बौद्ध धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bauddh dharm
bauddh dharm ka pratik
vivaran bauddh dharm bharat ki shraman parampara se nikala dharm aur darshan hai.
snsthapak gautam buddh
sampraday theravad, mahayan aur vajrayan
aitihasik ullekh panchavi shatabdi ee. men fahyan bharat aya to usane bhikshuon se bhare hue anek vihar dekhe. satavin shatabdi men huen-sang ne bhi yahan anek viharon ko dekha. in donon chini yatriyon ne apani yatra men yahan ka varnan kiya hai.
pramukh anuyayi hven tsang, milind (minandar), samrat ashok, fahyan, kanishk
any janakari bauddh dharm ko paintis karod se adhik log manate hain aur yah duniya ka chautha sabase bada dharm hai.

bauddh dharm bharat ki shraman parampara se nikala dharm aur darshan hai. isake snsthapak bhagavan buddh, shakyamuni (gautam buddh) the. buddh raja shuddhodan ke putr the aur inaka janm lunbini namak gram (nepal) men hua tha. ve chhathavin se panchavin shatabdi eesa poorv tak jivit the. unake guzarane ke bad agali panch shatabdiyon men, bauddh dharm poore bharatiy upamahadvip men faila, aur agale do hazar salon men madhy, poorvi aur dakshin-poorvi jamboo mahadvip men bhi fail gaya. aj, bauddh dharm men tin mukhy sampraday hain: theravad, mahayan aur vajrayan. bauddh dharm ko paintis karod se adhik log manate hain aur yah duniya ka chautha sabase bada dharm hai.

mukhy sampraday

bauddh dharm men do mukhy sampraday hain:

theravad

theravad ya hinayan buddh ke maulik upadesh hi manata hai.

mahayan

mahayan buddh ki pooja karata hai. ye theravadiyon ko "hinayan" (chhoti gadi) kahate hain. bauddh dharm ki ek pramukh shakha hai jisaka arnbh pahali shatabdi ke as-pas mana jata hai. eesa poorv pahali shatabdi men vaishali men bauddh-sngiti huee jisamen pashchimi aur poorvi bauddh prithakh ho ge. poorvi shakha ka hi age chalakar mahayan nam pada. desh ke dakshini bhag men is mat ka prasar dekhakar kuchh vidvanon ki manyata hai ki is vicharadhara ka arnbh usi anchal se hua. mahayan bhakti pradhan mat hai. isi mat ke prabhav se buddh ki moortiyon ka nirman anrabh hua. isi ne bauddh dharm men bodhisatv ki bhavana ka samavesh kiya. yah bhavana sadachar, paropakar, udarata adi se sampann thi. is mat ke anusar buddhatv ki prapti sarvopari lakshy hai. mahayan snpraday ne grihasthon ke lie bhi samajik unnati ka marg nirdisht kiya. bhakti aur pooja ki bhavana ke karan isaki or log saralata se akrisht hue. mahayan mat ke pramukh vicharakon men ashvaghosh, nagarjun aur asng ke nam pramukh hain.

braj (mathura) men bauddh dharm

mathura aur bauddh dharm ka ghanishth snbndh tha. jo buddh ke jivan-kal se kushan-kal tak akshuhn raha. 'anguttaranikay' ke anusar bhagavan buddh ek bar mathura aye the aur yahan upadesh bhi diya tha.[1] 'vernjak-brahman-sutt' men bhagavanh buddh ke dvara mathura se vernja tak yatra kie jane ka varnan milata hai.[2] pali vivaran se yah gyat hota hai ki buddhatv prapti ke barahaven varsh men hi buddh ne mathura nagar ki yatra ki thi. [3] mathura se lautakar buddh vernja aye phir unhonne shravasti ki yatra ki. [4] bhagavan buddh ke shishy mahakachyayan mathura men bauddh dharm ka prachar karane ae the. is nagar men ashok ke guru upagupt[5], dhruv (sknd puran, kashi khnd, adhyay 20), evn prakhyat ganika vasavadatta[6] bhi nivas karati thi. mathura rajy ka desh ke doosare bhagon se vyaparik snbndh tha. mathura uttarapath aur dakshinapath donon bhagon se juda hua tha.[7] rajagrih se takshashila jane vale us samay ke vyaparik marg men yah nagar sthit tha.[8]

bauddh moortiyan

mathura ke kushan shasak jinamen se adhikansh ne bauddh dharm ko protsahit kiya moorti nirman ke pakshapati the. yadyapi kushanon ke poorv bhi mathura men bauddh dharm evn any dharm se sambandhit pratimaon ka nirman kiya gaya tha. vidit hua hai ki kushan kal men mathura uttar bharat men sabase bada moorti nirman ka kendr tha aur yahan vibhinn dharmon sambandhit moortiyon ka achchha bhandar tha. is kal ke pahale buddh ki svatntr moorti nahin milati hai. buddh ka poojan is kal se poorv vividh pratik chihnon ke roop men milata hai. parantu kushan kal ke prarambh se mahayan bhakti, pnth bhakti utpatti ke sath nagarikon men buddh ki saikadon moortiyon ka nirman hone laga. buddh ke poorv janm ki jatak kathayen bhi pattharon par utkirn hone lagi. mathura se bauddh dharm sambandhi jo avashesh mile hain, unamen prachin dharmik evn laukik jivan ke adhyayan ki apar samagri hai. mathura kala ke vikas ke sath–sath buddh evn baudhitsav ki sundar moortiyon ka nirman hua. guptakalin buddh pratimaon men ang pratyng ke kala poorn vinyas ke sath ek divy saundary evn adhyatmik ganbhiry ka samanvay milata hai.

mathura aur dilli sngrahalay se prapt buddh pratimaen

Buddha-National-Museum-Delhi.jpg

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Head Of Buddha Mathura-Museum-5.jpg

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Buddha-In-Abhayamudra-Mathura-Museum-33.jpg

Statue-Buddha-Kushinagar-1.jpg

aitihasik ullekh

panchavi shatabdi ee. men fahyan bharat aya to usane bhikshuon se bhare hue anek vihar dekhe. satavin shatabdi men huen-sang ne bhi yahan anek viharon ko dekha. in donon chini yatriyon ne apani yatra men yahan ka varnan kiya hai. "pitoo" desh se hota hua chini yatri fahyan 80 yojan chalakar mataula [9]mathura) janapad pahuncha tha. is samay yahan bauddh dharm apane vikas ki charam sima par tha. usane likha hai ki yahan 20 se bhi adhik sngharam the, jinamen lagabhag tin sahasr se adhik bhikshu raha karate the.[10] yahan ke nivasi atynt shraddhalu aur sadhuon ka adar karane vale the. raja bhiksha (bhent) dete samay apane mukut utar liya karate the aur apane parijan tatha amatyon ke sath apane hathon se dan karate (dete) the. yahan apane-apasi jhagadon ko svayn tay kiya jata tha; kisi nyayadhish ya qanoon ki sharan nahin leni padati thin. nagarik raja ki bhoomi ko jotate the tatha upaj ka kuchh bhag rajakosh men dete the. mathura ki jalavayu shitoshn thi. nagarik sukhi the. raja pranadnd nahin deta tha, sharirik dnd bhi nahin diya jata tha. aparadhi ko avasthanusar uttar ya madhyam arthadnd diya jata tha (jems legge, di tehravels aauph fahyan, pri 43). aparadhon ki punaravritti hone par dahina hath kat diya jata tha. fahyan likhata hain ki poore rajy men chandalon ko chhodakar koee nivasi jiv-hinsa nahin karata tha. madyapan nahin kiya jata tha aur n hi lahasun-pyaj ka sevan kiya jata tha. chandal (dasyu) nagar ke bahar nivas karate the. kray-vikray men sikkon evn kaudiyon ka prachalan tha (jems legge, di tehravels aauph fahyan, pri 43). bauddh grnthon men shoorasen ke shasak avnti putr ki charcha hai, jo ujjayini ke rajavnsh se snbndhit tha. is shasak ne buddh ke ek shishy mahakachyayan se brahman dharm par vad-vivad bhi kiya tha.[11] bhagavanh buddh shoorasen janapad men ek bar mathura ge the, jahan annd ne unhen urumund parvat par sthit gahare nile rng ka ek hara-bhara van dikhalaya tha.[12] milindapanh[13] men isaka varnan bharat ke prasiddh sthanon men hua hai. isi grnth men prasiddh nagaron evamh unake nivasiyon ke nam ke ek prasng men madhur ka (mathura ke nivasi ka bhi ullekh milata hai[14] jisase gyat hota hai ki raja milind (minandar) ke samay (150 ee. poo.) mathura nagar pali parnpara men ek pratishthit nagar ke roop men vikhyat ho chuka tha.

bauddh dharm ke anuyayi

hven tsang

bharat men hven tsang ne buddh ke jivan se jude sabhi pavitr sthalon ka bhraman kiya aur upamahadvip ke poorv evn pashchim se lage ilaqo ki bhi yatra ki. unhonne apana adhikansh samay nalnda math men bitaya, jo bauddh shiksha ka pramukh kendr tha, jahan unhonne snskrit, bauddh darshan evn bharatiy chintan men dakshata hasil ki. isake bad hven tsang ne apana jivan bauddh dharmagrnthon ke anuvad men laga diya jo 657 grnth the aur 520 petiyon men bharat se lae ge the. is vishal khnd ke keval chhote se hisse (1330 adhyayon men qarib 73 grnth) ke hi anuvad men mahayan ke kuchh atyadhik mahattvapoorn grnth shamil hain.

milind (minandar)

uttar-pashchim bharat ka 'hindi-yoonani' raja 'manendar' 165-130 ee. poo. lagabhag ( bharatiy ullekhon ke anusar 'milind') tha. pratham pashchimi raja jisane bauddh dharm apanaya aur mathura par shasan kiya. bharat men rajy karate hue vah bauddh shramanon ke sampark men aya aur achary nagasen se usane bauddh dharm ki diksha li.
milind (minandar) ka sikka
bauddh grnthon men usaka nam 'milind' aya hai. 'milind panho' nam ke pali grnth men usake bauddh dharm ko svikrit karane ka vivaran diya gaya hai. minandar ke anek sikkon par bauddh dharm ke 'dharmachakr' pravartan ka chihn 'dharmachakr' bana hua hai, aur usane apane nam ke sath 'dhramik' (dharmik) visheshan diya hai.

ashok

ashok

samrat ashok ko apane vistrit samrajy ke behatar kushal prashasan tatha bauddh dharm ke prachar ke lie jana jata hai. jivan ke uttarardh men ashok gautam buddh ke bhakt ho ge aur unhin (mahatma buddh) ki smriti men unhonne ek stambh khada kar diya jo aj bhi nepal men unake janmasthal-lumbini men mayadevi mandir ke pas ashok sh‍tamh‍bh ke roop men dekha ja sakata hai. usane bauddh dharm ka prachar bharat ke alava shrilnka, afaganistan, pashchim eshiya, misr tatha yoonan men bhi karavaya. ashok ke abhilekhon men praja ke prati kalyanakari drashtikon ki abhivyakti ki gee hai.

fahyan

fahyan ka janm chin ke 'vu-vng' namak sthan par hua tha. yah bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha. usane lagabhag 399 ee. men apane kuchh mitron 'huee-ching', 'taoncheng', 'huee-ming', 'hueeveee' ke sath bharat yatra prarambh ki. fahyan ki bharat yatra ka udeshy bauddh hastalipiyon evn bauddh smritiyon ko khojana tha. isilie fahyan ne unhin sthanon ke bhraman ko mahattv diya, jo bauddh dharm se sambandhit the.

kanishk

kushan raja kanishk ke vishal samrajy men vividh dharmon ke anuyayi vibhinn logon ka nivas tha, aur usane apani praja ko sntusht karane ke lie sab dharmon ke devataon ko apane sikkon par ankit karaya tha. par is bat men koee sandeh nahin ki kanishk bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha, aur bauddh itihas men usaka nam ashok ke saman hi mahattv rakhata hai. achary ashvaghosh ne use bauddh dharm men dikshit kiya tha. is achary ko vah pataliputr se apane sath laya tha, aur isi se usane bauddh dharm ki diksha li thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anguttanikay, bhag 2, pri 57; tatraiv, bhag 3,pri 257
  2. bharat sinh upapadhyay, buddhakalin bharatiy bhoogol, pri 109
  3. divyavadan, pri 348 men ullikhit hai ki bhagavan buddh ne apane parinirvan kal se kuchh pahale hi mathura ki yatra ki thi. bhagavanh......parinirvanakalasamaye..........mathuramanuprapt:. pali parnpara se isaka mel baithana kathin hai.
  4. ullekhaniy hai ki vernja uttarapath marg par padane vala buddhakal men ek mahattvapoorn padav tha, jo mathura aur soreyy ke madhy sthit tha.
  5. vi e smith, arli histri aauph indiya (chaturth snskaran), pri 199
  6. mathurayan vasavadatta nam ganikan.' divyavadan (kavel evn nilavala snskaran), pri 352
  7. ar si sharma, buddhisth art aph mathura, pri 5
  8. bharat sinh upadhyay, buddhikalin bharatiy bhoogol, pri 440
  9. `moocha' (mor ka shahar) ka vistar 27° 30' uttari akshansh se 77° 43' poorvi deshantar tak tha. yah krishn ki janmasthali thi jisaka rajachihn mor tha.
  10. jems legge, di tehravels aauph fahyan , pri 42
  11. majjhimanikay, bhag do, pri 83 aur age; malalasekar, dikshanari anphh‌ pali prapar nems, bhag 2, pri 438
  12. divyavadan, pri 348-349
  13. milindapanh (trenkanar snskaran), pri 331
  14. milindapanhon (trenkanar snskaran), pri 324

snbndhit lekh

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