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प्रशस्तपाद भाष्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parichay

padarth dharm sngrah par bhashy ka sampradayagat lakshan ghatit n hone ke karan kuchh vidvanon ki drishti men yah bhashy nahin hai. yah vyakhyan vaisheshik sootron ke kram se nahin hai, 40 sootron ka to isamen ullekh hi nahin hai. aur vaisheshik sootron men acharchit kee naye siddhanton ka bhi isamen samavesh hai. vaisheshik sootr par likhit apane bhashy ki bhoomika men chandrakant bhattachary ne to yah spasht kaha ki padarth dharm sngrah men bhashyatv nahin hai, at: vah apana alag bhashy likh rahe hain. kintu vyomavati, syadavadaratnakar adi granthon men padarth dharm sngrah ka ullekh bhashy ke roop men hi kiya gaya hai.

prachin acharyon ke mat men bhashy shabd ka do arthon men prayog hota hai, tadyatha-

  1. sootrarthon varnyate yatr shabdai: sootranusaribhi:. svapadani ch varnyante bhashyn bhashyavido vidu:॥
  2. nyayanibandhaprakash (parishuddhiprakash) men vardhamanopadhyay ne bhashy ka lakshan is prakar bataya hai-

sootrn buddhisthikrity tatpathaniyamn vinapi tadvyakhyann bhashyamh.
yadava sootravyakhyanantaramanupajivy tadvyakhyann bhashyamh,
vyakhyanantaramupajivy sootravyakhyann vritti:.

is prakar adhikatar vidvanon ka yah mat hai ki paribhashik drishti se bhashy ke pratham lakshan ke anusar bhashy n hone par bhi dvitiy lakshan ke anusar padarth dharm sngrah ka bhashyatv siddh hota hai. padarth dharm sngrah nam padane ke karan isaka bhashyatv nirast nahin hota. namantar se nirdesh bhashyatv ka vyaghat nahin karata. vyakaran mahabhashy ke arambh men usaka 'shabdanushasan' nam se ullekh hone par bhi jaise vah bhashy se bahirbhoot nahin hota, vaise hi padarth dharm sngrah kahane se bhi is granth ka bhashyatv nirast nahin hota.

vyomavati men bhi prashastapad ki is kriti ke lie bhashy tatha padarth dharm sngrah shabdon ka prayog kiya gaya hai.[1]

nyayakandali[2]

tatha kiranavali[3] men bhi aisa hi kaha gaya hai. kiranavalikar ne 'sngrah' ka lakshan karate hue yah bhi kaha hai- vistarenopadishtanamarthanan sootrabhashyayo:.
nibandhon yassamasen, sngrahn tn vidurbudha:॥

upaskarakarta shnkaramishr ne padarthadharmasngrah ka nirdesh prakaran shabd se bhi kiya hai. prakaran ka lakshan is prakar hai— shastraikadeshasambaddhn shastradharmantare sthitamh.
ahu: prakarann nam granthabhedn vipashchit:॥

kintu kiranavalikar ke anusar prakaran ek deshiy hote hain, at: udayanachary padarth sngrah ko prakaran nahin manate. nyayakandali, upaskar, sammatitarkaprakaran, prameyakamalamartand, nyayakumudachandr, tattvasngrahapnjika adi men prashastapad ke granth ka ullekh padarthapraveshak, padarthapravesh adi namon se bhi upalabdh hota hai. nayachakr, usaki vyakhya, pramanasamuchchayavyakhya, vishalamalavati tatha bauddhabharati granthamala men mudrit tattvasngrah pnjika ke vaisheshik mat-pariksha, vishesh pariksha tatha samavayapariksha sambandhi vishleshanon men jitane ansh bhashy se uddhrit bataye gaye hain utane ansh prashastapad bhashy men upalabdh nahin hain. kuchh ansh hain, kuchh nahin hain. at: aisa pratit hota hai ki prashastapad ne do granth likhe the-

  1. ek vistrit vyakhya aur
  2. doosara padarth dharm sngrah.

isase yah bhi siddh hota hai ki prashastamati bhi inaka hi nam tha. aur yah bhi mana ja sakata hai ki prashastapad ne ek to vaisheshik sootron ka bhashy likha aur doosara vaisheshik mat sngrahak granth likha, jo padarth-dharm-sngrah nam se prakhyat hua. ab jo granth upalabdh hai, vah prashastapad bhashy tatha padarth dharm sngrah donon namon se prasiddh hai. is bhashy men niroopit pramukh vishayon ka vivaran is prakar hai-

  1. dravyon ki ganana,
  2. dravyon ka sadharmy-vaidharmy,
  3. prithvi adi ka svaroop,
  4. srishtisnharavidhi,
  5. gun,
  6. gun-sadharmy-vaidharmy,
  7. pakajotpatti,
  8. snkhya,
  9. viparyay,
  10. anadhyavasay,
  11. svapn adi ka niroopan.

pramanon ka vishleshan buddhi ke antargat kiya gaya hai. in pratipady vishayon ki soochi ke adhar par bhi yah kaha ja sakata hai ki yah granth sootron ka kramik bhashy nahin apitu yah vaisheshik ke mantavyon ka ek vyavasthit aur kramabaddh snkshipt vishleshan hai. bhashyakartta prashastapadachary prashast, prashastadev, prashastavaran, prashastamati namon se bhi abhihit kiye jate hain.

bodhayanasootr ke pravaradhyay ke angirasagan men samahit sharadavatagan men prashast ka samavesh kiya gaya hai. any logon ka yah mat hai ki pravararatnagranth men angirasagan ke gautamavarn men prashast ka nirdesh hai. udayanachary, shridhar, shnkaramishr adi ka yah vichar hai ki kanad-prashastavad men gautam-vatsyayan ke saman paramarshitvata kapil, pnchashikh adi ke saman acharyatv hai. vasubandhu ne prashastapad-bhashy ka khandan kiya hai. nyayabhashy men prashastapad dvara ullikhit siddhanton ka varnan hai.

prashastapad ka samay

prashastapad ke samay ke vishay men vidvanon men ekamaty nahin hai. ech. uee ke anusar inaka samay dharmapal tatha paramarth ke samay ke adhar par nishchit kiya ja sakata hai kyonki donon ne prashastapad bhashy ke adhar par vaisheshik ke mantavyon ka ullekh karake unaka khandan kiya hai. bodas prabhriti vidvanon ke anusar prashastapad vatsyayan se poorvavarti hain. vatsyayan ka samay randale tisari shati, vidyabhooshan, radhakrishnan aur kith chauthi shati, evn patar, phrauvalnar aur bodas panchavin shati manate hain nyayabhashy men kautily (327 ee.) ke arthashastr aur patnjali 150 ee. poo. ke mahabhashy ke uddharan tatha nagarjun (300 ee.) ke mat ka khandan hai tatha dinnag (500 ee.) ne vatsyayan ki alochana ki hai, at: vatsyayan ka samay lagabhag 400 ee. ke asapas hai. jabaki phaideshan adi ka yah vichar hai ki vatsyayan prashastapad ke poorvavarti hain. kintu kith ne prashastapad ko dinnag ka paravarti mana jabaki pro. sheravatski aur pro. dhruv ne prashastapad ko dinnag se poorvavarti siddh kiya hai. pramanasamuchchay ke tikakar jinendr buddhi ne praman samuchchay men snketit katipay kathanon ko prashastamati dvara ukt bataya hai. is prakar yadi prashastapad tatha prashastamati ek hi vyakti hain to nishchit roop se yah kaha ja sakata hai ki prashastapad dinnag ke poorvavarti hain. katipay vidvanon ka kathan hai ki prashastapad dinnag ke poorvavarti hain. katipay vidvanon ka kathan hai ki yadyapi dinnag ne kahin spashtat: prashastapad ka ullekh nahin kiya, phir bhi unake dvara snketit poorvapakshon men prashastapad ki chhaya si pratit hoti hai. dinnag ka samay lagabhag 480 ee. mana jata hai.

ab bhi prashastapad ke samay ke sambandh men adhunik vidvanon men bada matabhed bana hua hai. unaka samay radhakrishnan chaturth shati, kith pncham shati, phaubalnar chhathi shati manate hain. hamare vichar men prashastapad ka samay chaturth shati ka uttar bhag ya pncham shati ka poorv bhag manana adhik tarkasammat hai.

prashastapad ya prashastamati ki vakyanamni tika

prashastapad tatha prashastamati namon ke saman vakyanamni tika aur prashastamati tika ke bare men abhi tak bhi bada bhram vyapt hai. kaha jata hai ki kanad pranit vaisheshik sootr par vaky ya prashastamati namak snkshipt vyakhyan athava snkshipt bhashy granth likha gaya tha, jisaki rachana prashastamati ne ki thi ya jis par prashastamati ne tika likhi thi. tika ka nam vaky ya prashastamati tha. isaka adhar is prakar banaya jata hai ki shantarakshit ne tattvasngrah men eeshvar ke vibhutv aur sarvgyan ke sndarbh men vishesh padarth ka niroopan kiya hai tatha kamalashil ne 'tattvasngrah vyakhya pnjika' men prashastamati ke mat ka khandan kiya hai. nayachakr tatha nayachakravyakhya men jo bhashy vachan uddhrit kie ge hai, ve prashastapad bhashy men upalabdh nahin hain. jinendr buddhi dvara dinnag ke praman samuchchayon par rachit 'vishalamalavati' namak vyakhya men bhi jo bhashy vachan uddhrit kiye gaye hain, ve prashastapad bhashy men nahin milate. isase yah siddh hota hai ki prashastapad rachit bhashy padarth dharm sngrah ke atirikt koee any bhashy bhi tha, jo ki prashastapad athava prashastamati namak kisi any achary ne likha tha. prashastamati ko kuchh vidvanh prashastapad se bhinn vyakti manate hain, kintu adhikatar vidvanon ka yah mat hai ki ye donon nam ek hi vyakti ke the.

jainachary mallavadi ke nayachakr se yah bhi gyat hota hai ki vaisheshik sootron par rachit 'vaky' nam ki is snkshipt vyakhya men sootr tatha vaky sath-sath liye gaye the.

prashastapad bhashy ka pratipady

prashastapad bhashy ka adhyay adi ke roop men vibhajan nahin hai. prashastapad ne kahin-kahin kanad ke sootron ka ullekh karate hue aur kahin-kahin sootron ke sthan par unake bhav ka grahan karate hue apane dhng se hi vaisheshik bhashy ke kalevar ko pratishthapit kiya hai. vaisheshik darshan men achary prashastapad ke mantavyon, mahattv aur yogadan ka ullekh snkshep men is prakar hai-

  1. vaisheshik darshan ke mukhy mantavyon ka vyavasthit prastutikaran.
  2. vaisheshik ke chh: padarthon ki spasht vyakhya.
  3. kanad dvara ullikhit satrah gunon ke sthan par chaubis gunon ka ullekh.
  4. buddhi ke antargat vaisheshikasammat pramanon ka sannidhan aur niroopan.
  5. apekshabuddhi se snkhya ki utpatti tatha snkhya ke vinash ka vishleshan.
  6. pariman ke bhed tatha utpatti ka niroopan.
  7. pakaj roop ka niroopan tatha pilupakavad ka vishleshan.
  8. srishti evn pralay ka vishleshan. [4]
  9. paramanu se dvayanuk adi ki utpatti ka vishleshan.
  10. dharm-adharm tatha bandh aur moksh ka vishleshan.
  11. shabd ka vishad vishleshan.[5]

prashastapad bhashy ki tikaen aur upatikaen

vaisheshik darshan sambandhi vanmay men vaisheshik sootr se bhi adhik prasiddhi prashastapad bhashy ki huee. isaka praman yah hai ki is bhashy par ek vipul tika-sahity ki rachana huee aur ek prakar se isi ki tika-pratikaon ke madhyam se vaisheshik ke mantavyon ka kramik vikas v parishkar hua.

  • shridhar dvara rachit nyayakandali ki pnjika namak tika men jainachary rajeshvar ne prashastapadiy padarth dharm sngrah ki char pramukh vyakhyaon ka nirdesh is prakar kiya hai-
  1. vyomavativyomashivachary rachit
  2. nyayakandali—shridharachary rachit
  3. kiranavaliudayanachary rachit
  4. lilavatishrivatsachary rachit

inamen se lilavati ke sthan par katipay vidvanh shrivallabhachary dvara rachit nyayalilavati ki pariganana karate hain. kintu nyayalilavati ek svatntr granth hai, tika nahin. at: sthanapannata uchit nahin hai. in char pramukh tikaon ke atirikt nimnalikhit any avantar char tikaon ki bhi ganana karake kuchh vidvanh pramukh tikaon ki snkhya ath manate hain—

  1. setu -- padmanabharachit
  2. bhashyasookti:- jagadisharachit
  3. bhashyanikash: - kolachal mallinatharachit
  4. kanadarahasyamh – shnkar mishrarachit

in tikaon men se sarvadhik prachin tika vyomavati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. padarthadharmanan sngrah iti nibandhakarairvistaroktanan snkshepenabhidhanamh, vyomavati pri. 20, 33
  2. anyatr granthe vistaren itastat: abhihitanamh ih ekatr tavatamev padarthanan granthe snkshepenabhidhanamh, nya.k. pri. 6
  3. shastre nanasthaneshu vitata: ekatr snkalayy kathyante s sngrah:, kiranavali, pri. 5
  4. k) Historical Survey of Indian Logic, R.AS. BP. 40
    (kh) prashastapadabhashy hindi anuvad (shrinivas shastri) pri. 12
    (g) Introduction to Nyaya Prakash: P XXI
    (gh) Vaisheshik System, P-605
    (n) Indian Logic And Atomism. P. 27
  5. drashtavy—prashastapadabhashy hindi anuvad, shrinivas shastri pri. 18

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