मीमांसा दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mimansa shabd ka arth kisi vastu ke svaroop ka yatharth varnan hai. ved ke mukhyat: do bhag hain. pratham bhag men 'karmakand' bataya gaya hai, jisase adhikari manushy ki pravritti hoti hai. dvitiy bhag men 'gyanakand' bataya gaya hai, jisase adhikari manushy ki nivritti hoti hai. karm tatha gyan ke vishay men karmamimansa aur vedant ki drishti men antar hai. vedant ke anusar karmatyag ke bad hi atmgyan snbhav hai. karm to keval chittashuddhi ka sadhan hai. moksh ki prapti to gyan se hi ho sakati hai. parantu karmamimansa ke anusar mumukshujan ko bhi karm karana chahie.

prakar

mimansa ke do prakaron ki vyakhya ki gee hai-

  1. karmamimansa
  2. gyanamimansa
  • karmamimansa tatha poorvamimansa ke nam se abhihit darshan 'mimansa' kaha jata hai.
  • gyanamimansa tatha uttaramimansa ke nam se prasiddh darshan 'vedant' kahalata hai.

mimansa darshan poornataya vaidik hai. 'mimansate' kriyapad tatha 'mimansa' sngyapad, donon ka prayog brahman tatha upanishad granthon men milata hai. at: mimansa darshan ka sambandh atyant prachin kal se siddh hota hai.

mimansa darshan ka vishay

mimansa ka pratipady vishay dharm ka vivechan hai- 'dharmakhyn vishayn vastu mimansaya: prayojanamh'.[1] vedavihit ishtasadhan dharm hai aur vedaviparit anishtasadhan adharm hai. is jagath men karm hi sarveshreshth hai. karm karane se phal avashyamev utpann hota hai. bhagavan badarayan eeshvar ko karmaphal ka data manate hain, kintu mimansa darshan ke adi achary jaimini karm ko phaladata manate hain. unake anusar ygykarm se hi tattath phal utpann hote hain. mimansa darshan men 'apoorv' namak siddhant pratipadit hai. karm se utpann hota hai phal. is prakar apoorv hi karm aur karmaphal ko bandhane vali shrinkhala hai. mimansa darshan ved ko saty manata hai.

poorvamimansa darshan men ved ke karmakand bhag par vichar kiya gaya hai aur uttaramimansa arthath vedantashastr men ved ke gyanakand bhag par vichar kiya gaya hai. karmakand bhag par maharshi jaimini ne vichar kiya hai aur gyanakand bhag par maharshi badarayan vyas ne vichar kiya hai. poorvamimansa darshan men anushthanopayogi dharm tatha adharm ka vividh drishtikonon se vichar kiya gaya hai. sabhi ko abhisht pratit hone vale svargadiphal ke sadhan ko 'dharm' kaha gaya hai. atev 'yag' adi ko dharm ki koti men mana jata hai aur kalanjadi bhakshan ko maranadi anishtaroop du:kh ka sadhan hone se 'adharm' mana jata hai.

ved tatha smriti

in dharm-adharmon ka gyan, 'ved, smriti' shishtachar se hota hai. mantr tatha brahman donon ko hi 'ved' shabd se kaha jata hai- 'mantrabrahmanayorvedanamadheyamh'. mantron se anushthanakalin padarthon ka smaran hota hai tatha vidhayak vaky ko 'brahman' kaha jata hai. brahmanavaky anek prakar ke hote hain, jaise-

  1. karmotpattivaky
  2. gunavaky
  3. phalavaky
  4. phalarth gunavaky
  5. sagun karmotpattivaky

vihit-nishiddh karmon ki nashvarata ko dekhakar kalantar men milane vale phal ke sath unake sambandh ko jodane ke lie karm aur phal ke madhy 'apoorv' ki kalpana ki gee hai. us apoorv ke dvara hi yagadikarmon men svargaphalasadhanata utpann hoti hai, yagadikon men sakshat svargaphal sadhanata nahin hai. isi 'apoorv' ko 'phalapoorv' shabd se kaha gaya hai. us 'phalapoorv' ki utpatti, 'sarvangavishisht pradhanakarm' se hi hoti hai. dravy aur devata donon ka sambandh 'yag' ke atirikt any kisi bhi kriya men sambhav nahin hai. atev 'devatoddeshen dravyatyago yag:' kahakar 'yag' ka parichay diya jata hai.

  • sampoorn angon ke sahit vidhi ko 'prakriti' aur samagr angarahit vidhi ko 'vikriti' kaha gaya hai. in donon se bhinn prakar ki vidhi ko 'darvihom' kaha gaya hai.

vidhi ke svaroop

apoorvavidhi, niyamavidhi, parisnkhyavidhi ke bhed se vidhi ke tin prakar drishtigochar hote hain. karmon ke angangibhav ka bodh chhah pramanon se hota hai. un chhah pramanon men poorv-poorv praman prabal mana jata hai. jo pararth hota hai, use 'ang' kahate hain. atev darshapoornamas yag ki poorti ke lie 'prayaj' ki pravritti hone se prayaj ko darshapoornamas ka 'ang' kaha jata hai. 'prayaj' ki pravritti 'svatntr' nahin hoti hai. ye ang bhi do prakar ke hote hain-

  1. snnipatyopakarak
  2. aradupakarak

jo ang sakshat ya parnparaya pradhanayag ke sharir ko nishpann kar usake dvara tadutpattyapoorv ke upayog men ata hai, use 'snnipatyopakarak ang' kaha jata hai. jaise brihi adi dravy, tatsnyukt, avahanan-prokshanadi kary, agni adi devata, tatsnyukt yajyanuvakyavachanadi- ye sab snnipatyopakarak ang hain.

svasnbaddh apoorv ke utpadak angon ko 'aradupakarak ang' kahate hain. jaise- prayaj, anuyaj, ajyabhag, adi. ye aradupakarak ang, 'dravy ya devata' ke snskarak nahin hain, apitu svayn apane men hi 'adrisht' utpann karate hain.

karm

sadharanataya arthakarm aur gunakarm ke bhed se 'karm' ke do prakar bataye gaye hain. jo 'karm', atmagat apoorv utpann karate hain, unhen 'arthakarm' kahate hain. jaise- agnihotrakarm, darshapoornamasakarm, prayajakarm adi. jin karmon se snskar utpann hota hai, un karmon ko 'gunakarm' kahate hain. yah gunakarm bhi 'upayuktasnskarak' aur 'upayokshyamanasnskarak' bhed se do prakar ka bataya gaya hai.

upayuktasnskarak karm ko hi 'pratipattikarm' kahate hain. yah pratipattikarm bhi pradhanayag ke pashchat, pradhanayag ke samay aur pradhan-yag ke poorv hone se tin prakar ka hota hai.

upayokshyamanasnskar bhi anek prakar ka hota hai-

  1. sakshath viniyukt padarth ka snskar
  2. sakshat viniyukt padarth par upakar karane vale padarth ka snskar
  3. jisaka viniyog kiya ja raha hai, usaka snskar

snskriti bhed

nishkarsh yah hai ki 'arthakarm' men dravy ki apekshaya 'karm' ka pradhany rahata hai, aur dravy men gunatv rahata hai tatha 'gunakarm' men dravy ki pradhanata aur 'karm' ki gaunata hoti hai. 'gunakarm' ke bhi utpatti, apatti, vikriti aur snskriti ke bhed se char prakar hote hain-

  1. agni ka adhan - utpatti snskar hai.
  2. svadhyayoadhyetavy: - is vidhi se prapt hue adhyayan ke dvara 'svadhyay' ki prapti hoti hai, at: yah 'apti' snskar hai.
  3. vrihinh prokshati - is vidhi ke karan vrihiyon ke tushon ka vimok hota hai, arthat tushavimokaroop vikar utpann hota hai, us karan 'avahanan'-yah vikriti snskar hai.
  4. vrihin prokshati - is vidhi se vihit 'prokshan' se 'vrihiyon' ka snskar hota hai. isiliye 'prokshan' ko snskritiroop gunakarm kaha jata hai. upari nirdisht char udaharanon men se 'adhan' aur 'adhyayan' ye donon svatntr gunakarm hain. ye kisi 'kratu' ke ang nahin hain. kintu 'prokshanadi', kratvng gunakarm hain. nity-naimittik aur kamy-ke bhed se yah arth karm bhi tin prakar ka hai.

laukik vakyon ki apeksha vaidik vakyon men kuchh visheshata rahati hai. laukik vyavahar men kisi ko kisi kary men pravritt karane ke lie koee any purush pravartak rahata hai. kintu 'ved', apaurushey rahane se ved ke dvara pravritti karane men kisi 'purush' ki kalpana nahin ki ja sakati. tathapi vidhyarthak shabd se prerana (pravartana) to prapt hoti hi hai. yah vaidik prerana, vidhyarthak shabd men hi rahati hai. isiliye is prerana ko 'shabdi bhavana' ke nam se kaha jata hai. preranaroop shabdi bhavana ke pashchath 'pravritti' roop arthi bhavana hoti hai. donon bhavanaon men sadhy, sadhan aur itikartavyata namak tin ansh hua karate hain. yagadikarmon ka nam-nirdharan bhi shastrokt tatprakhyadi hetuon ke adhar par hi kiya jata hai. ved ka arthavad bhag, vidhey ka prashasty batakar usake sath jud jata hai. kahin-kahin sandigdh arth ka nirnay bhi kar deta hai. mantron ko bhi drishtarth mana gaya hai, kintu unake 'uchcharan niyam' ko adrishtarth mana jata hai.

darshan ka pranatattv

vedavihit karmon ke anushthan se karmabandhan svat: samapt ho jata hai. at: karm ka anushthan abhisht hai, karm ka parityag nahin. isilie vaidik darshan ka pranatattv mimansa darshan hi hai. jaimini mimansa darshan ke sootrakar hain. mimansa darshan men 16 adhyay hain, jinamen pratham 12 adhyay 'dvadashalakshani' ke nam se vikhyat hain. is darshan ki sootr snkhya 2644 aur adhikaranasnkhya 909 hai. isi dvadashalakshani par vritti, bhashy tatha vartik ki rachana kalantar men huee. isake sarvadhik prachin vrittikar upavarsh hain. shabarasvami (200 ee.) ne mimansa ke 12 adhyayon par bhashy likhakar is darshan ke gambhir tattvon ka vivechan prastut kiya. mimansa darshan ke itihas men kumaril bhatt ek navin yug ke udbhavak hain. astik darshan men mimansa ko sthapit karane ka shrey kumaril bhatt ko hi hai. kumaril bhatt 'mimansa darshanash' men maulik kalpana, vishad vyakhya tatha alaukik pratibha ke karan sada smaraniy rahenge. shabarabhashy par karikabaddh vipulakay 'shlokavartik' namak granth kumaril ki mahaniy den hai.

vidvanh matabhed

mimansa darshan ved ko apaurushey manata hai. mimansa ki drishti men ved ki nityata ka sarvashreshth praman shabdon ki nityata hai. ved nityashabdasamooh hai, at: nity hai. mimansa saty ko svat: prakashy manati hai. saty ko siddh karane ke lie kisi any praman ki apeksha nahin hoti. mimansak svat:pramanyavad ke samarthak hain. tattvgyan ki drishti se mimansa jagath-prapnch ki nityata svikar karati hai, parantu padarthon ki kalpana men prabhakar, kumaril aur murari ekamat nahin hain. prabhakar ath praman svikar karate hain. kumaril ke anusar padarthon ki snkhya keval panch hi hai. murari ki padarth kalpana donon se bhinn hai. unake anusar brahma hi ek paramarthabhoot padarth hai, kintu laukik vyavahar ki utpatti ke lie any bhi char padarth hain.

nishkarsh

mimansa kary-karan ke sambandh ki vyakhya men navin drishti apanati hai. usake anusar kary ki utpatti ke lie karan ke atirikt shakti bhi svikar karani chahie, kyonki shakti ek vishisht padarth hai. vaidik karmon ka phal svargaprapti hai. niratishay sukh ka hi doosara nam svarg hai. 'svargakamo jayet' is vaky se ygysampadan ka prayojan svargakamana hi hai. karmakand ki upadeyata mimansa ko many hai. at: vah karm ko hi eeshvar manati hai. atev prachin mimansa nirishvaravadi pratit hoti hai. mimansa darshan men moksh ka bhi sookshm vivechan hua hai. 'prapnchasambandhavilayo moksh:' yah mimansasammt mokshalakshan hai. arthath is jagath ke sath atma ke sambandh ke vinash ka nam moksh hai. vaidik dharm ke gyan ke lie mimansa darshan ka anushilan atyant upadey hai. nishkarsh yah hai ki 'ygyen ygymayajant deva:' ke anusar srishti-rachana, karm par hi adharit hai. 'karmanaiv hi snsiddhimasthita janakaday:' saphalata sarvada karm se prapt hoti hai. mimansadarshan ke anusar 'jagat ko mithya nahin mana jata, apitu vah saty' hai. yah darshan bahyarthasattavadi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shlokavartik, shlok 11

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