आगम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

agam ek snskrit shabd hai, jisaka arth hota hai- "gyan ka arjan". yah shastr sadharanataya 'tntrashastr' ke nam se prasiddh hai. prasnganusar 'agam' bharat ke kisi bhi dharm, mat ya parnpara ke dharmagrnth ya adhikrit uddharan se sndarbhit ho sakata hai. kabhi-kabhi vartaman jivan ya poorv jivan men kisi vyakti dvara sachetan ya prakritik roop se arjit gyan ke lie bhi 'agam' shabd ka ullekh kiya jata hai. nigamagamamoolak bharatiy snskriti ka adhar jis prakar nigam ( =ved) hai, usi prakar agam ( =tntr) bhi hai. donon svatntr hote hue bhi ek doosare ke poshak hain. nigam karm, gyan tatha upasana ka svaroop batalata hai tatha agam inake upayabhoot sadhanon ka varnan karata hai. isilie vachaspati mishr ne 'tatvavaisharadi' (yogabhashy ki vyakhya) men 'agam' ko vyutpatti is prakar ki hai :-

agachchhnti buddhimarohnti abhyudayani:shreyasopaya yasmath‌, s agam:.

agam ka mukhy lakshy 'kriya' ke oopar hai, tathapi gyan ka bhi vivaran yahan kam nahin hai. 'varahitntr' ke anusar agam in sat lakshanon se samavit hota hai :-

  1. srishti,
  2. pralay,
  3. devatarchan,
  4. sarvasadhan,
  5. purashcharan,
  6. shatkarm, (=shanti, vashikaran, stnbhan, vidveshan, uchchatan tatha maran)
  7. sadhan tatha dhyanayog.
'mahanirvan' tntr ke anusar kaliyug men prani medhy (pavitr) tatha amedhy (apavitr) ke vicharon se bahudha hin hote hain aur inhin ke kalyanarth mahadev ne agamon ka upadesh parvati ko svayn diya. isilie kaliyug men agam ki poojapaddhati vishesh upayogi tatha labhadayak mani jati hai:-
kalau agamasammat:.
bharat ke nana dharmon men agam ka samrajy hai. jain dharm men matra men nyoon hone par bhi agamapooja ka paryapt samavesh hai. bauddh dharm ka vajrayan isi paddhati ka prayojak marg hai. vaidik dharm men upasy devata ki bhinnata ke karan isake tin prakar hai:-
  1. vaishnav agam (pancharatr tatha vaikhanas agam),
  2. shaiv agam (pashupat, shaivasiddhant, trik adi) tatha
  3. shakt agam

dvait, dvaitadvait tatha advait ki drishti se bhi inamen tin bhed mane jate hain. anek agam ved moolak hain, parntu katipay tntron ke oopar bahari prabhav bhi lakshit hota hai. visheshat: shaktagam ke kaulachar ke oopar chin ya tibbat ka prabhav puranon men svikrit kiya gaya hai. agamik pooja vishuddh tatha pavitr bharatiy hai. 'pnch makar' ke rahasy ka agyan bhi isake vishay men anek bhramon ka utpadak hai.[1](b.a.)

vyakhya

'brahmanavad' ya hindoo dharm men 'agam' amataur par ved aur smriti ko kaha jata hai. bauddh dharm men yah 'tripitak'; jain dharm men 'ang' aur kuchh upang ki or ingit karata hai. lekin is shabd ka adhik nikat snbndh un dharmik-darshanik parnparaon se hai, jo kisi samay men ved adharit parnpara se alag mane ge hain. isake phalasvaroop kabhi-kabhi nigam, shruti aur vedon se agam ki bhinnata ko bhi darshaya jata hai. vishesh roop se 'agam' madhyakalin bharat ke hindoo tantrik lekhon men se kisi varg se snbaddh ho sakata hai, jo shaiv mat ke anuyayiyon ka pavitr sahity hai. is prakar ki agam rachanaon ko pray: adhik saiddhantik tatha goodh shastron se alag samajha jata hai. shaiv mat men ye sarvapramukh hain aur snkirn arthon men ye vaishnav snhitaon tatha shakt tntron ke saman hain.[2] ye zyadatar bhagavan shiv aur unaki patni parvati ke bich snvad ke roop men hai. inaka avirbhav snbhavat: athavin shatabdi men hua tha. vaicharik suvidha ke lie vidvanh inhen char shaiv maton men bantate hain-

  1. shaivasidvant ka snskrit mat
  2. tamil shaiv
  3. kashmiri shaiv
  4. virashaiv (jo 'lingayat' bhi kahalata hai)

dharmik vidhi-vidhan ka srot

'agam' mndir nirman, moorti nirman tatha dharmik vidhi-vidhan ke bare men janakari upalabdh karate hain. adhikansh hindoo dharmik sahity ke saman yah sahity n to bhali-bhanti soochibaddh hai aur n hi isaka vistrit adhyayan kiya gaya hai. agami shaivon (shiv ke upasak, jo apane agam yani parnparik sahity ka anusaran karate hain) ke snpradayon men shaiv mat ki darshanik bhoomika aur nishkarshon ko svikar karane vale uttari kshetr ke snskrit shaiv siddhant matavalnbi aur dakshin bharat ke 'liganyat' ya 'virashaiv' (vir, shabdarth nayak; shivaling bhagavan shiv ka pratik hai aur pratima ke sthan par isi ki pooja jati hai) shamil hain.

shaiv siddhant

panraparik roop se shaiv siddhant men 28 agam aur 150 up-agam hain. mukhy path ka kal nirdharit karana kathin hai. snbhavat: ve athavin shatabdi se pahale ke nahin hain. is siddhant ke anusar, shiv is snsar ke chetan siddhant hain, jabaki padarth achetan hai. devi ke roop men manavikrit shiv ki shakti bndhan aur mukt pradan karati hai. shakti ek chamatkari 'shabd' (mntr) bhi hai, jisake dvara dhyan lagakar shiv ki prakriti ko janane ka prayatn kiya ja sakata hai. kashmiri shaiv mat ki shuruat shiv ke ne svaroop 'shiv sootr' ya shiv se snbndhit sootron (lagabhag 850 ee.) se huee. isamen 'somannd' (950 ee.) ke 'shivadrishti' (shiv ki drishti) ko vishesh mahattv diya gaya hai, jisamen shiv ki satat pahachan par bal diya gaya hai; yah snsar shakti ke madhyam se shiv ka prakatikaran hai. is paddhati ko 'trik' (trayi) kahate hain, kyonki isamen shiv, shakti aur vaiyaktik atma ke tin siddhanton ko manyata di gee hai.

virashaiv grnth

virashaiv grnthon ki shuruat lagabhag 1150 men basav ke 'vachanam' (vachan) se huee. yah mat shuddhatavadi hai aur inamen keval shiv ki aradhana ki jati hai. isane samajik sngathan ko svikara aur samajik varg vyavastha ko nakara jata hai tatha yah mathon v guruon ke madhyam se atynt snyojit hai.

jain agam

'agam' shabd ka jain dharm men vishisht sthan hai. jain sahity ke do vibhag hain, agam aur agametar. keval gyani, manaparyav gyani, avadhi gyani, chaturdashapoorv ke dharak tatha dashapoorv ke dharak muniyon ko agam kaha jata hai. kahin kahin navapoorv ke dharak ko bhi agam mana gaya hai. bhagavan mahavir ke upadesh jain dharm ke mool siddhant hain, jinhen 'agam' kaha jata hai. ve ardh-magadhi prakrit bhasha men hain. unhen acharangadi barah 'angon' men snkalit kiya gaya, jo 'dvadashng agam' kahe jate hain. vaidik snhitaon ki bhanti jain agam bhi pahale shrut roop men hi the. mahavir ke bad bhi kee shatabdiyon tak unhen lipibaddh nahin kiya gaya tha. 'shvetambar' aur 'digambar' shakhaon men jahan anek baton men matabhed tha, vahin agamon ko lipibaddh n karane men donon ek mat the. kalantar men unhen lipibaddh to kiya gaya; kintu likhit roop ki pramanikata is dharm ke donon snpradayon ko saman roop se svikrit nahin huee. shvetambar snpraday ke anuhsar samast agamon ke chh: vibhag hain-

  1. 'ang'
  2. 'upang'
  3. 'prakirnak'
  4. 'chhedasootr'
  5. 'sootr'
  6. 'moolasootr'
  • jab tak agam bihari muni vidyaman the, tab tak inaka itana mahatv nahin tha, kyonki tab tak muniyon ke achar vyavahar ka nirdeshan agam muniyon dvara milata tha. jab agam muni nahin rahe, tab unake dvara rachit agam hi sadhana ke adhar mane ge aur unamen nirdisht nirdeshan ke anusar hi jain muni apani sadhana karate hain.
  • jain dharm men 'ekadash ang sootr' sabase prachin mane jate hain. digambar snpraday upayukt agamon ko nahin manata hai. is snpraday ka mat hai, antim shrutakevali bhadrabahu ke pashchath agamon ka gyan lupt pray ho gaya tha.
  • agam sahity bhi do bhagon men vibhakt hai: angapravisht aur angabahm. angon ki snkhya 12 hai. unhen ganipitak ya dvadashangi bhi kaha jata hai:

1- acharang 5- bhagavati 9 -anutaropapatikadasha

2- sootrakritang 6- gyata 10- prashn vyakaran

3- sthanang 7- upasak dashang 11- vipak

4- samavayang 8- antakrith‌ dasha 12- drishtivad

  • inamen drishtivad ka poornat: vichchhed ho chuka hai, shesh gyarah angon ka bhi bahut sa ang vichchhit ho chuka hai, upalabdh grnthon ka ansh pariman is prakar hai:

1-acharang shrutaskndh adhyayan uddeshak choolika shlok

(2) (25) (51) (3) (2,500)

(jisamen sataven 'mahaparigy' namak adhyayan ka vichchhed ho chuka hai.)

2-sootrakritang shrutaskndh adhyayan uddeshak shlok

2) (23) (15) (2,100)

3-sthanang sthan uddeshak shlok

(10) (28) (3,770)

4-samavayang shrutaskndh adhyayan uddeshak shlok

(1) (1) (1) (1,667)

5-bhagavati shatak uddeshak shlok

(40) (1,923) (15,752)

6-gyata shrutaskndh varg uddeshak shlok

(2) (10) (225) (15,752)

7-upasak dashang adhyayan shlok

(10) (812)

8-atnkrith‌ dasha shrutaskndh varg uddeshak shlok

(1) (8) (90) (900)

9-anuttaropapa- varg adhyayan shlok

tikadashang (3) (33) (1,292)

10-prashn vya- shrutaskndh adhyayan shlok

karan (2) (10) (1,250)

11-vipak shrutaskndh adhyayan shlok

(2) (20) (1,216)

angabahm

isake atirikt jitane agam hain ve sab angabahm hain, kyonki angapravisht keval ganadharakrit agam hi mane jate hain. ganadharon ke atirikt agam kaviyon dvara rachit agam angabahm mana jata hai. unake nam, adhyayan, shlok adi ka pariman is prakar hai:- upang

1 aupapatik adhikar shlok

(3) (1,200)

2 rajaprashniy shlok

(2,078)

3 jivabhigam pratipati lok

(9) (4,700)

4 prgyapana pad shlok

(36) (7,787)

5 jnboodvip prgypti adhikar shlok

(10) (4,186)

6 chndraprgypti prabhrit shlok

(20) (2,200)

7 sooryaprgypti prabhrit shlok

(20) (2,200)

8 kalpika adhyayan

(10)

9 kalpavntasika (10)

10 pushpika (10)

11 pushpachoolika (10)

12 vnddidasha (10)

(in panchon upangon ka snyukt nam 'nirayavalika' hai. shlok 1,109)

chchhed

1nishith uddeshak shlok

(20) (815)

2mahanishith adhyayan choolika shlok

(7) (2) (4,500)

3brihatkalp uddeshak shlok

(6) (473)

4vyavahar uddeshak shlok

(10) (600)

5dashashrutaskndh adhyayan shlok

(10) (1,835)

adhyayan choolika shlok

mool 1dashavaikalik (10) (2) (901)

2uttarathyayan (26) (2,000)

3nndi (700)

4anayogadvar (1,600)

5avashyak (6) (125)

6odhaniryukti (1,170)

7pindaniryukti (700)

prakirnak 1chatu:sharan (10) (63)

2atur pratyakhyan (10) (64)

3bhakt pratyakhyan (10) (172)

4snstarak (10) (122)

5tndul vaicharik (10) (400)

6chndravaighyak (10) (310)

7devendrastav (10) (200)

8ganividya (10) (100)

9mahapratyakhyan (10) (134)

10samadhimaran (10) (720)

  • agamon ki manyata ke vishay men bhinn bhinn parnparaen hain. dignbar amnay men agametar sahity hi hai, ve agam lupt ho chuke, aisa manate hain. shvetanbar amnay men ek parnpara 84 agam manati hai, ek parnpara uparyukt 45 agamon ko agam ke roop men svikar karati hai tatha ek parnpara mahanishith oshaniryukti, pindaniryukti tatha 10 prakirn sootron ko chhodakar shesh 32 ko svikar karati hai.

vishay ke adhar par agamon ka vargikaran:

bhagavan mahavir se lekar aryarakshit tak agamon ka vargikaran nahin hua tha. pravachak aryarakshit ne shishyon ki suvidha ke lie vishay ke adhar par agamon ko char bhagon men vargikrit kiya.

1-charanakarananuyog

2-dravyanuyog

3-ganitanuyog

4-dharmakathanuyog

charanakarananuyog

isamen achar vishayak sara vivechan diya gaya hai. achar pratipadak agamon ki sngya charanakarananuyog ki gee hai. jain darshan ki manyata hai ki nanass saro ayaro gyan ka sar achar hai. gyan ki sadhana achar ki aradhana ke lie honi chahie. is pahale anuyog men acharang, dashavaikalik adi agamon ka samavesh hota hai.

dravyanuyog

lok ke shashvat dravyon ki mimansa tatha darshanik tathyon ki vivechana karanevale agamon ke vargikaran ko dravyanuyog kaha gaya hai.

ganitanuyog

jyotish snbndhi tatha bhng (vikalp) adi ganit snbndhi vivechan isake antargat ata hai. chndraprgypti, sooryaprgypti adi agam isamen samavisht hote hain.

dharmakathanuyog

drishtant upama katha sahity aur kalpanik tatha ghatit ghatanaon ke varnan tatha jivan-charitr-pradhan agamon ke vargikaran ko dharm kathanuyog ki sngya di gee hai.

  • in achar aur tatvik vicharon ke pratipadan ke atirikt isake sath sath tatkalin samaj, arth, rajy, shiksha vyavastha adi aitihasik vishayon ka prasngik niroopan bahut hi pramanik paddhati se hua hai. bharatiy jivan ke adhyatmik, samajik tatha tatvik paksh ka akalan karane ke lie jainagamon ka adhyayan avashyak hi nahin, kintu drishti denevala hai.[3]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sn.grn.-arthar evelen: shakti aind shastr, ganesh aind kn., madras, 1952; chatarji: kashmir shaivijm, shrinagar, 1916; baladev upadhyay: bharatiy darshan, kashi,1957.
  2. bharat gyanakosh, khand-1 |lekhak: indu ramachndani |prakashak: ensaiklopidiya britainika (indiya) praivet limited, nee dilli |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 116 |
  3. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 350-52 |

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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