योग दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'yog' ary jati ki prachinatam vidya hai, jisamen vivad ko prashray nahin mila hai. yog hi sarvottam mokshopay hai. bhav tap santapt jiv ko eeshvar se milane men yog hi bhakti aur gyan ka pradhan sadhan hai. chittavrittiyon ka nirodh hi yog hai- 'yogashchittavritti-nirodh:.' yadyapi upalabdh yogasootron ke rachayita maharshi patanjali mane jate hain, kintu yog patanjali se bhi prachin adhyatm-prakriya hai. snhitaon, brahmanon tatha upanishadon men anekatr isaka snket evn vivechan upalabdh hai. yog sankhy-abhimat tattv ko svikarata hai, parantu eeshvar ki satta manakar use chhabvisavan tattv manata hai. isilie yog ko seshvar sankhy bhi kaha jata hai. yog darshan sootr roop hai. in sootron ke rachayita maharshi patanjali hain. inhonne 195 sootron men sampoorn yog darshan ko vibhajit kiya hai.

‘yog’ atyant vyapak vishay hai. ved, upanishad, bhagavat adi puran, ramayan, mahabharat, ayurved, alnkar adi aisa koee bhi shastr nahin hai, jisamen 'yog' ka ullekh n milata ho. patnjali krit darshan men yog ki vyapak charcha hone ke karan unaka shastr 'yog darshan' ke nam se vibhooshit hua. yog ki anek shakha-prashakhaen hain. vishleshan ke adhar bhinn-bhinn hone se vah anekavidh namon se pukara jane laga. 'yogasiddhantachandrika' ke rachayita narayanatirth ne ‘yog’ ko kriya yog, charya yog, karm yog, hath yog, mantr yog, gyan yog, advait yog, lakshy yog, brahm yog, shiv yog, siddhi yog, vasana yog, lay yog, dhyan yog tatha premabhakti yog dvara sadhy mana hai evn anek yogon se dhruvikrit yog arthat samadhi ko rajayog nam se abhihit kiya hai.[1]

  • yog-sahity ko do vargon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai-
  1. patnjali yog-sahity tatha
  2. patnjalitar yog-sahity

sankhy- yog ke saman tantr hone ki pushti

bharatiy darshan men nyay vaisheshik ki bhanti sankhy-yog ko saman tantr kahate hain. shastriy siddhanton men vibhinnata ki apeksha samanata adhik hone ke karan do shastron ko ‘samanatantr’ ki sngya pradan ki jati hai. yahi karan hai ki vyasabhashy ke pratyek pad ki samapti par vyasadev ne yog ko ‘sankhyapravachan yogashastr’ kaha hai.[2] achary vigyanabhikshu ne yogavarttik men sankhy-yog ke ‘samanatantr’ hone ki sthan-sthan par pushti ki hai. isake kuchh pramukh prakaran adholikhit hain –

sankhy tatha yog donon darshanon men buddhi aur purush men anadi svasvamibhavasambandh ko sthapit kiya gaya hai. purusharthavati buddhi pratibimbavidhaya purush ka vishay banati hai. vishayaprayog aur vivekakhyati ye do purusharth buddhi ke kahe jate hain. purusharthashoony buddhi men purush ka vishay banane ki kshamata nahin hai. yog ke is siddhant ko vigyanabhikshu samanatantr sankhy se paripusht karate hain-

'at ev purusharthavatyev buddhi: purushasy vishay iti sankhyasiddhant:'[3]

yog ka arth

'yog' shabd samadhyarthak yujh dhatu se nishpann hota hai, jisaka arth hai samadhi. patanjali ka yogalakshan hai- 'yogashchittavrittinirodh:' arthath chitt ki vrittiyon ko rokana. chitt se abhipray ant:karan arthath‌ man, buddhi, ahnkar hai. sattvadigunon ke tar-tamabhav se 'chittavritti' men taratamy utpann hota hai. us karan vah 'bahirmukh' aur 'antarmukh' bhi hota rahata hai.

chitt

chitt sattvapradhan prakriti-parinam hai. chitt prakrit hone se jad aur pratikshan parinamashali hai. is chitt ki 5 bhoomiyan ya avasthayen hoti hain- kshipt, moodh, vikshipt, ekagr aur niruddh.

vrittiyan

chitt ki vrittiyan bhi pramukhataya panch hain- praman, viparyay, vikalp, nidra aur smriti. chitt ki samast avasthaon ka antarbhav inhin panchon vrittiyon men ho jata hai. yogasiddhi men chittavrittiyon ke sath hi unake snskaron ka bhi nirodh avashyak hai. at: chitt ki sthool vrittiyon aur sookshm-snskaron ke nirodh hone par hi yog ki poornata siddh hoti hai.

yog ka siddhant

yog ka siddhant hai ki indriy roop pranalika ke madhyam se chitt ghat, pat adi bahy vishayon ke sath uparakt hota hai. ghat, pat adi vishayoparag se chitt ki tadakara chittavritti banati hai. ise chitt ka vishayakar parinam bhi kahate hain. chitt ki ghat, patadi vishay vali vritti ka svaroop hai - 'ayn ghat:, ayn pat:.' vishayoparag ke pashchath chittavritti banati hai. at: chittavritti ke prati vishayoparag ko 'karan' (praman) kahate hain aur 'ayn ghat' adi vritti ko 'prama'. is prama ka adhar buddhi hai. at: buddhinishth hone se is prama ko 'bauddhaprama' bhi kahate hain. bauddhaprama ke pashchath 'ghatamahn janami' arthat main ghat ko jan raha hoo:- yah doosare prakar ki prama hoti hai. is doosare prakar ki prama ki utpatti ka karan pahale vali prama hai. at: dvitiy prama ke prati pratham prama ko 'karan' (sadhan), kahate hain. purushanishth hone se dvitiy prama ko 'paurusheyabodh' kahate hain. chakshuradi ko ghat, pat adi ke paurushey bodh roop mukhy prama ko sakshat 'karan' nahin mana ja sakata hai. yogashastr ki bhanti sankhyashastr men bhi svikrit do prakar ki pramaon ka smaran karate hue vigyanabhikshu likhate hain–

‘.......pramadvayn ch sankhye sootritamh-dvayorekatarasy,
vaapyasannikrishtarthaparichchhitti: prameti’.[4]

  • sankhy men pratipadit chaubis tattv yog ke dvitiy pad ke attharahaven evn unnisaven sootron men varnit hue hain. ise spasht karate hue vigyanabhikshu likhate hain-

‘tadevn sankhyashastre prapanchitani chaturvishatitattvani,
atr snkshepat: sootradvayenoktani’. [5]

  • yogashastr men parinamashil mahadadi tattvon ko kary tatha karan ke bhed se jo sat aur asat roop men varnit kiya gaya hai, vah unake nityanity ubhay roop hone ke karan hai. aise hi sankhyanusari mat ko ingit karate hue vigyanabhikshu likhate hain-

‘.... prakrityadinan ... nityanityobhayaroopatvasthapanatteshan,
sad-sadroopatvn siddhantitamh ‘‘sadasadakhyatirbadhabadhabhyami’’
ti sankhyasootranusarath’ .[6]

  • yog darshan ke anusar sukh-du:kh adi ka bhog kise hota hai? is vishay par vichar karate hue vigyanabhikshu batalate hain ki ansh bhed se sukh-du:khadi ka bhog buddhi aur purush donon ko hota hai. antar itana hai ki buddhipaksh men bhog 'vastavik' hai aur purush paksh men 'aupadhik'. purush men aupadhik bhog ki janmadatri 'avidya' hai. at: purush paksh men sukh du:khadi bhog ko 'gaun' kaha gaya hai. yog ki bhanti sankhy darshan men samarthit ukt manyata ke sankhyasootron ko uddhrit karate hue vigyanabhikshu likhate hain –

‘tatraiv gauno bhog: sankhye prokt: ‘‘chidavasano bhog’’ iti.
s ch purushasyaiv n buddhe: ‘‘purushoasti bhoktribhavadh’’
iti ‘sankhyavakyath’. [7]

sankhy-yog donon darshanon men karan ko ‘dharmi’ tatha kary ko ‘dharm’ sngya pradan karate hue samast tattvon ko vishleshit kiya gaya hai. mahatadi tattvon ke avirbhav-kram se unaka 'dharm-dharmi bhav sambandh' badalata jata hai. udaharan ke roop men prakriti roop dharmi se avirbhoot mahat roop dharm tab dharmi roop men parivartit ho jata hai. jab vah ahnkar roop dharm ka abhivyakti karan banata hai. laukik jagath men jaise ek pita ka putr apane putr ka pita ban jata hai. is prakar 'dharm-dharmi bhav sambandh' par avalambit ghat, pat adi tattvon ki kary-karan-parampara anadi aur anant hai. yog shastr men varnit tattvon ko kal bhed se anagat, vartaman tatha atit tin lakshan bhed vala batalaya gaya hai. abhivyakti se poorv ghat-dharm (kary) apani karan bhoota mrittika men ‘anagatalakshan’ se avasthit rahata hai, abhivyakti ke pashchath ‘vartaman lakshan’ vala kahalata hai aur khandit ho jane par ‘atit lakshan’ se anvit rahata hai. ‘lakshan’ shabd se yahan ghat-patadi padarth ki tat-tat kal se sambandhit sthiti, dasha, avastha athava parinati ka avabodh hota hai. aj ka pratyakshavadi vaigyanik mrittika-dharmi (karan) ke ghat-dharm (kary) ki ‘vartaman’ avastha (lakshan) ko to svikar karata hai, kintu pratyakshanarh anagat aur atitakalik ghat-dharm ko shashashrring ki bhanti avastavik (alik) manata hai. isi bhranti ko nirast karane hetu vigyanabhikshu ne yogijan dvara pratyaksh yogy anagat aur atitakalik ghatadi ki sadroopata tatha yogijan dvara bhi pratyakshanarh shashashrringadi ki asadroopata ko varnit kiya hai. sadharanajan ko anagat aur atitakalik ghatadi dharm ka pratyaksh isaliye nahin hota hai, kyonki usaka roop sphut n hone se usamen ‘sookshmata’ nihit rahati hai aur pratyaksh ke badhak ghatakon men padarthagat sookshmata bhi ek badhak ghatak hai. yah siddhant sankhy-yog donon darshanon men varnit hua hai. svayn vigyanabhikshu likhate hain –

‘trayamapyetadvastu svaroopasath... n chanupalambho badhak: yogipratyakshasiddhasy
saukshmyenanupalambhopapatte:. tatha ch sankhyasootramh - ‘‘saukshmyattadanupalabdhi:’’
iti’. [8]

  • akashadi kram se mahabhoot ki utpatti shruti shastr men jis prakar varnit huee hai, usi prakar yog ke samanatantr sankhy men bhi pratipadit huee hai. svayn vigyanabhikshu likhate hain-

‘shrutau chakashadikramen mahabhoototpattisiddheriti samanatantranyayen

ch sankhyeapitthamev siddhant unniyate’. [9]

is prakar vigyanabhikshu ne donon darshanon ke aise anek sandarbhon ko ullikhit kiya hai, jisase unaka samatantratv siddh ho sake.

sankhy-yog men antar

sankhy-yog ke samanatantratv ki pushti hetu vigyanabhikshu ne jahan donon darshanon ke saman siddhanton par prakash dala hai, vahin unake antar ko bhi yogavarttik men spasht kiya hai. vigyanabhikshu ka mat hai ki sankhy ke saman yog men ‘avidya‘ shabd ka arth ‘avivek’ nahin hai apitu vaisheshik adi shastron ke saman ‘avidya’ shabd ka arth vishisht gyan hai. svayn vigyanabhikshu likhate hain- ‘asminshch darshane sankhyanamivaviveko navidyashabdarth:, kintu vaisheshikadivadh vishishtgyanameveti sankhyasootrabhyamavagantavyamh’ [10] yahan avidya ko vishisht gyan kahane ka abhipray usake abhav roop (vidya bhav roop) ka nishedh kar use vidyavirodhi gyanavishesh ke roop men sthapit karana hai. is prakar vigyanabhikshu ne sankhy-yog men vidyaman saiddhantik antaron ko bhi sthan-sthan par yogavarttik men pradarshit kiya hai.

nyayavaisheshik siddhanton ka khandan

yogavarttik men vigyanabhikshu nyay-vaisheshik-siddhanton ka bhi yathavasar khandan karate chalate hain. ve nyay-vaisheshik ki poorvapaksh sthaniy manyataon ke pariprekshy men sankhy yogabhimat uttarapaksh ko prastut karate hain. isake liye yogavarttik ke adholikhit vaky avalokaniy hain-

  1. hi vaisheshikadivath nityechchhaaadimanh rachat, eveshvarastvayaapyabhyupagamyate (1/24).
  2. vaisheshikaistryanukashabdenochyate y: parinamavishesh:, s evatraniyanityukh: karyeshu paramasookshmatvabhavaditi (1/43).
  3. tathetaretarasahayyenotpaditavayavin: karyakaranabheden, charambhavadadvishesh: (2/18)
  4. vishishyate vyavartyate dravyantaradebhiriti visheshanani visheshaguna:, vaisheshikashastrokta: tai: kalatrayeapyasnbaddha (chitishakti:) ityarth:. ten snyogasnkhyaparimanadisattveapyakshati: (2/20).
  5. ye tu vaisheshikadayo gyanashrayamatmann manyante te, shrutismritivirodhanopekshaniya: (2/20).
  6. n vaisheshikanamivotpattikaranamasmanmate (2/28).
  7. vaisheshikoktaparamanavoapyasmabhirabhyupagamyante. te chasmaddarshane gunashabdavachya ityev vishesh: (3/52).
  8. n hi naiyayikanamivasmakamh, ant:karanabhedenaikadaanavahitananashariradhishthann n snbhavediti (4/5).
  9. ye tu vaisheshikashchittamh anvev sarvadaabhyupagachachhanti, tanmat ekada, panchendriyai: panchavrittyanupapatti: (4.10).
  10. eten chittanityatvabhyupagaminamapi nyayavaisheshikanamuttarottargyanen, poorvapoorvgyanagrahanakalpana parasta (4.21).

patanjaliprokt yog ke siddhant

pashupatayog, maheshvarayog (nakuliyadarshan, shaivadarshan, pratyabhigyadarshan tatha raseshvaradarshan bhed se chaturvidh) tantrayog unake anek shakhaon se patanjaliprokt yog prithakh hai. yahan patanjali dvara pravartit yog-siddhanton ko hi vishleshit kiya ja raha hai-

‘yog-vimarsh’

kisi bhi shastr ka asandigdh yatharth gyan tabhi ho sakata hai jab us shastravishesh ke adhyeta ko us shastr ke paribhashik shabdon ka arth gyat rahe. jab ek shabd anek shastron men bhinn-bhinn arthon men prayukt hota hai, tabhi bhrantibij ka uday hota hai. isi bhrantibij ko unmoolit karate hain tath-tath shastron ke paribhashik shabd. is prakar anek arthon ka vachak shabd jab kisi shastravishesh men kisi arthavishesh men prayukt hota hai, tab vah shabd ‘paribhashik shabd’ ki sngya ko dharan karata hai. udaharan ke liye ‘yog’ shabd ko hi liya jay. ‘yog’ shabd- vedant men ‘jivatma-paramatma ke snyog’ arth men, vyakaranashastr men ’shabd-vyutpatti’ arth men, ayurved men ‘bheshaj’ arth men, jyotish men ‘nakshatron ke sambandh-vishesh’, ‘samay-vibhag’, ‘ravi-chandr ke yogadhin vishkambhadi’ arth men, narad pancharatr men ‘devatanusandhan’ arth men, yogachar bauddh men ‘paryanuyog’ arth men, vyavaharashastr men ‘chhal’ arth men, manusmriti men ‘kapat’ arth men, ganitashastr men ‘ank-jod: arth men, devibhagavat men ‘prem’ arth men, alnkarashastr men ‘kamuk-kamini-sammilan’ arth men, hemachandr shastr men ‘dhan’ arth men, isi prakar upay, sangati, vapusdhairy arth men-prayukt hua hai.

patanjalisammat ‘yog’ shabd ka arth

patanjali ke anusar ‘yog’ shabd ka arth ‘chittavrittinirodh’ hai. doosare shabdo men chitt ke vrittyatmak vyapar ko niruddh karana, samudr men utpann hone vali asnkhya tarangon ki bhanti chitt men uthane vali dishahin asnkhy vrittiyon ke pravah ko niyantrit karana, chitt ko yogasammat dhyey padarth ka chintan karane hetu yogy banana, chitt ko usaki sahaj prapt kshipt-moodh-vikshipt bhoomiyon se oopar uthakar ekagr tatha niruddh bhoomi men kramash: avasthit karana, chitt-nadi ki snsarabhimukhi dhara ko mokshabhimukhi banana, dhyey-chintan ke anabhyasi chitt ko dhyey tattv-chintan ka abhyasi banana, bahy vishayon ki prapti ke prati sahaj udvelit ragatmak chitt men vishay-vairagy ka bij ropit karana, chitt ki bandhanakari avidya-rajju ko vidya-shastr dvara chhinn karana, chitt ko charitadhikar (kartavyashoony) banakar khyati prapt purush ko usake svasvaroop men pratishthit karana, vrittinirodh ke shastrasammat sadhana-kram se samprgyat tatha asamprgyat ko prapt karana- ‘yog’ hai.

‘yog’ shabd ki vyakaranasammat nirukti-

vyakaranashastr men ‘yog’ shabd ki nishpatti do dhatuon se ki gee hai. ‘yujirayoge’ dhatu se nishpann ‘yog’ shabd ‘snyog’ arth ka bodh karata hai aur ‘yujh samadhau’ dhatu se nirmit ‘yog’ shabd ‘samadhi’ arth ka vachak hai. patnjaliprokt yog men ‘snyog’ arth ki anviti nahin baithati hai. kyonki agni se viyukt sphuling ki bhanti snsaravastha men paramatma se vimukt hua jiv mokshavastha men samudr men vilin jaladhara ki bhanti paramatma se vimukt hua jiv mokshavastha men samudr men vilin jaladhara ki bhanti paramatma se snyukt ho jata hai- yah adhyatmik paksh yogashastr ka pratipady vishay nahin hai. patanjaliprokt ‘yog’ shabd samadhyarthak hone se vah samprgyat aur asamprgyat samadhi ke dvara sadhak purush ko kaivalyavastha men ‘svasvaroopavasthit hone ka pratipadan karata hai. patanjali aur vyasadevakrit ‘yog’ lakshanon men pratitik visangati- yog ke prarambhik adhyeta aisa manate hain ki patanjali aur vyasadev ne yog ke do prithakh lakshan kiye hain. unake anusar patanjali ne yog ka ‘yogashchittavrittinirodh:’ lakshan kiya hai aur vyasadev ne ‘yog: samadhi:’ dvara yog ko lakshit kiya hai. at: donon ke yogalakshanon men ekaroopata nahin hai. kintu bat aisi nahin hai. yog ke ukt donon lakshanon men keval shabdik antar hai. donon ki atma ek hai. donon ka moolabhoot tattv ek hai. ‘chittavrittinirodh’ yog ki poorvavastha hai aur ‘samadhi’ yog ki paravastha hai. chittavrittinirodh sadhanavastha hai to samadhi siddhavastha hai. shabdantar men vrittinirodhatmak yog ki ek vishisht avastha ko samadhi kahate hain. at: yog ke ukt lakshanon men visangati nahin hai. patanjali ke ‘yogashchittavrittinirodh:’ sootr men ‘yog:’ lakshy pad hai aur ‘chittavrittinirodh:’ lakshan pad hai.

chitt - vimarsh

sankhy men anullikhit ‘chitt’ yog men ullikhit – sankhy men ‘chitt’ nam se kisi tattv ka ullekh nahin milata hai.[11] prakriti ke ady kary ke liye ‘mahath’ shabd ka ullekh sankhyakarika snkhya ath, baees tatha chhappan men hua hai. tatha teees, paintis, chhattis tatha saintisavin karikaon men ‘buddhi’ shabd milata hai. sangati is prakar hai ki mahath aur buddhi in donon padon se ek hi tattv grihit hota hai. ye donon paryay shabd hain. prakriti ke ady kary ki ‘mahath’ sngya tin drishtiyon se anvarth hai- prakritijat tattvon men agratam hone se, trayodash karanon men pradhanatam hone se tatha purush ke vishaygyan ka pramukh adhar hone se. yahi ‘mahath’ adhyavasayatmika vritti se apane ko lakshit karane ke karan ‘buddhi’ sngya ka dharak ban gaya. kriyabhed se namabhed hota hai. jaise kriyabhed se ek hi vyakti nartak, gayak, pathak, vachak adi anek namon se pukara jata hai vaise hi kriyabhed se ek hi tattv ki mahath tatha buddhi sngya padi. sankhyasammat srishti men ‘ahnkar’ se avirbhoot ‘man’ tattv ke kisi doosare nam se sambandhit karika bhi nahin milati hai. is prakar sankhyadarshan men ‘chitt’ pad ka ullekh nahin hua hai. jabaki yogadarshan men ‘chitt’ pad ka sarvadhik prayog hua hai. isake liye patanjal yog ke ½, 33, 37, 3/19, 11, 12, 19, 32, 4/4, 5, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23 tatha 26 – ye sabhi sootr avalokaniy hain. yog ke tin sootr vicharaniy hain. ek sootr[12] men ‘man’, doosare sootr[13] men chitt aur buddhi donon padon ka prayog milata hai. gunaparv se sambandhit tisare sootr[14] ke vyasabhashy men man aur mahath nam se do tattv milate hain. at: yog men bhi ‘chitt’ nam se kaun sa tattv grihit kiya jay aur sankhy-yog ki pratitik ukt visngati ko kaise door kiya jay-yah vicharaniy hai.

buddhi, chitt aur man ki ekaroopata- ek or patanjali ke sootron men sarvadhik snkhya ‘chitt’ pad ke prayog vale sootron ki hai to doosari or gunaparv nam se yog ke pariganit tattvon men ‘chitt’ pad ka ullekh nahin milata hai. jab ki sampoorn yog-sadhana chittavalimbat hai.[15] phir bhi yogashastr ke anushilan se tinon padon ki ekaroopata adhyolikhit prakar se varnit ki ja sakati hai-

  1. yog ke chaturth pad ke teeesaven sootr[16] ki paryalochana karane se pratit hota hai ki patanjali ne ‘chitt’ pad se jis tattv ko grihit kiya hai usi ki vritti ko ‘buddhi’ nam se vishleshit kiya hai. ‘buddhi’ shabd ka arth gyan hai. at: chitt ki gyanatmak vritti ke liye yahan ‘buddhi’ shabd ka prayog hua hai, jab ki sankhy men ‘buddhi’ shabd se ek tattv varnit hua hai. yahan kriya-kriyavanh ka abhed charitarth hota hai. at: sankhy ka ‘buddhi’ tattv yog men ‘chitt’ nam ka vahak bana. yog ke pratham pad ke saintisaven sootr men prayukt ‘man’ pad se bhi ‘chitt’ tattv hi grihit hota hai. ‘manas: sthitinibandhani’ sootrarddh ki vyakhya vyasadev ke anusar hai-

chittn sthitau nibadhnanti.’ isi sootr ke varttik men ‘manashchittayorekateti bodhyamh’ vaky dvara vigyanabhikshu ne chitt aur man ki ekaroopata ka udghosh kar avashisht sandeh ko bhi door kar diya.

  1. prakarantar se vishay-sangati is prakar lagaee ja sakati hai- sankhy men ‘buddhi’ shabd ka hi prayog hua hai aur ‘puri shete iti purush:’ is vyutpatti ke anusar buddhiroop pur men jo shayan karata hai, use ‘purush’ kahate hain. is prakar buddhi-purush ki manyata par sankhy ki tattvamimansa pratishthit huee hai. yog ki sadhana ‘chitt-chiti’ ki manyata par sthapit huee hai. chiti athava chith shabd ka arth purush hai. chitt ke samanantar chith (chiti) pad ka prayog yog men milata hai. chitt ko chitishakti ke tatkalik avidhik gyan ka sadhan mana jata hai. ‘chith’ se ’karan’ arth men ‘kt’ pratyay karane se ‘chitt’ pad nishpann hota hai. shrimadbhagavat ke tikakar shridhar svami likhate hain ki adhibhoot roop se jo ‘mahanh’ sngya vala hai, vahi adhyatm roop se ‘chitt’ sngya ko dharan karata hai. is prakar sankhy ka ‘buddhi’ tattv yog men ‘chitt’ nam se vyavahrit hua hai.
  2. yog-sadhana ke liye upayukt chitt-bhoomi- chitt-bhoomi panch prakar ki hai. inaka svaroop kshipt, moodh, vikshipt, ekagr tatha niruddh nam se rekhankit kiya gaya hai. jis prakar bij-vapan ki adharabhoota bhoomi ki urvarak shakti ke taratamy se usake phalagat men bhi vaichitry parilakshit hota hai, usi prakar chitt roop bhoomi sattvadi gunon ki parimanik bhinnata se prithakh-prithakh svaroop vali vrittiyon ko utpann karati hai. gun-guni, ashray-ashrayi tatha kary-karan, ka yah atoot siddhant hai. yog-sadhana chitt ki ekagr-bhoomi se prarambh hoti hai aur niruddh bhoomi men samapt hoti hai .chitt ki pratham tin bhoomiyan yogabhyas ke liye sarvatha anupayukt hain.

vritti – vimarsh

jisake nirodharth yog-sadhana prashast hoti hai, vah chittavritti panch prakar ki hai. vrittiyon ke nam hain- praman, viparyay, vikalp, nidra tatha smriti. ye klisht aur aklisht bhed se panch prakar ki hain. pratyek vritti ke avantar bhed hain. pratyaksh, anuman tatha agam bhed se praman ke tin bhed hain. bhramgyan ko viparyay kahate hain. avidya, asmita, rag, dvesh aur abhinivesh bhed se viparyay panch prakar ka hai. vikalp vritti ke vastu, kriya aur abhav tin bhed hain. nidra vritti ke sattviki, rajasi tatha tamasi tin roop hain. bhavit smartavya tatha abhavit smartavya bhed se ‘smriti’ ke do bhed hain. sthanabhav ke karan vishay vistar sambhav nahin hai. ek shabd men ‘vrituvartane’ dhatu se ‘kt’ pratyay karake nishpann ‘vritti’ pad sankhy-yog shastr men chitt adi terah karanon ke apane-apane vishisht parinamon ka abhidhayak hai.

nirodh-vimarsh

‘ni’ upasargapoorvak ‘rudhh’ dhatu se ’ghanh’ pratyay karake ‘nirodh’ shabd nishpann hota hai. ‘nirodh’ shabd ka sadharan arth hai- avabadha. avabadha ki parinati nash hai. at: ‘nash’ bhi nirodhi par ka vachyarth hai. yog darshan men ‘nirodh’ shabd ‘nash’ arth men nahin api tu ‘avastha vishesh’ arth men prayukt hua hai. isase kisi dharmi-sapeksh dharm ki atitavastha grihit hoti hai. chitt-dharmi ke vritti-dharm ko niruddh kiya jata hai.

  • yogasammat ‘nirodh’ yadi abhavasvaroop hota to abhavatmak phal ka karan banata. kintu vah svayn bhavatmak hai at: bhavaroop kaivaly-prapti ka sopan hai. niyam hai ki bhav ki parinati bhavamoolak aur abhav ki parinati abhavamoolak hoti hai. kaivaly purush ki upadhishoony sarvochch bhavatmak avastha, svasvaroopavasthiti hai. at: siddhantit hota hai ki ‘nirodh’ abhavamoolak nahin hai, apitu bhavamoolak kriya ki ek vishisht avastha hai. ‘nirodh’ pad vritti-nirodh ki atyantik atitavastha ko, usaki poorvakalik vartaman avastha ki bhanti, dyotit karata hai.

yog ka siddhant hai ki kary (jaise ghat) apane karan (jaise mrittika) men anagat, vartaman tatha atit tinon kalon men bhavaroop se nihit rahata hai.[17] usaki anagat aur atit sthiti anumanagamy hai. usaki ‘madhy’ ki vartaman avastha ka hi pratyaksh hota hai.

  • ‘nirodh’ ko rekhankit karate hue vigyanabhikshu yogavarttik men likhate hain- ‘nirodh’ lay roop hai. vah adhikaran ki ek vishisht avastha hai.[18] indhanarahit agni ke upasham ki bhanti vyapararahit chittavrittiyon ka apane karan men lay hona ‘nirodh’ hai.[19]

yog-bhed-vimarsh

yog ke lakshanasootr ‘yogashchittavrittinirodh:’ ke lakshanagat chitt, vritti aur nirodh tinon padon ki vyakhya ke pashchath lakshyabhoot ‘yog’ pad vivechy hai. yog do prakar ka hai- samprgyat yog tatha asamprat yog. ye ‘samadhi’ nam se bhi kahe jate hain.

samprgyat tatha usake bhed-

prabhed- kshipt, moodh tatha vikshipt bhoomiyon se atikrant chitt jab ekagrabhoomi men pravisht hota hai tab usaki dhyeyabhimukhata, dhyeyaprakharata, dhyeyapravanata, dhyeyaparayanata ghanibhoot ho jati hai. vyutthit vrittiyon se paranmukh chitt dhyeyanusandhanashil ban jata hai. chitt ki vyutthit vrittiyan niruddh ho jati hain. chitt ekagravrittik hota hai. at: chitt ki ekagrabhoomi ko rekhankit karate hue hariharanand arany likhate hain- sarvada abhisht vishay men chitt ki sthitishil avastha ko ‘ekagrabhami’ kahate hain.[20]

‘samprgyat’ shabd se hi suspasht hai ki jisamen dhyey vishay ka samyakh evn prakrisht roop se aparokshgyan hota hai, use ‘samprgyat’ kahate hain.[21] samprgyat yog men chitt ki dhyeyavishayini ekagravritti chitt ko vishay ki samyakh avapti hoti hai, at: ise samapatti bhi kahate hain.

patanjali ne samprgyat-bhed ke do adhar mane hain- is vishayadharit tatha doosara vishayasakshatkarakramadharit. yogasambhav tattvon ko grahitri, grahan tatha grahy in tin vargon men vibhakt kar patanjali ne samprgyat ke vishayadharit tin bhed kiye hain aur samprgyat ko ‘samapatti’ nam se pukara hai. samprgyat ke ye tin bhed hain- grahitrisamapatti, grahanasamapatti tatha grahyasamapatti. abhijat mani ki nirbhrant pratibimbakarata ki bhanti chitt ki samyakh dhyeyakarata ko bodhit karane hetu patanjali ne ‘samapatti’ shabd ko ‘samprgyat’ ke paryay roop men prayukt kiya hai.[22] jis prakar dhanurvigyan men lakshyabhedanusandhan sthool se sookshm ki or abhimukh hota hai usi prakar yog men ekagrabhoomik chitt ka vishay-sakshatkarabhyas sthool ki or agrasarit hota hai. at: vishayasakshatkarakramadharit samprgyat ke char bhed yogasootr men varnit hai.[23] unake nam hain- vitark, vichar, anand tatha asmita. isamen yogarahasy yah hai ki ekagrata ki kramik pragadhata se sadhak dhyan ke vishayabhoot kisi ek sthool dhyey padarth men hi kary se karan ki uttarottar shrinkhala ke ady prakriti tattv ko sakshatkrit karata hai. ek hi sthool padarth ko dhyan ka alamban banakar vitark se asmitasamprgyat tak pahunch jata hai. at: samprgyat ke vishayadharit vitarkadi bhedon men chitt ki ekagravritti ka vishayagat bhed nahin hota hai. anyatha vishayabhed se ekagrata-bhang (poorvapoorvopasana tyag) ka anabhipret prasang upasthit hoga.[24] yogasootr ke vyasabhashy adi granthon men vitarkadi ke savitark-nirvitark adi prabhedon ko bhi vistarapoorvak vishleshit kiya gaya hai.

asamprgyat aur usake bhed-

ekagrabhoomik samprgyat ke vijit hone par yogi viruddhabhoomik asamprgyat men pravesh karata hai. ‘n tatr kinchidh prgyayate iti asamprgyat:’- is vyutpatti ke anusar jisamen koee bhi gyanatmak vritti vidyaman nahin rahati hai arthath samprgyat kal ki sarvochch sattvapurushakhyatiparak antim vritti bhi niruddh ho jati hai- nirodh-snskar shesh rah jata hai- use asamprgyat yog kahate hain.[25]

asamprgyat ke do bhed hain-

bhavapratyay tatha upayapratyay.[26] inamen se upayapratyay asamprgyat mumuksharthi ke liye upadey hai.[27] avidyamoolak bhavapratyay asamprgyat snsar men parisamapt hota hai. ‘bhavanti jayante jantavoasyamiti bhavoavidya’- is vyutpatti ke anusar ‘bhav’ shabd ka arth ‘avidya’ hai. avidyavash kisi bhi anatmabhoot dhyey padarth ka atmatven chintan karate rahane se bhi usake parakashtha kal men sadhak ka niruddhabhoomik chitt ‘sarvavritti-nirodh’ sthiti vala ho jata hai. parinamat: unaka sarvavrittinirodhatmak snskar shesh chitt apane upasy men lin ho jata hai aur kaivalyasam avastha ka anubhav karata hai. kintu mridbhav ko prapt mandook ke varshakal men pradurbhav ki bhanti ek nishchit avadhi ke pashchath unaki snsarapatti hoti hai.[28] aise bhavapratyay sadhak upasana ke vishayabhed se do prakar ke hain- videhalin aur prakritilin. [29] videhalin sadhakon ka upasy mahabhoot tatha indriyan hoti hain. prakritilin sadhak panvatanmatr, ahnkar, mahath tatha prakriti men se kisi jad tattv ki atmatven upasana karate hain. isake viparit upayapratyay asamprgyat prgygymoolak[30] hone se atyantik aur aikantik kaivaly-prapti ka karan hai.

yog ke samprgyat aur asamprgygyt in do bhedon ko unake svaroop ke anusar sabij-nirbij, salamban-niralamban tatha savastuk-nirvastuk roop men bhi varnit kiya gaya hai. samprgyat men dhyey roop bij vidyaman rahata hai. chitt ki dhyeyakarakarit prakrisht ekagravritti bani rahati hai. at: salamban athava savastuk samprgyat ko ‘sabij’ nam se abhihit kiya gaya hai. asamprgyat men ukt dhyeyakarakarit vritti bhi niruddh ho jati hai. isamen dhyeyaroop vrityatmak bij vidyaman nahin rahata hai. at: niralamban athava nirvastuk asamprgyat ko ‘nirbij’ yog kaha gaya hai.

yog-prapti sadhan- vimarsh

yog ka svaroop janane ke pashchath usaki prapti ke ‘sadhan’ ke vishay men jigyasa hoti hai. at: yogasootr men samadhi-pad ke pashchath sadhan-pad ki avatarana huee. yog-sadhan bhi prithakh-prithakh upadisht hain. sadhakon ki tin shreniyan hain.– yogaroodh yunjan tatha arurukshu. inhen uttam, madhyam tatha mand adhikari nam se kramash: pukara gaya he.[31]

uttamadhikari hetu ‘abhyas-vairagy’-

poorvajanmiy yogabhyas se samposhit uttamadhikari ka ekagr-chitt poorv ki kshiptadi bhoomiyon ko bahut pichhe chhod chuka hota hai. aise sadhakon men sannyasashram ke paramahns snnyasi ate hain. jadabharatadi isi shreni ke sadhak rahe. aise sadhakon ke liye yog-prapti ka sadhan ‘abhyas-vairagy’ batalaya gaya hai.[32] ekagr chitt ko dhyeyalambit prashantavahi sthiti pradan karane hetu sampadit ‘yatn’ ‘abhyas’ kahalata hai.[33] yah abhyas paripakvata ki dridhabhoomi ko tab snsparshit karata hai jab dirghakal tab bina kisi vyavadhan ke poorn astha ke sath sampadit kiya jata hai.[34] aisa dridhabhoomik abhyas hi sadhak ke chitt ko ‘samprgyat’ yog ke anukool banata hai. abhyas vairagyamoolak hota hai. chitt ko ek or se viyukt karake hi use doosari or snyukt kiya ja sakata hai. at: abhyas-vairagy men avinabhav sambandh hai. vairagy ke do bhed hain- apar vairagy aur par vairagy. aparavairagyayukt abhyas se samprgyat yog ki prapti hoti hai. isamen buddhi-purush-bhed-vishayiki prakrishta vritti udit hoti hai. sarvavritti nirodharoop asamprgyat ke liye yah prakrishta vritti badharoopini hai. at: paravairagyayukt abhyas dvara vivekakhyatyatmak prakrishta vritti ke prati alnbuddhi (heyu buddhi) jagarit ki jati hai.[35] parinamat: sadhak ka chitt sarvavrittinirodhatmak asamprgyat men pratishthit hota hai. at: paravairagy ko asamprgyat ka sakshath sadhan kaha gaya hai.

madhyamadhikari hetu ‘kriyayog’-

yog ka madhyam adhikari vah hai jisamen yog-pravanata to samay-samay par parilakshit hoti hai kintu uttamadhikari jaisi chaittik sthirata usamen nahin rahati hai. parinamasvaroop usaka yog pradip-tailadharavath akhndit nahin hota hai. aise madhyam adhikariyon ke liye yog-prapti ka kriyayog sadhan upadisht hua hai. ‘kriyayog’ se tap, svadhyay tatha eeshvarapranidhan ki kriyaen grihit hoti hain.[36] mandadhikari hetu ‘ashtang-yog’- atyant vikshipt chitt vale grihasthadi ko yog ka mand adhikari kaha gaya hai. inhonne abhi tak yog-sadhana prarambh hi nahin ki hoti hai. at: mand adhikariyon ke liye yog-prapti ka sadhan ‘ashtang-yog’ hai. isamen abhyas-vairagy tatha kriyayog sadhan bhi antarmukt hain. yog ke yam, niyam adi ath ang[37] apane bhed-prabhedon ke sath yogashastr men vistarapoorvak varnit hue hain.

vibhootivimarsh

kisi bhi kriya ke do phal hote hain- ek gaun phal tatha doosara mukhy phal. udaharan ke liye bhakshan-kriya ko hi len. svadisht bhojan ka kshudha-shanti tatkalik gaun phal hai tatha rasaparipak dvara sharir-snvardhan mukhy phal hai. isi prakar yam, niyamadi yogasadhanaparak kriyaon se bhi prapyaman mukhy phal se poorv anushangik phal prapt hote hain. ye ‘vibhooti’ nam se yogasootr ke tritiy pad men mukhyat: vivechit hue hain. tatha unaka mukhy phal ‘kaivaly’ nam se chaturthapad men varnit hua hai.

‘vibhooti’ shabd ka vachyarth ‘samarthyavishesh’ hai. ise ‘siddhi’ bhi kahate hain. any kriyaon ki bhanti yog-sadhana koee tatkalik kriyakalap nahin hai. yah to dirghakalin snyamabhyas ka madhuraphal, sadhana ki paripakvata ka parichayak hai. kintu in mohak vibhootiyon men atmavismrit hone vala sadhak yog ke mukhy phal tak nahin pahunch pata hai. at: vibhootisampann sadhak ko atmanirikshanarth patanjali ne sachet kiya hai.[38]

kaivalyavimarsh

‘kaivaly’ yog ka charam phal hai. ‘keval’ shabd se ‘shyanh’ pratyay karake ‘kaivaly’ pad ki nishpatti hoti hai. ek shabd men isaka arth ‘poorn prithakta’ athava ‘atyant bhinnata’ hai. yahan prakriti se atma ka parthaky abhipret hai. moolat: prithakh do padarthon ki abhed-pratiti avidyavash hoti hai. at: vidya se abhed-pratiti chhinn hoti hai, aisa siddhant hai. kisi bhi vastu ke pratitik dharm ko ‘aupadhik dharm’ kahate hain. udaharan ke liye jal men gandh ki pratiti usaka aupadhik dharm hai, jo use prithvi se prapt hota hai. kisi bh vastu ke aupadhik dharm ki nivritti to sambhav hai kintu vastavik svaroop ki nahin.

yog men buddhi- purush ka sarvopadhivarjitabhav ‘kaivaly’ hai. sphatik ke nikat sthit japakusum ke hata lene par jaise sphatik, aupadhik raktimatarahit, apane shvetim roop men pratishthit ho jata hai vaise hi purush ke svaroop ko achchhadit karane vali avidya jab vidya dvara nasht ho jati hai vaise hi purush ke svaroop ko achchhadit karane vali avidya jab vidya dvara nasht ho jati hai tab vah apane svaroop men avasthit ho jata hai.[39] yogasammat kaivaly ‘svasvaroopavasthiti’ roop se jaise purushapaksh men kaha gaya hai vaise hi purusharthashoonyata roop se vah buddhipaksh men bhi upacharit hota hai.[40] is prakar sattv-purush ka shuddhisamy roop ‘kaivaly’ nishpann hota hai.[41]

yog ke katipay pramukh siddhant

yogasootr men samadhi, sadhan, vibhooti aur kaivaly nam se ullikhit char padon men varnit ukt char vishayon ke atirikt unhin ke poorak roop men kuchh any binduon par bhi prakash dala gaya hai. inase yog ke katipay pramukh siddhanton ko sthapit kiya gaya hai.

yog ki chaturvyoohatmak snrachana-

yog-prasad hey, heyahetu, han tatha hanopay ke chaturbhuj stambhon par avalambit hain. aisa hi chaturbhuj rog, rogahetu, arogy tatha arogyopay nag se ayurved shastr men rekhankit hua hai. inase donon shastron ka pratipady vishay vyakhyapit hua hai. yogashastr men du:khh ki tyajyata[42] tyajy du:kh ki prapti ki karanata[43] tyajy du:kh ki nivritti ki sadhanata[44] tatha du:kh-nivritti ki svaroopata[45] ko patanjali ne sootrankit kiya hai.

jad padarthon ki parinamik avastha-

‘parinam’ shabd padarthagat tatvik vishisht avastha ka vachak hai. isase padarthagat parivartan dyotit hota hai. padarthagat parivartan do prakar se hota hai- ek tattvik parivartan tatha doosara atattvik parivartan. yog men padarthagat parivartan ‘parinam’ shabd se varnit hua hai aur vedant men padarthagat atattvik parivartan ‘vivart: nam se vishleshit hua hai. brahmavadi vedanti jagath ko brahm ka ‘vivart’ (atattvik roop) manate hain aur prakritivadi sankhy-yog jagath ko prakriti ka parinam (tattvik roop) kahate hain.

  • sankhy-yog ke anusar chetan tattv purush ko chhodakar prakriti-samrajy parinam ki atoot shrinkhala se abaddh hai. parinam ady karanaroopa prakriti ka svabhav hai, svaroop hai. kalasambandhi atitata aur anagatata se bhi jad padarthanishth ‘parinam’ ka siddhant badhit nahin hota hai. pratyek jad padarth vaikalik parinam se achit rahata hai. at: patanjali ne bhootendriyon men dharmaparinam, lakshanaparinam tatha avasthaparinam ko sootrankit kiya hai.[46] tatha yogayukt chitt men nirodhaparinam, [47] samadhiparinam[48] tatha ekagrataparinam[49] ki vivechana huee hain.
sphot ki manyata-

yadyapi ‘sphot’ vyakaranashastr ka mukhy siddhant hai kintu yog men ‘sarvabhootarutgyan’[50] vishayak siddhi ke prakaran men shabd, arth tatha gyan ka svaroop pratipadit karate hue tikakaron ne yogabhimat sphot par bhi prakash dala hai. ‘sphutati vyaktibharvate arthoasmaditi sphot:’ is vyutpatti ke anusar jisase arth sphut hota hai, use sphot kahate hain. karm evn tajjanit phalavishayak manyata- atoot niyam hai ki karm se tadanuroop phal prapt hota hai. moksh se poorv snsar ke antaral men pranimatr svakrit karmon ke anusar janm-jamantaraparyant phalon ko bhogata rahata hai. at: darshanikon ne prani ko karmajanit snskaron ka punjamatr kaha hai. karmajanit snskar ko karmavasana bhi kahate hain. patanjaline isi ko ‘karmashay’ nam se abhihit kiya hai. kleshamoolak karmashay, jo vartaman jivan men phal pradan karata hai, drisht-janmavedaniy kaha gaya hai tatha tadbhinn karmashay, jo agrim janmon men phal pradan karata ha, adrishtajanmavedaniy kaha gaya hai.[51] karmajanit phal tin prakar ka hai[52] jati, ayu tatha bhog. yahan ‘jati’ shabd ka arth janm (kisi yoni ki dehaprapti) hai. dehadharan ki alp ya dirsh avadhi ko ‘ayu’ kahate hain. sukh-du:kh bhog ke do paksh kahe gaye hain. inamen se drishtajanmavedaniy karmashay ayu aur bhog roop dvivipak ka arambhak hai. jabaki adrishtajanmavedaniy karmashay se jati, ayu tatha bhog tinon phal prapt hote hain. at: ise trivipakarambhi kaha gaya hai. yah batalana aprasangik n hoga ki narayanatirth ne ukt vishayon ke atirikt yogasiddhantachandrika men kuchh navin vishayon par bhi yog ke adhyetaon ka dhyan akrisht kiya hai. purushavishesh eeshvar ki sthapana ke prasang men ‘avataravad’, yathabhimatadhyanadva (1/39) sootr ke prasang men tirthabhavana, devabhavana, lokabhavana varnabhavana adi vishayon ka snyojan kiya hai.

yog darshan men sootr

yogadarshan men char pad hain, jinaki sootrasnkhya 195 hai.

pratham samadhi pad

pratham samadhipad men samadhi ke roop tatha bhed, chitt evn unaki vrittiyon ka varnan hain. pratham pad men 'yog' ka lakshan 'yog: chittavrittinirodh:' bataya hai. tadantar 'samadhi' ka savistar niroopan kiya hai. isilie is pratham pad ko 'samadhipad' ke nam se kaha gaya hai. is pad men sootrasnkhya (51) ikyavan hai.

dvitiy sadhan pad

dvitiy sadhanapad men kriyayog, klesh tatha ashtang yog varnit hain. dvitiy pad men vyutthit chitt ko samahit karane hetu 'tap:svadhyay' aur 'eeshvar-pranidhan' roop kriyayog ke dvara yam-niyamadi panch sadhanon ko bataya gaya hai. ye sab bahirng sadhan hain. is pad men sootrasnkhya (55) pachapan hai.

tritiy vibhooti pad

tritiy vibhootipad men dharana, dhyan aur samadhi ke anantar yog ke anushthan se utpann vibhootiyon ka varnan hai. tritiy pad men 'dharana', 'dhyan' aur 'samadhi' roop tin antarng-sadhanon ko bataya gaya hai. is sadhanon se avatantar phalon ke roop men anek vibhootiyan prapt hoti hain, isaliye is pad ko 'vibhootipad' ke nam se jana gaya hai. is pad men sootrasnkhya (55) pachapan hai.

chaturth kaivaly pad

chaturth kaivaly pad men samadhisidhdi, vigyanavadanirakaran aur kaivaly ka nirnay kiya gaya hai. chaturth pad men 'janm', aushadhi, mntr, tap aur samadhi se prapt hone vali panch siddhiyon ka savistar varnan kiya gaya hai. tadanantar prastut shastr ka mukhy prayojan 'kaivaly' prapti bataee gee hai. isaliye is pad ko 'kaivaly pad' ke nam se kaha gaya hai. is pad men sootrasnkhya (34) chautis hai.

samadhi ke bhed

yogadarshan men samadhi ke do bhed mane gaye hain-

  1. samprgyat samadhi
  2. asamprgyat samadhi.

samprgyat samadhi

'ekagrata' chitt ki vah avichal akshubdh avastha hai, jab dhyey vastu ke oopar chitt chirakal tak rahata hai. is yog ka nam samprgyat samadhi hai, kyonki is avastha men chitt ke samahit hone ke lie koee n koee alamban bana rahata hai. yog shastr men chitt ki 'ekagr' aur 'niruddh' in do avasthaon ka hi vichar kiya gaya hai. 'chitt' jab sampoornataya niruddh ho jata hai, tab tin gunon se utpann hone vali shant, ghor, aur moodh vrittiyon ka uday usamen nahin hota hai. 'samprgyat' samadhi men dhyeyapadarth ka svaroop achchhi prakar se samajh men a jata hai. is samadhi men dhyan karane vale ka 'chitt', vrittarahit n hokar dhyey vastuvishayak 'vritti' bani rahati hai. isaliye is samadhi ko - 'sabij samadhi' kaha gaya hai. ant:karan ki ek vishesh prakar ki bhavana ko hi 'samadhi' shabd se kaha jata hai. samast vrittiyon ka lay hokar keval snskaramatr shesh rahane vale chitt ke nirodh ko asamprgyat samadhi kaha jata hai. par-vairagy ke satat abhyas karane se yah samadhi hua karati hai. par-vairagy men chinataniy koee vastu nahin hoti, aur is samadhi men koee dhyey vastu nahin hoti.

vairagy aur abhyas ki dridhata ke karan 'chitt', nirvishay ho jata hai, tab usase 'vrittiyon' ki utpatti ka hona band ho jata hai. vrittirahit hua 'chitt', mritavath pada rahata hai. is samadhi men snsar ke bijabhoot snskaron ka hi nash ho jane se ise 'nirbij samadhi' ke nam se bhi kaha jata hai.

asamprgyat samadhi

niruddh dasha men asamprgyat samadhi ka uday hota hai, jab chitt ki samast vrittiyan niruddh ho jati hain. yahan koee bhi alamban nahin rahata. at: ise asamprgyat samadhi kaha jata hai. asamprgyat samadhi ki avastha-poornataya prapt hone par 'atma' arthath 'drashta' keval 'chaitany' svaroop se hi sthit rahata hai. 'atma' svabhavat: nirvi kar hone par bhi vikar 'chitt' men hua karate hain. us karan (atma), chitt ki tattadvrittiyon ki saroopata ko prapt hua sa avidyadosh ke karan pratit hota hai. yadyapi nirodh karane yogy vrittiyan asnkhy hain, tathapi panch hi vrittiyan mukhy hain. agy manushy men ye panch vrittiyan kleshakaran hua karati hain. kintu jivanamukt ke lie ve vrittiyan kleshakarak nahin hotin. upayapratyay aur bhavapratyay ke bhed se 'asamprgyat' yog (samadhi) do prakar ka hota hai. samadhi ke abhyas men kisi prakar ke vikshep tatha upadrav se badha n hone ke liye 'eeshvar' ka chintan satat karate rahana chahie. pranayam ka abhyas karate rahana chahie. 'sabij samadhi' men chitt ki prgya 'saty' ka hi grahan karata hai, viparit gyan rahata hi nahin. isiliye us prgya ko 'ritnbhara prgya' kaha gaya hai. is prgya se kramash: par-vairagy ke dvara 'nirbij samadhi' ka labh hota hai. us avastha men 'atma' keval apane svaroop men hi sthit rahata hai. tab 'purush' ko 'mukt' samajhana chahie. dhyey vastu ka gyan bane rahane ke karan poorv samadhi ko 'samprgyat' aur dhyey, dhyan, dhyata ke ekakar ho jane se dvitiy samadhi ko 'asamprgyat' kaha jata hai. yog darshan ka charamalakshy hai atm-darshan.

yog darshan men eeshvar

yog darshan men eeshvar ka sthan mahattvapoorn hai. yog men jo purush-vishesh klesh, karmavipak tatha ashay se asamprikt rahata hai, vah eeshvar kahalata hai- 'kleshakarm-vipakashayairaparamrisht: purushavishesh eeshvar:'. yog ke acharyon ne eeshvarasiddhi men shruti-shabd praman ko sarvotkrisht mana hai. sankhy ke sath siddhantasamy hone par bhi yog eeshvar ko manata hai. is eeshvar ki upayogita yog-sadhan men maulik hai, kyonki eeshvar-pranidhan se hi samadhi ki siddhi hoti hai. eeshvar guruon ka bhi guru hai, at: tarak gyan ka data sakshath eeshvar hi hai.

patanjali yogadarshan

patanjali yog darshan ke sthool roop ka yahi parichay hai. patanjali yog-sootr par 'vyasabhashy' atyant pramanik granth hai. yog-sootron ke goodh rahasyon ko vyakt karane men yah bhashy atyant upayogi hai. yog-sootron ki anek tikaen hain, jinamen bhoj krit 'rajamartand' (bhojavritti), bhavavesh ki 'vritti', ramanand yati ki 'maniprabha', anant pandit ki 'yogachandrika', sadashivendr ka 'yogasudharak' aur nagoji bhatt ki 'laghvi' aur 'brihati' vrittiyan prasiddh hain. vachaspati mishr ne vyas par 'tattvavaisharadi' tika likhakar yog ke tattvon ko saral evn subodh banaya hai. is tika men yogasootr tatha vyasabhashy ke paribhashik shabdon ka vistrit parishkar kiya gaya hai.

yogasootr par likhi gee tikaen evn vrittiyan

patnjali ke yogashastr men nigoodh yog siddhanton ko vyakhyapit karane hetu, jo vyakhyaen likhi geen, unhen tika-granthon evn vritti-granthon ke roop men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai. yogasootr par sabase pahala vyakhyagranth vyasadev ka hai, jo vyakhyakar ke nam se ‘vyasabhashy’ tatha vishay ke nam se 'yogabhashy' kahalata hai. isake pashchath vyasabhashy par anek tikaen likhi geen. itana hi nahin, yog-sootr men aye pratyek shabd ke arth ko spasht karane hetu atmakendrit karane vale anek vrittikaron ne vrittigranth likhakar patnjali yog-sahity ki abhivriddhi ki. yogasootr par likhi gee vyakhyaon ka vivaran adholikhit hai-

yogasootr par likhi gee vyakhyaon ka vivaran
vyakhyakar tikaen aur vyakhyaen adharit bhashy
1- vyasadev yogabhashyamh yogasootr par adharit bhashy
2- vachaspati mishr tattvavaisharadi vyasabhashy ki tika
3- raghavanandasarasvati patanjalarahasyamh tattvavaisharadi ki tika
4- vigyanabhikshu yogavarttikamh vyasabhashy ki tika
5- hariharanandankar yogabhashyavivaranamh vyasabhashy ki tika
6- narayanatirth yogasiddhantachandrika vyasabhashy par adharit svatntr tika
7- bhojadev rajamartand: yogasootr ki vritti
8- narayanatirth sootrarthabodhini yogasootr ki vritti
9- nagojibhatt yogasootravritti laghvi evn brihati vritti
10- ramanandayati maniprabha yogasootr ki vritti
11- anantadevapandit padachandrika yogasootr ki vritti
12- sadashivendr sarasvati yogasudhakar: yogasootr ki vritti
13- baladevamishr yogapradipika yogasootr ki vritti
14- hariharananchh yogakarika saral tika sahit
15- satyadev yogarahasy yogasootr ki svatantr tika
  • yogasootr par likhe gaye yahan tak ke snskrit mool ke samast granth prakashit hain. isake atirikt yog ke upalabdh aprakashit vrittigranth adholikhit hain, jo pandumatrikaon ke roop men snskrit ke prachy-vidya-pratishthanon men snrakshit hain-
kram vyakhyakar aprakashit vrittigranth
1 shimanand yogasootravriti:
2 bhavadevamishr yogasootravritti:
3 surendratirth yogasootravritti:
4 shrigopalamishr yogasootravivaranamh
5 purushottamatirth yogasootravritti:
6 vrittikar ka nam gyat nahin yogasootravritti:

yog darshan ka mahattv

manav jivan ke adhyatmik utkarsh men yog atyant upayogi darshan hai. bharatiyon ne is darshan ka anushilan vigyan ki bhanti kiya hai aur ise unnati ke charam shikhar par pahunchaya hai. kay aur chitt ke malon se mukt kar purush ki adhyatmik samunnati men upayog karane ki shiksha yog se hi milati hai. aj pashchaty manovigyanikon tatha chikitsakon ka bhi dhyan yog ki or akrisht hua hai, jisase usaka vipul prachar pashchatty jagath men bhi ho raha hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. nididhyasananchaikatanatadiroopo rajayogaparaparyay: samadhi:. tatsadhann tu kriyayog:, charyayog:, karmayogo, hathayogo, mantrayogo, gyanayog:, advaitayogo, lakshyayogo, brahmayog:, shivayog:, siddhiyogo, vasanayogo, layayogo, dhyanayog:, premabhaktiyogashch - yogasiddhantachandrika pri. sn. 2.
  2. iti shripatanjale sankhyapravachane yogashastre shrimadvyasabhashye pratham: samadhipad:- vyasabhashy 1/51 .
  3. (yogavarttik 1/4).
  4. (yogavartik 1/7)
  5. (yogavarttik 2/19)
  6. (yogavarttik 3/12)
  7. (yogavarttik 3/35)
  8. (yogavarttik 4/12)
  9. (yogavarttik 4/14)
  10. (yogavarttik 2/5)
  11. prakritermahanstatoahankarastasmadh ganashch shodashak:. tasmadapi shodashakath panchabhy: panch bhootani ॥ - sankhyakarika 22
  12. vishayavati va pravrittirutpanna manas: sthitinibandhani-yogasootr 1/35.
  13. chintantaradrishayatve buddhibuddheratiprasang: smritisankarashch- yogasootr 4/21.
  14. visheshavisheshalingamatralingani gunaparvani- yogasootr 2/19.
  15. yogashchittavrittinirodh: - yogasootr 1/1.
  16. drashttadrishyoparakaktn chittn sarvarthamh – yogasootr 4/23.
  17. nirodh: (dharm:) trilakshan: tribhiradhvabhiratitanagatadikalabhedairyukt....... anagato nirodharoopo dharmo vartamanabhootoatito bhavishyatiti trilakshanaviyukt: bhasvati 3/9 .
  18. nirodh:..... layakhyaadhikaranasyaivavasthavisheshoabhavasyasmanmateadhikaranavasthavishesharoopatvath- yogavarttik 1/1.
  19. nirodh: upashamo nirindhanagnivath svakarane lay: - yogasiddhantachandrika 1/2
  20. abhishtavishaye sadaiv sthitishila chittavastha ekagrabhoomi:- bhasvati 1/ 2.
  21. samyakhgyakatven yog: samprgyatanama bhavati – yogavarttik 1. 2 .
  22. kshinavritterabhijatasyev manergrahitrigrahanagrahyeshu tatsthatadanjanata samapatti: - yogasootr 1/43.
  23. vitarkavicharanandasmitaroopanugamath samprgyat:- yogasootr 1/17 .
  24. tatr poorvapoorvabhoomikatyagenottarottarabhoomyaroh ekatraivalambane kary: anyatha poorvapoorvopasanatagadoshapatte: nageshamattiy brihatyogasootravritti 1/17
  25. tasyapi nirodhe sarvavrittinirodhannirbij: samadhi: - yogasootr 1/51.
  26. s khalvayn dvividh upayapratyayo bhavapratyayashch- vyasabhashy 1/19 .
  27. tayormadhy upayapratyayo yoginan mokshamananan bhavati- tattvavaisharadi 1/20
  28. yatha varshatipatimridbhavamupagato mandookadeh: punarambhodavaridharavasekanmandookadehabhavamanubhavati- tattvavaisharadi 1/19.
  29. bhavapratyayo videhaprakritilayanamh- yogasootr 1/19.
  30. shraddhaviryasmritisamadhiprgyapoorvak itareshamh- yogasootr 1/20.
  31. tatr mandamadhyamottamabheden trividha yogadhikarino bhavantyarurukshuyunjanayogaroodharoopa: - yogasarasngrah pri. sn. 37 .
  32. abhyasavairagyabhyan tatrirodh:- yogasootr 1/12 .
  33. tatr sthitau yatnoabhyas: - yogasootr 1/13 .
  34. s tu dirghakalanairantaryasatkarasevito dridhabhoomi:- yogasootr 1/14
  35. tatparn purushakhyatergunavaitrishnyamh – yogasootr 1/16 .
  36. tap: svadhyayeshvarapranidhanani kriyayog:- yogasootr 2/1.
  37. yamaniyamasanapranayamapratyaharadharanadhyanasamadhayoashtangani- yogasootr 2/29.
  38. sthanyupanimantrane sangasmayakarann punaranishtaprasangath – yogasootr 3/51.
  39. tada drashtu: svaroopeavasthanamh- yogasootr 1/3.
  40. purusharthashoonyanan gunanan pratiprasav: kaivalyn svaroopapratishtha va chitishakti:- yogasootr 4/34.
  41. sattvapurushayo: shuddhisamye kaivalyamh- yogasootr 3/55
  42. heyn du:khamanagatamh- yogasootr 2/16
  43. drashttashyayo: snyogo heyahetu: - yogasootr 2/17.
  44. vivekakhyatiraviplava hanopay:- yogasootr 2/26 .
  45. tadabhavatsnyogabhavo hann taddrishe: kaivalyamh 2/25.
  46. eten bhootendriyeshu dharmalakshanavasthaparinama vyakhyata: - yogasootr 3/13.
  47. vyutthananirodhasnskarayorabhibhavapradurbhavau nirodhakshanachittanvayo nirodhaparinam:- yogasootr 3/9.
  48. sarvarthataikagratayo: kshayodayau chittasy samadhiparinam: - yogasootr 3/11
  49. tat: pun: shantoditau tulyapratyayau chittasyaikagrataparinam: - yogasootr 3/12.
  50. shabdarthapratyayanamitaretaradhyasatsnkarast pravibhagasnyamatsarvabhootarutgyanamh- yogasootr 3/17
  51. kleshamool: karmashayo drishtadrishtajanmavedaniy: - yogasootr 2/12 .
  52. sati moole tadviyako jatyayurbhauga: - yogasootr 2/13.

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