 16 padarthon ka ullekh hai. inake dvara tatvgyan hota hai, jo ni:shreyas athava moksh ka sadhan hai. pramanon ko vishesh vistar nyay darshan men milata hai. eeshvar bhakti ko nyay men moksh ka sadhan mana gaya hai. vaisheshik darshan ek prakar se nyay ka saman tntr hai. vishesh athava paramanu usaka mukhy vishay hai. paramanu srishti ka mool upadan karan hai. eeshvar ko nyay-vaisheshik-dasharn srishti ka nimitt karan manate hain. vaisheshik darshan men snpoorn satta ko sat padarthon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai-

  1. dravy
  2. gun
  3. karm
  4. samany
  5. vishesh
  6. samavay
  7. abhav

nyay ke 16 padarthon ki apeksha adhik sngat hone ke karan yahi vibhajan age chalakar adhik many hua tatha nyay-vaisheshik-darshan ki us snyukt parnpara ka adhar bana, jisaka pratinidhitv 'nyayamuktavali' adi arvachin grnth karate hain.

mimansa

shaddarshanon men antim do darshanon ko 'mimansa' kaha jata hai. ye 'poorv mimansa' aur 'uttar mimansa' kahalati hain. any darshanon ki apeksha inaka vedon se adhik ghanishth snbndh hai. ek prakar se ye vaidik darshan ki vyakhyaen hain. poorv mimansa, mntrasnhita aur brahmanon ke karmakand ki vyakhya hai. uttar mimansa upanishadon ke adhyatmadarshan ka tarkik vivechan hai. vedon ka antim bhag hone ke karan upanishadon ko 'vedant' kahate hain. uttar mimansa ka nam bhi 'vedant' hai. in donon mimansaon ke siddhanton ka adhar vedon men hai, kintu vyavasthit darshanon ke roop men inaka arnbh any darshanon ke sath sath hi eesa ke janm ke asapas hua. isilie inaki ganana shaddarshanon men ki jati hai. donon mimansaon ke itihas ke tin charan hain. tinon hi charanon men inaka vikas ek hi poorvottar kram men hua. vaidik yug men vedon ke poorvabhag[6] men karmakand ka vidhan hua. vedon ke uttar bhag[7] men adhyatm ki pratishtha huee. eesa ki arnbhik shatabdi men jaimini aur badarayan ke 'mimansasootr' tatha 'brahmasootr' bhi snbhavat: isi kram men rache ge. eesa ki satavin shatabdi men kumaril bhatt aur shnkarachary ne isi poorva par kram men poorv aur uttar mimansaon ka uddhar evn prachar kiya tha.

anatmavadi hone ke karan bauddh darshan ka atmavadi vaidik darshan se virodh hai. vaidik dharm ke viruddh kranti ke roop men hi eesavi poorv chhathi shatabdi men bauddh dharm ka uday hua tha. anek karanon se eesa ki chhathi shatabdi men bauddh dharm ka hras hone laga. usi samay kumaril aur shnkarachary ne vaidik dharm ke donon pakshon ki pratishtha ki. inake bad parthasarathi mishr [8] tatha madhavachary[9] n poorv mimansa darshan ka vistar kiya. madhavachary vijayanagar ke raja bukka ke mntri the. bad men snnyas lekar vidyarany ke nam se shrringeri pith ke shnkarachary pad par asin hue aur 'pnchadashi' namak prasiddh vedant grnth ki rachana ki. vedantamat ki pratishtha ke lie shnkarachary ne desh ke charon konon par jin char pithon ki sthapana ki, unamen shrringeri pith dakshin men nilagiri parvat par sthit hai. any tin pith puri, badarikashram aur dvaraka men hain. shnkarachary ne upanishadon, brahmasootr aur gita par bhashyon ki rachana ki. shnkarachary ke bad vachaspati mishr (9vin shatabdi), shriharsh (12van shatabdi) adi acharyon ne vedant parnpara ka vistar kiya.

poorvamimansa

poorv mimansa ka mukhy lakshy vaidik karmakand ki vyavastha karana hai. isake anusar vedamntron ka mukhy arth vidhi athava karm ke adesh men hai. jin mntron men vidhivachak kriya nahin hai, ve 'arthavad' hain tatha devataon adi ki prarochana karate hain. yadi ygyadi karm se ek divy shakti utpann hoti hai, jise 'apoorv' kahate hain. yahi apoorv karm phal ka niyamak hai. poorv mimansa men eeshvar many nahin hai. ved nity aur apaurushey hain. nity shabd ka kalp kalp men yatha poorv sphot hota hai aur apoorv ki shakti se yathapoorv srishti ki utpatti hoti hai. poorv mimansa ki atma vaisheshik ke saman chetanatit hai. nyay darshan ke char pramanon ke atirikt arthapatti aur anupalabdhi do praman aur mimansa darshan men mane jate hain.

uttar mimansa

uttar mimansa vedon ke uttar bhag[10] par ashrit hai. upanishad vedon ke antim bhag hain, at: ve vedant kahalate hain. uttar mimansa ka adhik prasiddh nam 'vedant' hi hai. brahmasootr aur upanishadon ki vyakhyaon ke dvara vedant ka vistar hua hai. anek acharyon ne bhinn bhinn drishtikon se brahmasootron aur upanishadon ki vyakhya ki hai. acharyon ke vibhinn maton ke adhar par vedant ke anek snpraday ban ge. ye advait, vishishtadvait, dvait adi ke nam se prasiddh hain. vedant ke ye snpraday sankhy adi ki bhanti darshanik nahin hain; in sabhi snpradayon ke dharmik pith desh ke vibhinn sthanon men pratishthit hain. in pithon ki achary-parnpara aj tak akshunn chali a rahi hai. vedant ke in anek snpradayon men shnkarachary ka 'advaitamat' sabase prachin hai. yah snbhavat: sabase adhik pratishthit bhi hai. shnkarachary ka advaitavad upanishadon par ashrit hai. unake anusar brahm hi ek matr saty hai. jagath ka vikshep aur jiv ke brahmabhav ka avaran karati hai. agyan ka nivaran hone par jiv ko apane brahmabhav ka sakshatkar hota hai. yahi moksh hai. brahm sachchidannd hai. brahm ki satta aur chetana tatha usaka annd annt hai.

vedant darshan ko 'uttar mimansa' bhi kaha jata hai. isake pratishthapak badarayan vyas the. unhonne vedatrayi[11] ko vishesh mahattv diya. us yug tak atharvaved ki rachana nahin huee thi. is darshan ka mukhyadhar prasthan trayi hai arthath upanishad, brahmasootr tatha bhagavadgita namak grnthon ko mukhy roop se grahan kiya gaya hai. isake anusar brahm jagath ki utpatti ka karan hai. vah keval anubhooti ka vishay hai. atma svat:siddh hai tatha moksh brahm men lin hone ka athava mukti ka paryay hai. vedant men upanishadon ke tattv gyan ko vishesh roop se grahan kiya gaya hai. vedant darshan ka nam hi vaidik yug ke antim charan ka dyotak hai. us yug men yah darshan sarvadhik prachalit hua, kyonki badarayan vyas ne darshanik vyakhya ke sath-sath samajaparak anek tathyon ko samane rakha tha; jaise stri-purush samanata, shoodron ke vishay men udarata adi. isaka sabase bada yogadan samast vishv men ekata ka bhav jagane ka prayas hai. upanishadon men dvait tatha advait darshan ka sundar vivechan upalabdh hai. badarayan vyas ne ab usake sath bhagavadgita tatha brahmasootr ke tathyon ko samavisht karake atynt nikhara hua darshanik roop prastut kiya. unhonne pun: 'tattvamasi', 'ahn brahmasmi' ki sthapana ki. is darshan men ek dhoomil tattv darshaniy hai, vah yah ki badarayan ne brahm ko parinam aur nity drishti donon hi roopon men ankit kiya hai[12]jo ki paraspar virodhi vicharadharaen hain.[13]virodhi tattvajany ulajhan ko door karate hue shnkarachary ne parinamavad ko vivartavad men parinat kiya.

shnkarachary ne advaitavad ki pratishtha ki, jo mayavad bhi kahalaya. unhonne paramarthik satta ko 'ek' n kahakar 'advait' kaha jisaka ankan 'neti, neti' ke madhyam se hi snbhav hai.[14]jagat ki snpoorn satta ko nakar kar hi brahm ki satta ka anuman lagaya ja sakata hai. shnkarachary ne brahm ko 'ekata', 'anekata' se alag 'upadhishoony chetan tattv' mana hai. maya bhi anirvachaniy hai-vah n sat hai, n asat. sat asat se vilakshan hai. usaka parinami upadan karan jagath hai. jaise rajju men sanp ki athava sipi men rajat ki pratit hoti hai- usaka parinami upadan karan agyan hai- vahi maya hai- jo sat asat vilakshan hai. advait brahm ki avasthaen hain- paramarthak avastha men vah advait brahm hai, saty hai. vyavaharik avastha men vah jiv, tatha pratibhasit avastha men svapn kahalata hai. at: jagath evn snsar ka vivartopadan karan brahm hai. maya ki upadhi se brahm hi eeshvar ban jata hai.[15]jaise prithvi se anek vastuon ka janm hota hai, vaise hi eeshvar se jiv aur vibhinnataen abhavit hoti hain.[16] is anekata se brahm par koee prabhav nahin padata vah mayavi mayajany tattvon se aprabhavit rahata hai.[17]avidya ki nivritti se moksh ka sakshatkar hota hai. shnkarachary ke advaitavad ne samast bharat ko prabhavit kiya. aj bhi bharatiy samaj ka prabuddh varg isase prabhavit hai. shaiv mat ka adhar bhi advaitavad hi tha. lagabhag tin shatabdi bad isake pratirodh men svar utha. advaitavad ka virodh sahaj kary nahin tha, kintu bhakti ke prachar ke nimatt vibhinn grnthon ki rachana huee. uttarottar dakshin pradeshiy alavar athava adavar bhakton ka mahattv badha- vaishnav bhakti ka udbhav hua. samasamayik vidvanon ne vibhinn darshanon ki sthapana ki. unaki vaicharikata ka mooladhar shrimadbhagavat tha. sarvashaktiman, sarvavyapak brahm ko svikar karate hue bhi unhonne vibhinn konon se jagat, brahm aur jiv ki vyakhya ki.

advait

jagrit, svapn aur sushupt ki avasthaon se pare tatha bahy aur antarik vishayon se atit anubhav men brahm ka prakash hota hai. vishayatit hone ke karan brahm anirvachaniy hai. snkhyatit hone ke karan use 'advait' kaha jata hai. tyag aur prem ke vyavaharon men yah advait bhav vibhasit hota hai. samadhi men isaka antarik sakshatkar hota hai. advait bhav ko siddh karane ke lie brahm ko jagath ka karan mana gaya hai. brahm ko jagath ka upadan karan manakar donon ka advait siddh ho jata hai.

eeshvar

upadan ke parinam ki ashnka ko vivartavad ke dvara door kiya gaya hai. vivartakaran avikary hota hai. usaka kary mithya hota hai, jaise rajju men sarp ka bhram. rajju sarp aur svapn pratibhasik saty hain. jagath vyavaharik saty hai. moksh parynt vah many hai. brahm hi paramarthik saty hai jo moksh men shesh rah jata hai. maya se yukt brahm 'eeshvar' kahalata hai. vah srishti ka karta hai, kintu vah paramarthik saty nahin hai. brahmanubhav ka sadhan gyan hai. karm ke sadhy shashvat nahin hote. 'brahm' karm ke dvara sadhy nahin hai. karm aur bhakti moksh ke sahakari karan hain. shravan, manan aur nididhyasan mokshasadhana ke tin charan hain. moksh men atma samast bndhanon se mukt ho jati hai aur annt annd se aplavit rahati hai. yah moksh jivan kal men prapy hai tatha jivan ke vyavahar se isaki poorn sngati hai.

vishishtadvait

shnkarachary ke lagabhag 300 varsh bad 11vin shatabdi men ramanujachary ne brahmasootron ki navin vyakhya ke adhar par vishishtadvait mat ki sthapana ki. ramanujakrit 'shribhashy' ke adhar par yah 'shrisnpraday' kahalata hai. ramanuj shnkar ke 'mayavad' ko nahin manate the. unake anusar jiv, jagath aur brahm tinon paramarthik saty hain. jagath brahm ka vivart nahin varanh brahm ki vastavik rachana hai. brahm aur eeshvar ek doosare ke paryay hain. jiv brahm ka ansh hai. moksh men jagath ka vilay nahin hota aur jiv ka svatntr astitv bana rahata hai. brahm nirvishesh aur nirgun nahin varanh savisheshy aur sagun hai. brahm hi svatntr satta hai. jiv aur jagath usake aprithaksiddh visheshan hain. brahm se prithakh‌ unaka astitv snbhav nahin hai. at: ramanuj ka mat bhi advait hi hai. jiv aur jagath‌ ke visheshanon se yukt brahm ka inake sath vishisht advaitabhav hai. brahm inaka antaryami svami hai. ramanuj ke mat men bhakti moksh ka mukhy sadhan hai. bhagavan ke gunon ka gyan bhakti ka prerak hai. sadharan jan aur shoodron ke lie prapatti arthath sharanagati sarvottam marg hain.

dvaitadvaitavad

ramanuj ke kuchh varsh bad 11vin shatabdi men hi ninbarkachary ne dvaitadvaitavad ki pratishtha ki. brahmasootron par 'vedant-parijat-saurabh' nam se unaka bhashy is mat ka adhar hai. ramanuj ke saman ninbark bhi jiv aur jagath ko saty tatha brahm ka ashrit manate hain. ramanuj ke mat men advait pradhan hai. ninbark mat men dvait ka anurodh adhik hai. ramanuj ke anusar jiv aur brahm men svaroopagat samy hai, unaki shakti men bhed hain. ninbark ke mat men unamen svaroopagat bhed hai. ninbark ke advait ka adhar jiv ki brahm par nirbharata hai. ninbark ka brahm sagun eeshvar hai. krishn ke roop men usaki bhakti hi moksh ka param marg hai. yah bhakti bhagavan ke anugrah se prapt hoti hai. bhakti se bhagavan ka sakshatkar hota hai. yahi moksh hai. ramanuj aur ninbark dono ke mat men videh mukti hi many hai.

dvaitamat

ninbark ke bad 13vin shatabdi men madhvachary ne dvait mat ka pratipadan kiya. ve poornaprgy tatha anndatirth ke nam se bhi prasiddh hain. unhonne shnkarachary ke advait aur ninbark ke dvaitadvait ka khndan karake dvaitavad ki sthapana ki hai. unake anusar bhed aur abhed donon ki ekatr sthati snbhav nahin hai. shnkarachary ka 'mayavad' bhi unhen many nahin hai. jagath mithya nahin yatharth hai. sat aur asat se bhinn maya ki tisari anirvachaniy koti snbhav nahin hai. eeshvar, jiv aur jagath tinon ek doosare se bhinn hain. bhed ke panch prakar hain-

  1. eeshvarajiv
  2. eeshvar-jagat
  3. jiv-jagath‌
  4. jiv-jiv aur jad padarth

inamen paraspar bhed hai. eeshvar jagath ka upadan karan nahin, nimitt karan hai. upadan karan prakriti hai. eeshvar usaka niyamak hai. eeshvar ki bhakti ke dvara moksh prapt hota hai. mukt jivon men paraspar bhed rahata hai. ve eeshvar se bhinn rahakar apani samarthy ke anusar eeshvar ki vibhooti men bhag lete hain.

shuddhadvait mat

15vin shatabdi men vallabhachary ne shuddhadvait mat ka prachar kiya. is mat ka adhar 'brahmasootron' par likhit vallabhachary ka 'anubhashy' hai. ve maya se alipt shuddh brahm ka advait bhav manate hain. yah brahm nirgun nahin, sagun hai tatha maya ke snbndh se rahit hai. brahm apani annt shakti se jagatri ke roop men vyakt hota hai. chit aur annd ka tirodhan hone ke karan jagath men keval sat roop se brahm ki abhivyakti hoti hai. jiv aur brahm svaroop se ek hain. agni ke sphurligon ki bhanti jiv brahm ka ansh hai, visheshan nahin. is prakar sarvatr advait hai, kahin bhi dvait nahin. bhakti moksh ke sadhan do prakar ke hain-

  1. maryada
  2. pushti

16vin shatabdi men chaitany mahaprabhu ne 'achinty bhedabhed' ka pravartan kiya. unake shishy roop gosvami ne gaudiy vaishnav snpraday ka pratishthapan kiya. inake anusar bhagavan ki shakti achinty hai. vah virodhi gunon ka samanvay kar sakati hai. bhedabhed ka chintan n karake moksh ki sadhana karana hi jivan ka dharm hai. moksh ka arth bhagavan ki priti ka nirntar anubhav hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: shuddhadvaitavad evn vallabh snpraday

vedant ka uday

is prakar vaidik yug ke uttar kal men upanishadon men jis vedant ka uday hua, usaka navin utthan satavin shatabdi se lekar 16vin shatabdi tak advait, vishishtadvait, dvait, shuddhadvait adi snpradayon ke roop men hua. upanishadon ka vedant pashchimi aur uttariy bharat ki den hai. advait adi snpradayon ka uday dakshin se hua. inake pravartak dakshin deshon ke nivasi the. chaitany ka mat bngal se udit hua. kintu in sabhi snpradayon ne vrindavan adi uttari sthanon men apane pith banae. shnkarachary ne desh ke charon konon par pith sthapit kie. uttar, dakshin, poorv, pashchim sabhi pradeshon ke log in snpradayon men sammilit hue. siddhant men bhinn hote hue bhi vedant ke ye vibhinn snpraday bharatavarsh ki antarik ekata ke sootr bane.

shaiv aur shakt snpraday

vaidik aur avaidik darshanon ke atirikt bharatiy darshan parnpara men ek tisari dhara shaiv tatha shakt snpradayon ki pravahit hoti rahi hai. kuchh rahasyamay sadhana ke roop men hone ke karan yah vaidik aur avaidik dharaon ke sngam men kuchh sarasvati ke saman gupt rahi hai. kintu pratyaksh upasana ke roop men bhi shiv ki manyata bahut hai. prachin aitihasik khojon se shiv ki prachinata pramanit hoti hai. ganv ganv men shiv ke mndir hain. prati saptah aur prati paksh men shiv ka vrat hota hai. mahadev parvati ka divy danpaty bharatiy parivaron men adarsh ke roop se poojit hota hai. rigved aur yajurved ke rudr ke roop men shiv ka varnan hai. kintu pray: shiv ko avaidik lokadevata mana jata hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: shaiv snpraday evn shakt

lingayat

tantrik hote hue bhi inaka darshanik sahity vipul hai. isaki spnd aur pratyabhigya do shakhaen hain. ek ka adhar vasugupt ki 'spndakarika' aur doosari ka adhar unake shishy somannd[18] ka 'pratyabhigyashastr' hai. jiv aur parameshvar ka advait donon shakhaon men many hai. parameshvar 'shiv' vedant ke brahm ke hi saman hain. virashaiv mat dakshin deshon se prachalit hai. inake anuyayi shivaling dharan karate hain. at: inhen 'lingayat' bhi kahate hain. 12vin shatabdi men vasav ne is mat ka prachar kiya. virashaiv mat ek prakar ka vishishtadvait hai. shakti vishisht vishv ko param tatv manane ke karan ise shakti vishishtadvait kah sakate hain. uttar aur dakshin men prachalit shaiv snpraday bhi uttar vedant snpradayon ki bhanti bharat ki dharmik ekata ke sootr hain. kailas se rameshvaram tak poojit shiv bharatiy ekata ke mngal devata hai. donon ki yatraon ke dvara bharatiy ekata ka vyavaharik anushthan hota hai.

shakti

shakti pooja ka strot snbhavat: prachin bharat ke matritntr men hai. bharatiy parivaron men devi ki mahima bahut hai. striyon ke nam men pray: uttarapad ke roop men 'devi' shabd ka prayog hota hai. shakti ke anek roop hain. lakshmi, sarasvati, parvati kali, adi ke roop men devi ki upasana hoti hai. 'shakti' ichchharoop hai. shiv sootr men ichchhashakti ko uma kumari ka roop diya hai[19]. par tatv ke chinmay roop men ichchha shakti ka samanvay shakti darshan ka ek mahatvapoorn paksh hai.

bharatiy darshanik

bharatiy darshanik parnpara ne chintanashil manav samaj ko atmachintan ke prati jagarook rahakar atmik vikas ke lie prerit kiya. samay-samay par chintadhara ke kon bhale hi badalate hue dikhayi padate hain kintu yah darshanik vicharadhara astikata, naitikata tatha adhyatm ki adharashila ke roop men drashtavy hai. bharatiy mithak sahity men darshan ke vividh roopon ko akhyanon ke madhyam se arakshit rakha gaya. kahin-kahin to mithak ke madhyam se hi darshanik vicharon ka klisht roop sarvasulabh ho paya hai. nachiketa ke madhyam se snsar ki nissarata- mundakopanishadh men pakshi yugal ke madhyam se jiv aur atma, devasur sngram ke madhyam se hridayajany suvrittiyon evn kuvrittiyon ka sngharsh sahaj roop men ankit hai. raja alark ki katha jivan ke prati anasakti par prakash dalati hai. samudraparynt prithvi ke svamitv ki nissarata ko pahachanakar unhonne dhyan yog se moksh prapt kiya tha. darshanik parnpara ne bharatiy samaj ki chintadhara par adhyatmik ankush lagaye rakhane ka kary kiya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 bharatiy darshan (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 19 sitambar, 2015.
  2. bhautik tatv
  3. 8 vin shatabdi
  4. 5 vin shatabdi
  5. 12 vin shatabdi
  6. snhita, brahman
  7. upanishadon
  8. 14vin shatabdi
  9. 14vin shatabdi
  10. upanishadon
  11. rikh, yajh tatha sam
  12. 'janmadyasy yat:' tatha 'atmakrite: parinamath.'-vedant darshan-sootr 1.1.2 1.4.26
  13. uttarotpade ch poorvanirodhamh. asati pratigyoparodho yogapadyamanyatha.-vedant darshan- sootr 2.2.20.21
  14. shankarabhashy 3.2.22
  15. chhandogyopanishad bhashy-shnkar- 3.14.2
  16. shankarabhashy 2.1.23
  17. vrihadaranyak upanishad bhashy- shnkar- 2.4.12
  18. 9vin shati
  19. ichchha shakti: uma kumari

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