जैन दर्शन और उसका उद्देश्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'karmaratinh jayatiti jin:' is vyutpatti ke anusar jisane rag dvesh adi shatruon ko jit liya hai vah 'jin' hai.

  • arhat, arahant, jinendr, vitarag, parameshthi, apt adi usi ke paryayavachi nam hain. unake dvara upadisht darshan jainadarshan hain.
  • achar ka nam dharm hai aur vichar ka nam darshan hai tatha yukti-pratiyukti roop hetu adi se us vichar ko sudridh karana nyay hai.
  • jain darshan ka nirdesh hai ki achar ka anupalan vicharapoorvak kiya jaye. dharm, darshan aur nyay-in tinon ke sumel se hi vyakti ke adhyatmik unnayan ka bhavy prasad khada hota hai. *at: jain dharm ka jo 'atmoday' ke sath 'sarvoday'- sabaka kalyan uddisht hai.[1] usaka samarthan karana jain darshan ka lakshy hain jain dharm men apana hi kalyan nahin chaha gaya hai, apitu sare rashtr, rashtr ki janata aur vishv ke janasamooh, yahan tak ki pranimatr ke sukh evn kalyan ki kamana ki gee hai.[2]

jain darshan ke pramukh ang

  1. dravy-mimansa
  2. tattv-mimansa
  3. padarth-mimansa
  4. pnchastikay-mimansa
  5. anekant-vimarsh
  6. syadvad vimarsh
  7. saptabhngi vimarsh

dravy-mimansa

vaisheshik, bhatt aur prabhakar darshanon men dravy aur padarth donon ko svikar kar unaka vivechan kiya gaya hai. tatha sankhy darshan aur bauddh darshanon men kramash: tattv aur ary satyon ka kathan kiya gaya hai, vedant darshan men keval brahm (atmatatv) aur charvak darshan men bhoot tattvon ko mana gaya hai, vahan jain darshan men dravy, padarth, tattv, aur astikay ko svikar kar un sabaka prithakh-prithakh vistrit niroopan kiya gaya hai.[3]

  • jo gyey ke roop men varnit hai aur jinamen hey-upadey ka vibhajan nahin hai par tattvgyan ki drishti se jinaka janana zaroori hai tatha gun aur paryayon vale hain evn utpad, vyay, dhrauvy yukt hain, ve dravy hain.
  • tattv ka arth matalab ya prayojan hai. jo apane hit ka sadhak hai vah upadey hai aur jo atmahit men badhak hai vah hey hai. upadey evn hey ki drishti se jinaka pratipadan ke unhen tattv kaha gaya hai.
  • bhasha ke padon dvara jo abhidhey hai ve padarth hain. unhen padarth kahane ka ek abhipray yah bhi hai ki 'arthyateabhilashyate mumukshubhirityarth:' mumukshuon ke dvara unaki abhilasha ki jati hai, at: unhen arth ya padarth kaha gaya hai.
  • astikay ki paribhasha karate hue kaha hai ki jo 'asti' aur 'kay' donon hai. 'asti' ka arth 'hai' hai aur 'kay' ka arth 'bahupradeshi' hai arthath jo dravy hai' hokar kayavale- bahupradeshi hain, ve 'astikay' hain.[4] aise panch dravy hain-
  1. pudgal
  2. dharm
  3. adharm
  4. akash
  5. jiv
  6. kaladravy ek pradeshi hone se astikay nahin hai.

tattv mimansa

tattv ka arth hai prayojan bhoot vastu. jo apane matalab ki vastu hai aur jisase apana hit athava svaroop pahachana jata hai vah tattv hai. 'tasy bhav: tattvamh' arthath vastu ke bhav (svaroop) ka nam tattv hai. rishiyon ya shastron ka jitana upadesh hai usaka kendr jiv (atma) raha hai. upanishadon men atma ke darshan, shravan, manan aur dhyan par adhik bal diya gaya hai aur inake madhyam se atma ke sakshatkar ki bat kahi gayi hai[5]. jain darshan to poori tarah adhyatmik hai. at: isamen atma ko tin shreniyon men vibhakt kiya gaya hai.[6]

  1. bahiratma,
  2. antaratma aur
  3. paramatma.
  • moodh atma ko bahiratma, jagrit atma ko antaratma aur ashesh gunon se sampann atma ko paramatma kaha gaya hai. ye ek hi atma ke unnayan ki vikasit tin shreniyan hain. jaise ek arambhik abodh balak shikshak, pustak, pathashala adi ki sahayata se sarvochch shiksha pakar subodh ban jata hai vaise hi ek moodhatma satsngati, sadachar-anupalan, gyanabhyas adi ko prapt kar antaratma (mahatma) ban jata hai aur vahi gyan, dhyan tap adi ke nirantar abhyas se karm-kalank se mukt hokar paramatma (arahant v siddh roop eeshvar) ho jata hai. is disha men jain chintakon ka chintan, atm vidya ki or lagav apoorv hai.

padarth mimansa

ukt sat tattvon men puny aur pap ko sammilit kar dene par nau padarth kahe ge hain.[7]

pnchastikay mimansa

jain darshan men ukt dravy, tattv aur padarth ke alava astikayon ka niroopan kiya gaya hai. kaladravy ko chhodakar shesh panchon dravy (pudgal, dharm, adharm, akash aur jiv) astikay hain.[8]

anekant vimarsh

'anekant' jainadarshan ka ullekhaniy siddhant hai. vah itana vyapak hai ki vah lok (logon) ke sabhi vyavaharon men vyapt hai. usake bina kisi ka vyavahar chal nahin sakata.

syadvad vimarsh

syadvad usi prakar anekant ka vachak athava vyavasthapak hai jis prakar gyan us anekant ka vyapak athava vyavasthapak hai. jab gyan ke dvara vah jana jata hai to donon men gyan-gyey ka snbndh hota hai aur jab vah syadvad ke dvara kaha jata hai to unamen vachy-vachak snbndh hota hai. gyan ka mahattv yah hai ki vah gyey ko janakar un gyeyon ki vyavastha banata hai- unhen mishrit nahin hone deta hai. yah amuk hai, yah amuk nahin hai is prakar vah gyata ko us us gyey ki parichchhitti karata hai. syadvad ka bhi vahi mahattv hai. vah vachanaroop hone se vachy ko kahakar usake any dharmon ki maun vyavastha karata hai. gyan aur vachan men antar yahi hai ki gyan ek sath anek gyeyon ko jan sakata hai par vachan ek bar men ek hi vachy dharm ko kah sakata hai, kyonki 'sakriduchcharit shabd: ekamevarth gamayati' is niyam ke anusar ek bar bola gaya vachan ek hi arth ka bodh karata hai.

  • samantabhadr ki 'apt-mimansa', jise 'syadvad-mimansa' kaha ja sakata hai, aisi kriti hai, jisamen ek sath syadvad, anekant aur saptabhngi tinon ka vishad aur vistrit vivechan kiya gaya hai. akalnkadev ne us par 'ashtashati' (apt mimansa- vivriti) aur vidyanand ne usi par 'ashtasahastri' (aptamimansalnkriti) vyakhya likhakar jahan aptamimansa ki karikaon evn unake pad-vakyadikon ka vishad vyakhyan kiya hai vahan in tinon ka bhi advitiy vivechan kiya hai.

agam (shrut)

shabd, snket, cheshta adi poorvak jo gyan hota hai vah agam hai. jaise- 'meru adik hai' shabdon ko sunane ke bad sumeru parvat adi ka bodh hota hai.[9] shabd shravanadi matigyan poorvak hone se yah gyan (agam) bhi paroksh praman hai. is tarah se smrityadi panchon gyan gyanantarapeksh hain. smaran men dharana roop anubhav (mati), pratyabhigyan men anubhav tatha smaran, tark men anubhav, smriti aur pratyabhigyan, anuman men lingadarshan, vyapti smaran aur agam men shabd, snketadi apekshit hain- unake bina unaki utpatti snbhav nahin hai. atev ye aur is jati ke any sapeksh gyan paroksh praman mane gaye hain.

nay-vimarsh

nay-svaroop— abhinav dharmabhooshan ne[10] nyay ka lakshan karate hue kaha hai ki 'praman-nayatmako nyay:'- praman aur nay nyay hain, kyonki in donon ke dvara padarthon ka samyakh gyan hota hai. apane is kathan ko pramanit karane ke lie unhonne achary griddhapichchh ke tattvarthasootr ke, jise 'mahashastr' kaha jata hai, us sootr ko prastut kiya hai, jisamen praman aur may ko jivadi tattvarthon ko janane ka upay bataya gaya hai aur vah hai- 'pramananayairadhigam:[11]'. vastut: jain nyay ka bhavy prasad isi mahattvapoorn sootr ke adhar par nirmit hua hai.

nay-bhed

uparyukt prakar se mool nay do hain[12]-

  1. dravyarthik aur
  2. paryayarthik.
  • inamen dravyarthik tin prakar ka hain[13]-
  1. naigam,
  2. sngrah,
  3. vyavahar. tatha
  • paryayarthik nay ke char bhed hain[14]-
  1. rijusootr,
  2. shabd,
  3. samabhiroodh aur
  4. evambhoot.

naigam nay jo dharm aur dharmi men ek ko pradhan aur ek ko gaun karake praroopan karata hai vah naigam nay hai. jaise jiv ka gun sukh hai, aisa kahana. isamen 'sukh' dharm ki pradhanata aur 'jiv' dharmi ki gaunata hai athava yah sukhi jiv hai, aisa kahana. isamen 'jiv' dharmi ki pradhanata hai, kyonki vah visheshy hai aur 'sukh' dharm gaun hai, kyonki vah visheshan hai. is nay ka any prakar se bhi lakshan kiya gaya hai. jo bhavi kary ke snkalp ko batalata hai vah naigam nay hai.

sngrah nay jo pratipaksh ki apeksha ke sath 'sanmatr' ko grahan karata hai vah sngrah nay hai. jaise 'sath' kahane par chetan, achetan sabhi padarthon ka sngrah ho jata hai, kintu sarvatha 'sath' kahane par 'chetan, achetan visheshon ka nishedh hone se vah sngrahabhas hai. vidhivad is koti men samavisht hota hai.

vyavahar nay sngrahanay se grahan kiye 'sath' men jo nay vidhipoorvak yathayogy bhed karata hai vah vyavaharanay hai. jaise sngrahanay se grihit 'sath' dravy he ya paryapt hai ya gun hai. par matr kalpana se jo bhed karata hai vah vyavaharanayabhas hai.

rijusootr nay bhoot aur bhavishyat paryayon ko gaun kar keval vartaman paryay ko jo nay grahan karata hai vah rijusootranay hai. jaise pratyek vastu prati samay parinamanashil hai. vastu ko sarvatha kshanik manana rijusootranay hai, kyonki isamen vastu men hone vali bhoot aur bhavishyat ki paryayon tatha unake adharabhoot anvayi dravy ka lop ho jata hai.

shabd nay

jo kal, karak aur ling ke bhed se shabd men kathn chith arthabhed ko batalata hai vah shabdanay hai. jaise 'naktn nisha' donon paryayavachi hain, kintu donon men ling bhed hone ke kathn chith arthabhed hai. 'naktn' shabd nnpusak ling hai aur 'nisha' shabd striling hai. 'shabdabhedath dhruvoarthabhed:' yah nay kahata hai. arthabhed ko kathn chith mane bina shabdon ko sarvatha nana batalakar arth bhed karana shabdanayabhas hain

samabhiroodh nay

jo paryay bhed padarth ka kathnchith bhed niroopit karata hai vah samabhiroodh nay hai. jaise indr, shakr, purandar adi shabd paryay shabd hone se unake arth men kathn chith bhed batana. paryay bhed mane bina unaka svatntr roop se kathan karana samabhiroodh nayabhas hai.[15]'

evnbhoot nay

jo kriya bhed se vastu ke bhed ka kathan karata hai vah evnbhoot nay hain jaise padhate samay hi pathak ya adhyapak athava pooja karate samay hi pujari kahana. yah nay kriya par nirbhar hai. isaka vishay bahut sookshm hai. kriya ki apeksha n kar kriya vachak shabdon ka kalpanik vyavahar karana evnbhootanayabhas hai.

jain darshan ka udbhav aur vikas

udbhav

  • achary bhootabali aur pushpadant dvara nibaddh 'shatkhndagam' men, jo drishtivad ang ka hi ansh hai, 'siya pajjatta', 'siya apajjata', 'manus apajjatta davvapamanen kevadiya', 'akhnkhejja* 'jaise 'siya' (syath) shabd aur prashnottari shaili ko lie prachur vaky pae jate hain.
  • 'shatkhndagam' ke adhar se rachit achary kundakund ke 'pnchastikay', 'pravachanasar' adi arsh granthon men bhi unake kuchh aur adhik udgamabij milate hain. 'siy atthinatthi uhayn', 'jamha' jaise yukti pravan vakyon evn shabd prayogon dvara unamen prashnottar poorvak vishayon ko dridh kiya gaya hai.

vikas

kal ki drishti se unake vikas ko tin kalakhndon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai aur un kalakhndon ke nam nimn prakar rakhe ja sakate hain :-

  • adikal athava samantabhadr-kal (ee. 200 se ee. 650).
  • madhyakal athava akalnk-kal (ee. 650 se ee. 1050).
  • uttaramadhyayug (antyakal) athava prabhachandr-kal (ee. 1050 se 1700). age vistar men padhen:- jain darshan ka udbhav aur vikas

jain darshan ke pramukh granth

achary jinasen aur gunabhadr : ek parichay

  • ye donon hi achary us pnchastoop namak anvay men hue hain jo age chalakar senanvay ka senasngh ke nam se prasiddh hua hai. jinasen svami ke guru virasen ne bhi apana vnsh patrchastoopanvay hi likha hai. parantu gunabhadrachary ne senanvay likha hai. indranandi ne apane shrutavatar men likha hai ki jo muni pnchastoop nivas se aye unamen se kinhin ko sen aur kinhin ko bhadr nam diya gaya. tatha koee achary aisa bhi kahate hain ki jo guhaon se aye unhen nandi, jo ashok van se aye unhen dev aur jo pnchastoop se aye unhen sen nam diya gaya. shrutavatar ke ukt ullekh se pratit hota hai ki senant aur bhadrant nam vale muniyon ka samooh hi age chalakar senanvay ya sena sngh se prasiddh hua hai.

jinasenachary siddhantashastron ke mahanh gyata the. inhonne kashayaprabhrit par 40 hazar shlok praman jayadhaval tika likhi hai. achary virasen svami us par 20 hazar shlok praman tika likh paye the aur ve divngat ho gaye the. tab unake shishy jinasenachary ne 40 hazar shlok praman tika likhakar use poorn kiya. age vistar men padhen:- jain darshan ke pramukh granth

jain darshan men adhyatm

'adhyatm' shabd adhi+atm –in do shabdon se bana hai, jisaka arth hai ki atma ko adhar banakar chintan ya kathan ho, vah adhyatm hai. yah isaka vyutpatti arth he. yah jagath jain darshan ke anusar chhah dravyon ke samudayatmak hai. ve chhah dravy hain-

jain tarkik aur unake nyayagranth

bisavin shati ke jain tarkik

bisavin shati men bhi katipay darshanik evn naiyayik hue hain, jo ullekhaniy hain. inhonne prachin acharyon dvara likhit darshan aur nyay ke granthon ka n keval adhyayan-adhyapan kiya, apitu unaka rashtrabhasha hindi men anuvad evn sampadan bhi kiya hai. sath men anusndhanapoorn vistrit prastavanaen bhi likhi hain, jinamen granth evn granthakar ke aitihasik parichay ke sath granth ke pratipady vishayon ka bhi tulanatmak evn samikshatmak akalan kiya gaya hai. kuchh maulik granth bhi hindi bhasha men likhe gaye hain. santapravar nyayachary pn. ganeshaprasad varni nyayachary, pn. manikachandr kaundey, pn. sukhalal snghavi, da. pn. mahendrakumar nyayachary, pn. kailash chandr shastri, pn. dalasukh bhair malavaniya evn is lekh ke lekhak da. pn. darabari lala kothiya nyayachary adi ke nam vishesh ullekh yogy hain. age vistar men padhen:- jain tarkik aur unake nyayagranth

tribhngi tika

  1. asravatribhngi,
  2. bndhatribhngi,
  3. udayatribhngi aur
  4. sattvatribhngi-in 4 tribhngiyon ko snkalit kar tikakar ne in par snskrit men tika ki hai.
  • asravatribhngi 63 gatha praman hai.
  • isake rachayita shrutamuni hain.
  • bndhatribhngi 44 gatha praman hai tatha usake karta nemichand shishy madhavachandr hain. age vistar men padhen:- tribhngi tika

pnchasngrah tika

mool pnchasngrah namak yah moolagranth prakrit bhasha men hai. is par tin snskrit-tikaen hain.

  1. shripalasut daddha virachit pnchasngrah tika,
  2. achary amitagati rachit snskrit-pnchasngrah,
  3. sumatakirtikrit snskrit-pnchasngrah.
  • pahali tika digambar prakrit pnchasngrah ka snskrit-anushtupon men parivartit roop hai. isaki shlok snkhya 1243 hai. kahin kahin kuchh gadyabhag bhi paya jata hai, jo lagabhag 700 shlok praman hai. is tarah yah lagabhag 2000 shlok praman hai. yah 5 prakaranon ka sngrah hai. ve 5 prakaran nimn prakar hain-
  1. jivasamas,
  2. prakritisamutkirtan,
  3. karmastav,
  4. shatak aur
  5. saptatika.
  • isi tarah any donon snskrit tikaon men bhi saman varnan hai.
  • vishesh yah hai ki achary amitagati krit pnchasngrah ka pariman lagabhag 2500 shlok praman hai. tatha sumatakirti krit pnchasngrah ati saral v spasht hai.
  • is tarah ye tinon tikaen snskrit men likhi gee hain aur saman hone par bhi unamen apani apani visheshataen paee jati hain.
  • karm sahity ke visheshgyon ko in tikaon ka bhi adhyayan karana chahie. age vistar men padhen:- pnchasngrah tika

mandraprabodhini

  • shauraseni prakrit bhasha men achary nemichandr si0 chakravarti dvara nibaddh gommatasar moolagranth ki snskrit bhasha men rachi yah ek vishadh aur saral vyakhya hai. isake rachayita abhayachandr siddhantachakravarti hain. yadyapi yah tika apoorn hai kintu karmasiddhant ko samajhane ke lie ek atyant pramanik vyakhya hai. keshavavarni ne inaki is tika ka ullekh apani kannadatika men, jisaka nam karnatakavritti hai, kiya hai. isase gyat hota hai ki keshavavarni ne unaki is mandaprabodhini tika se labh liya hai.
  • gommatasar achary nemichandr siddhantachakravarti dvara likha gaya karm aur jiv vishayak ek prasiddh evn mahattvapoorn prakrit-granth hai. isake do bhag hain-
  1. ek jivakand aur
  2. doosara karmakand.

jivakand men 734 aur karmakand men 972 shauraseni-prakrit bhashabaddh gathaen hain. karmakand par snskrit men 4 tikaen likhi gee hain. ve hain-

  1. gommat pnjika,
  2. mandaprabodhini,
  3. kannad snskrit mishrit jivatattvapradipika,
  4. snskrit men hi rachit any nemichandr ki jivatattvapradipika. in tikaon men vishayasamy hai par vivechan ki shaili inaki alag alag hain. bhasha ka pravah aur saralata inamen dekhi ja sakati hai.

age vistar men padhen:- mandraprabodhini

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sarvodayn tirthamidn tavaiv–samantabhadr yuktyanu. ka. 61
  2. kshemn sarvaprajanan prabhavatu balavanh dharmiko bhoomipal: kale varsh pradishatu maghava vyadhayo yantu nashamh. durbhikshn chauramari kshanamapi jagatan ma sm bhoojjivaloke, jainendrn dharmachakrn prabhavatu satatn sarvasaukhyapradayi॥
  3. traikalyn dravyashatkn navapadasahitn jivashatkay - leshya:, pnchanye chastikaya vrat samiti-gati-gyan- charitrabheda:. ityetanmokshamooln tribhuvanamahitai: proktamarhadibharishai: pratyeti shraddadhati sprishati ch matimanh y: s vai shuddhadrishti:॥ - stavanasnkalan.
  4. pnchastikay, ga. 4-5 dravy sn. ga. 24
  5. shrotavy:shrutivakyebhyo mantavyashchopapattibhi:. matva ch statn dhyey ete darshanahetav:॥
  6. kundakund, moksh prabhrit ga. 4, 5, 6, 7
  7. jiva jiva bhava punnn pavn ch asavn tesin. snvar-nijjar bndho mokkho y havnti te atth॥–pnchasti., ga. 108
  8. dravy sn. ga. 23, 24, 25
  9. pari.mu. 3-99, 100, 101
  10. nyayadipika, pri. 5, snpadan daau. darabarilal kothiya, 1945
  11. tattvarthasootr, 1-6
  12. pramayaratnamala 6/74, pri. 206, sn. 1928
  13. pramayaratnamala, 6/74
  14. pramayaratnamala, pri. 207
  15. 'tatr pramann dvividhn svarthn pararthn ch. tatr svarthn pramann shrutavarjyamh shrutn pun: svarthn bhavati pararthn ch. - sarvarthasiddhi 1-6, bha. gya. snskaran

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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