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मिलिन्दपन्ह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nagasen

nagasen ke jivan ke bare men "milind prashn"[1] men jo kuchh milata hai, usase itana hi maloom hota hai, ki himalay-parvat ke pas pnjab men kajngal ganv men sonuttar brahman ke ghar men unaka janm hua tha. pita ke ghar men hi rahate unhonne brahmanon ki vidya ved, vyakaran adi ko padh liya tha. usake unaka parichay us vakt vattaniy (varttaniy) sthan men rahate ek vidvanh bhikshu rohan se hua, jisase nagasen bauddh-vicharon ki or jhuke. rohan ke shishy ban vah unake sath vijambhavastu[2] hote himalay men rakshitatal namak sthan men gaye. vahin guru ne unhen us samay ki riti ke anusar knthasth kiye sare bauddh vandmay ko padhaya.

milind (minandar)

uttar-pashchim bharat ka 'hindi-yoonani' raja 'manendar' 165-130 ee. poo. lagabhag, bharatiy ullekhon ke anusar 'milind' tha, vah pratham pashchimi raja tha jisane bauddh dharm apanaya aur baiktriya, pnjab, himachal, jammoo se mathura tak shasan kiya . minandar namak yavan raja ke bhi anek sikke uttar - pashchimi bharat men upalabdh hue hain.

minandar ki rajadhani shakal[3] thi. bharat men rajy karate hue vah bauddh shramanon ke sampark men aya aur achary nagasen se usane bauddh dharm ki diksha li. bauddh grnthon men usaka nam 'milind' aya hai. 'milind panho' nam ke pali grnth men usake bauddh dharm ko svikrit karane ka vivaran diya gaya hai. minandar ko shastr charcha aur bahas ki badi adat thi, aur sadharan pndit usake samane nahin tik sakate the.

milindapanh ke darshanik vichar

bhikshuon ne kaha- 'nagasen! raja milind vad vivad men prashn poochh kar bhikshu-sngh ko tng karata aur nicha dikhata hai; jao tum us raja ka daman karo."

nagasen, sngh ke adesh ko svikar kar sagal nagar ke asnkheyy namak pariven[4] men pahunche. kuchh hi samay pahale vahan ke bade pndit ayu pal ko minandar ne chup kar diya tha. nagasen ke ane ki khabar shahar men phail gee. minandar ne apane ek amaty devamntri[5] se nagasen se milane ki ichchha prakat ki. svikriti milane par ek din "panch sau yavanon ke sath achchhe rath par savar ho asnkheyy pariven men gaya. raja ne namaskar aur abhinndan ke bad prashn shuroo kiye." inhin prashnon ke karan is grnth ka nam "milind-prashn" pada.

yadyapi upalabhy pali "milind pnjh" men chh: parichchhed hain, kintu unamen se pahale ke tin hi purane maloom hote hain; chini bhasha men bhi inhin tin parichchhedon ka anuvad milata hai. minandar ne pahale din math men jakar nagasen se prashn kiye; doosare din usane mahal men nimntran kar prashn poochhe.

apane uttar men nagasen ne buddh ke darshan ke anatmavad, karm ya punarjanm, nam-roop[6], nirvan adi ko zyada vishad karane ka prayatn kiya hai.

anatmavad

minandar ne pahale bauddhon ke anatmavad ki hi pariksha karani chahi. usane poochha [7]

pratham snvad

minandar - "bhnte[8]! ap kis nam se jane jate hai?"

nagasen - "nagasen... nam se mujhe pukarate hain? ...kintu yah keval vyavahar ke lie sngya bhar hai, kyonki yatharth men aisa koee ek purush[9] nahin hai.

minandar - "bhnte! yadi ek purush nahin hai to kaun apako vastr... bhojan deta hai? kaun usako bhog karata hai? kaun shil[10] ki raksha karata hai? kaun dhyan... ka abhyas karata hai? kaun aryamarg ke phal nirvan ka sakshatkar karata hai? ...yadi aisi bat hai to n pap hai aur n puny, n pap aur puny ka koee karane vala hai... n karane vala hai.... n pap aur puny... ke ...phal hote hain? yadi apako koee mar dale to kisi ka marana nahin hua....phir nagasen kya hai? ...kya ye kesh nagasen hain?"

nagasen - "nahin maharaj!"

minandar - "ye royen nagasen hain?"

nagasen - "nahin maharaj!"

minandar - "ye nakh, dant, chamada, mans, snayu, haddi, majja, bukk, hriday, yakrit, klomik, pliha, phuphphus, ant, patali, ant, pet, pakhana, pitt, kaph, piv, lohoo, pasina, med, ansoo, charbi, ral, nasamal, karnamal, mastishk nagasen hain?"

nagasen - "nahin maharaj"

minandar - "tab kya apaka roop[11] ...vedana ...sngya... snskar ya vigyan nagasen hain?"

nagasen - "nahin maharaj!"

minandar - "...to kya.... roop... vigyan[12] sabhi ek sath nagasen hain?"

nagasen - "nahin maharaj!"

minandar - "...to kya... roop adi se bhinn koee nagasen hai?"

nagasen - "nahin maharaj!"

minandar - "bhnte! main apase poochhate-poochhate thak gaya kintu nagasen kya hai. isaka pata nahin lag saka. to kya nagasen keval shabdamatr hai? akhir nagasen hai kaun?"

nagasen - "maharaj! ...kya ap paidal chal kar yahan aye ya kisi savari par ?"

minandar - "bhnte! ... main rath par aya."

nagasen - "maharaj!... to mujhe bataven ki apaka rath kahan hai? kya haris[13] rath hai?"

minandar - "nahin bhnte!"

nagasen - "kya aksh rath hai?"

minandar - "nahin bhnte!"

nagasen - "kya chakke rath hain?"

minandar - "nahin bhnte!

nagasen - "kya rath ka pnjar... rassiyan... lagam... chabuk... rath hai?

minandar - "nahin bhnte!

nagasen - "maharaj! kya haris adi sabhi ek sath rath hain?
 
minandar - "nahin bhnte!

nagasen - "maharaj! kya haris adi ke pare kahin rath hai?"

minandar - "nahin bhnte!"

nagasen - "maharaj! main apase poochhate-poochhate thak gaya, kintu yah pata nahin laga ki rath kahan hai? kya rath keval ek matr hai. akhir yah rath hai kya? ap jhooth bolate hain ki rath nahin hai! maharaj! sare jamboodvip[14] ke ap sabase bade raja hain; bhala kisase darakar ap jhooth bolate hain?

minandar - "bhnte nagasen! main jhooth nahin bolata. haris adi rath ke avayavon ke adhar par keval vyavahar ke lie 'rath' aisa ek nam bola jata hai."

nagasen - "maharaj! bahut thik, apane jan liya ki rath kya hai. isi tarah mere kesh adi ke adhar par keval vyavahar ke lie 'nagasen' aisa ek nam bola jata hai. parntu, paramarth men nagasen koee ek purush vidyaman nahin hai. bhikshuni vajra ne bhagavanh ke samane isilie kaha tha-
'jaise avayavon ke adhar par 'rath' sngya hoti hai, usi tarah roop adi skndhon ke hone se ek sattv jiv samajha jata hai."[15]

dvitiy snvad

nagasen - "maharaj! 'jan lena' vigyan ki pahichan hai, 'thik se samajh lena' prgya ki pahichan hai; aur 'jiv' aisi koee chiz nahin hai."

minandar - bhnte! yadi jiv koee chiz hi nahin hai, to ham logon men vah kya hai jo ankh se roopon ko dekhata hai, kan se shabdon ko sunata hai, nak se gndhon ko soonghata hai, jibh se svadon ko chakhata hai, sharir se sparsh karata hai aur man se dharmon ko janata hai."

nagasen - 'maharaj! yadi sharir se bhinn koee jiv hai jo ham logon ke bhitar rah ankh se roop ko dekhata hai, to ankh nikal lene par bade chhed se use aur bhi achchhi tarah dekhana chahie. kan kat dene par bade chhed se use aur bhi achchhi tahar sunana chahie. nak kat dene par use aur bhi achchhi tarah soonghana chahie. jibh kat dene par use aur bhi achchhi tarah svad lena chahie aur sharir ko kat dene par use aur bhi achchhi tarah sparsh karana chahie."

minandar - "nahin bhnte! aisi bat nahin hai."

nagasen - "maharaj! to ham logon ke bhitar koee jiv bhi nahin hai."[16]

karm ya punarjanm

atma ke n manane par kiye gaye bhale bure karmon ki jimmevari tatha usake anusar paralok men du:kh-sukh bhogana kaise hoga, minandar ne isaki charcha chalate hue kaha.

minandar - "bhnte! kaun janm grahan karata hai?"

nagasen - "maharaj! nam[17] (vigyan) aur roop[18]...|

minandar - "kya yahi nam-roop janm grahan karata hai?"

nagasen - "maharaj! yahi nam aur roop janm nahin grahan karata. manushy is nam aur roop se pap ya puny़ karata hai, us karm ke karane se doosara nam roop janm grahan karata hai."

minandar - bhnte! tab to pahala nam aur roop apane karmon se mukt ho jata hai?"

nagasen - "maharaj! yadi phir bhi janm nahin grahan kare, to mukt ho gaya; kintu choonki vah phir bhi janm grahan karata hai, isalie (mukt) nahin hua."

minandar - "...upama dekar samajhaven."

am ki chori[19]

nagasen - koee adami kisi ka am chura le. use am ka malik pakad kar raja ke pas le jaye- rajanh! isane mera am churaya hai'.

is par vah (chor) aisa kahe- 'nahin', mainne isake amon ko nahin churaya hai. isane (jo am lagaya tha) vah doosara tha, aur mainne jo am liye ve doosare hain.... maharaj! ab bataen ki use saza milani chahie ya nahin",

minandar - "... saza milani chahie."

nagasen - "so kyon?"

minandar - "bhnte! vah aisa bhale hi kahe, kintu pahale am ko chhod doosare hi ko churane ke lie use zaroor saza milani chahie."

nagasen - "maharaj! isi tarah is nam aur roop se pap ya puny... karata hai.

un karmon se doosara nam aur roop janmata hai. isilie vah apane karmon se mukt nahin hua....

ag ka pravas

nagasen - maharaj!... koee adami jade men ag jalakar tape aur use bina bujhaye chhodakar chala jaye. vah ag kisi doosare adami ke khet ko jala de... (pakadakar raja ke pas le jane par vah adami bole-) mainne is khet ko nahin jalaya.... vah doosari hi ag thi, jise mainne jalaya tha, aur vah doosari hai jisase... khet jala. mujhe saza nahin milani chahie.'

...maharaj! use saza milani chahie ya nahin!

minandar - "... milani chahie.... usi ki jalaee huee ag ne badhate-badhate khet ko bhi jala diya....

dipak se ag lagana

nagasen - maharaj! koee adami diya lekar apane ghar ke uparale chhat par jaye aur bhojan kare. vah diya jalata hua kuchh tinakon men lag jaye. ve tinake ghar ko (ag) laga den, aur vah ghar sare ganv ko laga de. ganv vale us adami ko pakadakar kahen- 'tumane ganv men kyon ag lagaee?' is par vah kahe- mainne ganv men ag nahin lagaee. us diye ki ag doosari hi thi, jisaki roshani men mainne bhojan kiya tha, aur vah ag doosari hi thi, jisane ganv jalaya.' is tarah apas men jhagada karate (yadi) ve apake pas aven to ap kidhar phaisala denge?"

minandar - "bhnte! ganv valon ki or...."

nagasen - "maharaj! isi tarah yadyapi mrityu ke sath ek nam aur roop ka lay hota hai aur janm ke sath doosara nam aur roop uth khada hota hai, kintu yah bhi usi se hota hai. isalie vah apane karmon se mukt nahin hua."

vivahit kanya

nagasen - maharaj! koee adami... rupaya de ek chhoti si ladaki se vivah kar, kahin door chala jaye. kuchh dinon ke bad vah badhakar javan ho jaye. tab koee doosara adami rupaya dekar usase vivah kar le. isake bad pahala adami akar kahe-

'tumane meri stri ko kyon nikal liya? is par vah aisa javab de- mainne tumhari stri ko kyon nikala. vah chhoti ladaki doosari hi thi, jisake sath tumane vivah kiya tha aur jisake lie rupaye diye the. yah sayani, javan aurat doosari hi hai jisake sath mainne vivah kiya hai aur jisake lie rupaye diye hain. ab yadi donon is tarah jhagadate hue apake pas aven...
to ap kidhar phaisala denge?

minandar - "... pahale adami ki or....(kyonki) vahi ladaki to badhakar sayani huee."

any vichar[20]

minandar - "bhnte! jo utpann hai, vah vahi vyakti hai ya doosara?"

nagasen - "n vahi aur n doosara hi....

pratham

nagasen - jab ap bachche the aur khat par chitt hi let sakate the, kya ap ab itane bade hokar bhi vahi hain?"

minandar - "nahin bhnte! ab main doosara ho gaya hoon."

nagasen - "maharaj! yadi ap vahi bachcha nahin hain, to ab apaki koee man bhi nahin hai, koee pita bhi nahin hai, koee guru bhi nahi... kyonki tab to garbh ki bhinn-bhinn avasthaon ki bhi bhinn-bhinn mataen hoyenge. bade hone par mata bhi bhinn ho jayegi. shilp sikhane vala vidyarthi doosara aur sikhakar taiyar ho jane par...doosara hoga. aparadh karane vala doosara hoga aur usake lie hath-pair kisi doosare ka kata jayega."

minandar - "bhnte!... ap isase kya dikhana chahate hain?"

nagasen - "maharaj! main bachapan men doosara tha aur is samay bada hokar doosara ho gaya hoon; kintu vah sabhi bhinn-bhinn avasthaen is sharir par hi ghatane se ek hi men le li jati hain....

dvitiy

nagasen - yadi koee adami diya jalave, to vah rat bhar jalata rahega n ?"

minandar - "...rat bhar jalata rahega."

nagasen - "maharaj! rat ke pahale pahar men jo diye ki tem thi. kya vahi doosare ya tisare pahar men bhi bani rahati hai?"

minandar - "nahin, bhnte!"

nagasen - "maharaj! to kya vah diya pahale pahar men doosara, doosare aur tisare pahar men aur ho jata hai?"

minandar - "nahin bhnte! vahi diya sari rat jalata rahata hai."

nagasen - "maharaj! thik isi tarah kisi vastu ke astitv ke silasile men ek avastha utpann hoti hai, ek lay hoti hai- aur is tarah pravah jari rahata hai. ek pravah ki do avasthaon men ek kshan ka bhi antar nahin hota; kyonki ek ke lay hote hi doosari utpann ho jati hai. isi karan n (vah) vahi jiv hai aur n doosara hi ho jata hai. ek janm ke antim vigyan[21] ke lay hote hi doosare janm ka pratham vigyan uth khada hota hai.[22]



minandar - "bhnte! jab ek nam-roop se achchhe ya bure karm kiye jate hain, to ve karm kahan thaharate hain?"

nagasen - "maharaj! kabhi bhi pichha nahin chhodane vali chhaya ki bhanti ve karm usaka pichha karate hain."

minandar - "bhnte! kya ve karm dikhaye ja sakate hain ki vah yahan thahare hain?"

nagasen - "maharaj! ve is tarah nahin dikhaye ja sakate.... kya koee vriksh ke un phalon ko dikha sakata hai jo abhi lage hi nahi...?

nam aur roop

buddh ne vishv ke mool tattv ko vigyan (nam) aur bhautik tattv (roop) men banta hai, inake bare men minandar ne poochha-

minandar - "bhnte! ....nam kya chiz hai aur roop kya chij?"

nagasen - "maharaj! jitani sthool chizen hain, sabhi roop hain, aur jitane sookshm manasik dharm hain, sabhi nam hain...... donon ek doosare ke ashrit hain, ek doosare ke bina thahar nahin sakate. donon sada sath hi hote hain. ...yadi murgi ke pet men bij roop men bachcha nahin ho to anda bhi nahin ho sakata; kyonki bachcha aur anda donon ek doosare par ashrit hain. donon ek hi sath hote hain. yah sada se... hota chala aya hai...."

nirvan

minandar ne nirvan ke bare men poochhate hue kaha[23]

minandar - "bhnte! kya nirodh ho jana hi nirvan hai?"

nagasen - "han, maharaj! nirodh[24] ho jana hi nirvan hai..... sabhi...agyani.... vishayon ke upabhog men lage rahate hain, usi men anand lete hain, usi men doobe rahate hain. ve usi ki dhara men pade rahate hain, bar-bar janm lete, boodhe hote, marate, shok karate, rote-pitate, duahkh, bechaini aur pareshani se nahin chhootate. vah duahkh hi duahkh men pade rahate hain.

maharaj! kintu gyani....vishayon ke bhog[25] men nahin lage rahate. isase unaki trishna ka nirodh ho jata hai. upadan ke nirodh se bhav[26] ka nirodh ho jata hai. bhav ke nirodh se janmana band ho jata hai.... phir boodha hona, marana...sabhi duahkh band, niruddh ho jate hain.
maharaj! is tarah nirodh ho jana hi nirvan hai.... [27]

minandar - ...buddh kahan hain?"

nagasen - "maharaj! bhagavanh param nirvan ko prapt ho gaye hain, jisake bad unake vyaktitv ko banaye rakhane ke lie kuchh bhi nahin rah jata...."

minandar - "bhnte! upama dekar samajhaven."

nagasen - "maharaj! kya hokar-bujh-gee jalati ag ki lapat dikhaee ja sakati hai...?

minandar - "nahin bhnte! vah lapat to bujh gee."

nagasen ne apane prashnottaron se buddh ke darshan men koee bat nahin jodi, kintu unhonne use kitana saf kiya yah oopar ke uddharanon se spasht hai. yahan hamen yah bhi smaran rakhana chahie, ki nagasen ka apana janm hindi yoonani samrajy aur sabhyata ke kendr syalakot (sagal) ke pas hua tha, aur bharatiy gyan ke sath-sath yoonani gyan ka bhi parichay rakhane ke karan hi vah minandar jaise tarkik ka samadhan kar sake the. minandar aur nagasen ka yah snvad itihas ki us vistrit ghatana ka ek namoona hai, jisamen ki hindi aur yoonani pratibhaen milakar bharat men nee vichar-dharaon ka arambh kar rahi thin.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

darshan digdarshan |lekhak: rahul sankrityayan |prakashak: kitab mahal, ilahabad |prishth snkhya: 422-430 |ISBN: 81-225-0027-7

  1. 'milind prashn, anuvadak bhikshu jagadish kashyap, 1637 ee.
  2. varttaniy, kngajal aur shayad vijambhavastu bhi syalakot ke zile men the.
  3. siyalakot
  4. math
  5. jo shayad yoonani dimitri hai
  6. man aur bhautik tattv
  7. milind-prashn, 2.9 (anuvad, prishth 30-34)
  8. svamin
  9. atma
  10. sadachar
  11. bhautik tattv
  12. panchon skndh
  13. eesha
  14. bharat
  15. snyuttanikay, 5.10.6
  16. snyuttanikay, 3.4.44 (anuvad, prishth 110)
  17. Mind.
  18. Matter
  19. vahi, 2.2.14 (anuvad, prishth 57-60)
  20. snyuttanikay, 2.2.9 (anuvad, pri.49)
  21. chetana
  22. snyuttanikay
  23. snyuttanikay, 3.1.6 (anuvad, pri. 85)
  24. band
  25. upadan
  26. avagaman
  27. snyuttanikay, 3.2.18 (anuvad, pri. 91)

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