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आदर्शवाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

adarshavad 1. pratyay aur adarsh-kuchh vicharakon ke anusar munashy aur any praniyon men pramukh bhed yah hai ki manushy pratyayon ka prayog kar sakata hai aur any praniyon men yah kshamata vidyaman nahin. kutta do manushyon ko dekhata hai, parntu 2 ko usane kabhi nahin dekha. pratyay do prakar ke hote hain-vaigyanik aur naitik, snkhya, gun, matra adi vaigyanik pratyayon ka astitv to asndigdh hai, parntu naitik pratyayon ka astitv vivad ka vishay bana raha hai. ham kahate hain-'aj mausam bahut achchha hai'. yahan ham achchhepan ka varnan karate hain aur isake sath achchhaee ke adhik nyoon hone ki or snket karate hain. isi prakar ka bhed karmo ke snbndh men bhi kiya jata hai. naitik pratyay ko adarsh bhi kahate hain. adarsh ek aisi sthiti hai, jo (1)vartaman men vidyaman nahin, (2) vartaman sthiti ki apeksha adhik moolyavanh‌ hai, (3) anukaran karane ke yogy hai aur (4) vastavik sthiti ka mooly janchane ke lie mapak ka kam deti hai. adarsh ke pratyay men mooly ka pratyay nihit hai. mooly ke astitv ki babat ham kya kah sakate hain?

kuchh log mooly ko manav kalpana ka pad hi dete hain. jo vastu kisi karan se hamen akarshit karati hai, vah hamari drishti men moolyavan ya bhadr hai. isake viparit afalatoon ke vichar men pratyay ya adarsh hi vastavik astitv rakhate hain, drisht vastuon ka astitv to chhaya matr hai. ek tisare mat ke anusar, jisaka pratinidhitv arastoo karata hai, adarsh vastavikata ka arnbh nahin, apitu 'ant' hai. 'niti' ke arnbh men hi vah kahata hai ki sari vastuen adarsh ki or chal rahi hain.

moolyon men uchch aur nimn ka bhed hota hai. jab ham kahate hain ki k kh se uttam hai, tab hamara ashay yahi hota hai ki sarvottam se kh ki apeksha k ka antar thoda hai. mooly k tulana ka adhar sarvottam hai. ise ni:shreyas kahate hain. prachin yoonan aur bharat ke lie ni:shreyas ya sarvashreshth mooly ke svaroop ka samajhana hi niti men pramukh prashn tha.

2. ni:shreyas ka svaroop-ni:shreyas ya sarvochch adarsh ke svaroop ke snbndh men sabhi isase sahamat hain ki yah chetana se snbaddh hai, parntu jyonhi ham janana chahate hain ki chetana men kaun sa ansh sadhyamooly hai, tyonhi matabhed prastut ho jata hai. kuchh log kahate hain ki sukh ka upabhog aisa mooly hai. kuchh gyan, buddhimatta, prem ya shivasnkalp ko yah pad dete hain. kuchh is vikalp men ekavad ko chhodakar anekavad ki sharan lete hain or kahate hain ki ek se adhik vastuen sadhyamooly hain kisi vastu ke sadhyamooly hone ya n hone ka nirnay karane ke lie daktar moor ne nimnalikhit sujhav diya hai: kalpana karo ki do vikalpon me poorn samanata hai, sivay is bhed ke ki ek vishesh vastu ek viplav men vidyaman hai. in donon viplavon men tumhari buddhi kisake astitv ko adhik upayukt samajhati hai? jo vastu aisi sthiti men ek viplav ko doosare se adhik upayukt banati hai, vah sadhyamooly hain.

3. adarshavad ki many dharanaen-moolyon ka astitv, unamen shreshthata ka bhed or sarvashreshth mooly ka astitv adarshavad ki maulik dharana hai. isase snbaddh kuchh any dharanaen bhi adarshavadiyon ke lie many hain. inamen se ham yahan tin par vichar karenge: (1) samany ka pad vishesh se ooncha hai. pratyek buddhivnt buddhivnt hone ke nate bhadr men bhag lene ka adhikari hai. (2) adhyatmik bhadr ka mooly prakritik bhadr se adhik hai. (3) buddhivnt prani (manushy) men bhadr ko siddh karane ki kshamata hai. manushy svadhin karta hai.

in tinon dharanaon par tanik vichar ki avashyakata hai.

(1) svarth aur sarvarth-samany aur vishesh ka bhed svarthavad aur sarvarthavad ke vivad men prakat hota hai. bhogavad (sukhavad) ne svarth se arnbh kiya, parntu shighr hi isake dhhey men sarvarth ne sthan prapt kar liya. manushy ka antim uddeshy adhik se adhik snkhya ka adhik se adhik upabhog hai. doosari or kant ne bhi kaha ki nirapeksh adesh ki drishti men sare manushy ek saman sadhy hain, koee manushy bhi sadhan matr nahin. mrityu ki tarah naitik jivan sabhi bhedon ko mita deta hai. koee manushy kartavy se oopar nahin, koee adhikaron se vnchit nahin

(2) adhyatmik aur prakritik mooly-is vishay men kant ka kathan prasiddh hai: jagat men or isake pare bhi ham shivasnkalp ke atirikt kisi vastu ka bhi chintan nahin kar sakate, jo bina kisi shart ke shubh ya bhadr ho. jan stuart mil jaise sukhavadi ne bhi kaha, tript suar se atript sukarat hona uttam hai. mil ne yah nahin dekha ki is svikriti men vah apane siddhant se hatakar adarshavad ka samarthan kar rahe hain. sukarat men aisa adhyatmik ansh hai jo suar men vidyaman nahin.

tamas hil grin ne vistar se yah batane ka yatn kiya hai ki adhunik naitik bhavana prachin yoonan ki bhavana se in do baton men bahut age badhi hai-manushy aur manushy men bhed kam ho gaya hai,aur jivan men adhyatmik paksh agrasar ho raha hai.

(3) naitik svadhinata-kant ke vichar men manav prakriti men pramukh ansh 'naitik bhavana' ka hai, vah anubhav karata hai ki karttavyapalan ki mang shesh sabhi mangon se adhik adhikar rakhati hai, naitik adesh 'nirapeksh adesh' hai. is svikriti ke sath naitik svadhinata ki svikriti bhi anivary ho jati hai. 'tumhen karana chahie, isalie tum kar sakate ho.' yogyata ke abhav men uttaradayitv ka prashn uth hi nahin sakata.[1]

4. shreshth, shreshthatar aur shreshthatam-yahan ek kathin sthiti prastut ho jati hai: naitik adarsh shreshthatam ki siddhi hai ya usaki or chalate jana hai? jis avastha ko ham shreshthatam samajhate hain, use prapt karane par use shreshthatam hi pate hain. jahan kahin bhi ham pahunche, truti or apoornata bani rahati hai. svayn kant ne kaha hai ki hamara antim uddeshy poornata hai, aur isaki siddhi ke lie annt kal ki avashyakata hai. kuchh vicharak to kahate hain ki apoornata ka kuchh ansh rahana hi chahie. sorto apani prasiddh pustak 'naitik mooly' men kahata hai: 'kalpana karo ki sare moolyon ki siddhi ho gee hai. aisa hone par niti ka kya banega? age badhane ke lie koee adarsh rahega hi nahin. saphalata sare prayatn ka ant kar degi aur is tarah siddhi prapt naitik adarsh jivan ko poorn karane men samapt kar dega. is kathinaee ke karan braidale ne kaha ki naitik jivan men antarik virodh hai: sare naitik prayatn ka ant isaki apani hatya hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 367-68 |
  2. sn.grn.-pleto: ripablik; arastoo: ethiks; kant: metaphiziks aauv ethiks; moor: ethiks.

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